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QiCSfi 




254 



year, PUB> /., constr. J"UK>, pi D*fljf, 
constr. "0>, also Jlij^, constr. niJK\ 
yet, ity; not yet, fi6 "ity. 
yield, v.t. (to give forth), |nJ, |n\ 



you, dpik ., \m, \m and rnriN / 

young, |Bp awtf jEp m., i"t3Dp /. 
youth (young man), ly: ., ?>. -|Jp. 
youth (time of), DH^lVJ m. pi. 



Zebulun, pr. n. m. j}?2T. 
'' \ 
Zedekiah, pr. n. m. JjiTplV. 



Zion, pr. n. p"^. 



253 



wax old, ;pr. |pi\ 

we, >.;n:N\ p. unit, una, p. uni, uk. 

wealth, |in m. 

weep, naa, rnaa, nay, ^an. 

weigh, weigh out, ^[X 4 >, ^pL %i ;. 
welfare, Di^u" m., constr. DPB*. 
well, n. 1K3, pi. ni"IK3, con**r. nhX3. 
what? flO, HO, riD; ?W. pron. (that 

which), n^K nx. 
whatever, "l#8"fc). 

v - : t 

when? 'n^D ; until when? how long? 

'nsny. 

whence (relat.), D#D 12>X. 

where ? n s X ; ria^X (also in an indirect 

inquiry). 
where (relat.), DE> "ifc^X ; wherein, 

fe -|#fc; whereon, V^yI^X. 

v - : t t ~ : 

wherefore? m*f? (nvb before X. n. ]}); 

T T T T 

whether or, interrog. DX !"l, also in 

indirect inquiry. 
which, rel. pron. TJ'X. 
wJjite, \lb p., EU3^/ 
whither (rrh,t.). D# 1#N A fTD^ "1B>K. 
who ? flp ; whom ? "D"nN ; whose son ? 

*0"|3. 
who, whom, ;v7. />/-o//. VJ'X. 
whole. 53, "fe), //. Stiff. 1^3, ^3. 
why? HO, nttfc>; gHB; why then? 

n-r neb. 

wicked, yt>h m. % Ttytn f. 

T T T T : 

wickedness, ytih m., />. J/Kh, to, jf. 

yeh ; nytri /.; njn /. 



wife, T\&&f., constr. nt*>X, w. stiff. int^X, 
pi. D'Bbi constr. *m. 

t : 

wild, jn >-, nyif. 

wilderness, 13T3 m., constr. 13*"IE. 

t : - ; 

will, n. pV~l OT., constr. p1. 

willing, to be, H3X, rOtf*; ran; niX3, 

T T V ' T T 

nlwji vtfir. 

i i 

wine, p m.j p. p, constr. p ; new 

wine.-ETPn. 
wisdom, nD3n/., constr. n*03n. 

t : t - : t 

wise, Mn m., neon/. 

T T T T -; 

wisely, .1733713. 

with, T)X, w. suff. *^X; Dy, w, stiff. *&$, 

withhold, yyo, $2q\, 

without, prep. 3 JO; 6P3; *?3, 

witness, iy m., pZ, D"iy, couxtr. *iy; 

bear witness, Tyn, tottrt cc. 

agratnst. 
woe! inter]. s ix, ,11.1, iR. ^X. 

T 

wolf, 3XT m., constr. pi. 3iy UXT. 
woman, PI#K/., pi. DT'*:. 
wood, f*y/i., pi. D s Vy co//., constr. *vy, 
word, "13*1 to., constr. 131, to. 8tijf. ^131, 

pi. nnai, constr. nai. 
work, , nbjf, r\vy\ b>yi_. 

work, n. naxta/., constr. n3xta. w.sti/. 

t t : v : 

worship, r. nay, iay\ 

worthlessness, 7yy3 ; worthless fellows, 

^3 *03. 

write, ana, ana\ 

wrong, r?. hty m ->' H^y/. 



252 



XJ. 



uncle, ifa m. 

unclean, KDB m., rttfDD/. 

under, nnn, w. tuff, ^rinri, tprinn. 

understand, pa, p3\ aZso 17?p7i. 
understanding, n. il^2P) /.; fl^S /.; 

fafe? and ?3|>, p. fab, w. suff. 

fe)fe>. 



until, prep. 1JJ; con/. iy, *3 ly and iy 
"I^N; until now, Hi) n Ij; ; until 

v - : t 

when? (how long?) 'no 79. 
unto, $>, ?K, 1g. 
upon, h% w. suff. ^y, ?p?V, 
upright, -|&T m., pZ. D*nK>\ 
TTrim, D^TlK m. (lights, revelation). 
Uzziah, pr. n. in. ^TVty, 



V. 



vain, in, K1K>, KH$6; -|p$>. 

: t : t - v v - 

verified, to be, JK iVtpft. 

very, i. 

vessel (utensil), ^3 m., p. ^73, pZ. D""53, 

constr. ''PS, 
vine, |B3/.,p. |B2, w.suff. ^M, p 0*303. 
vineyard, D13 to., ;>. D13, w. suff. WSJ, 

pi DW3. 



violence, DDPI to., constr. DftH, w. suff. 

'Don. 

t : 

visit, r. nps, ipJD\ 

voice, pip w., pZ. nipip. 

vow, v. -in:, *hj, vm, 
i i 

vow. n. IIJ and "113 fli., W. swjT- ''TTJ, 

pi mu, 



w. 



wake, v. t. -|ty Pi. (Tlty) and ITiph. 

(vyn, vjr). 

T 

walk, v. "-pri and Sp*: to walk about, 

'- T '- T 

(for amusement), Tjpn Hithp. 

wander, t\vk njwv, yjvv. 

want, v. (desire), H3K, mtf\ 

T T 

war, t;. Dn?, mostly Niph. 

war, ?i. rorte /., w. suff. ^nprte, pz. 

t : "*:: 

ward, n. "IEE>D m. 



wash, r. (the human body or its parts), 
|*rn, piTV ; to wash garments, D33. 
watch, v. t. -V2V; "l>tt, 

T T 

watchman, "iit?; "Itffa. 
water, v. (to irrigate, to give to drink), 
np&Hipk. 

T T 

I 

water, n. D^D to. pi., constr. *D and ^D'D, 

way, -i\ll c, p. TpX w. suff. W*?, pi. 
D^VI, constr. *3V|. 



251 



terrified, to be, ?n3 Niph. 

T 

thank, v., give thanks, iTV Iliph. 

T T 

that, conj. *g ; "IBfc ; |ytt^> ; "l#K |yjpi? ; 

"Vl3y3; n^t "W3JEI; rel. pron. 

1K>X ; d em. pron. WHiT, K s nn. 
the, art. n, n. n. 

T 

then, TN; W. 

t : 

thence, D$. 

T 

there, DB\ 

T 

therefore, p - ^; p^. 

these, r&K, n^KH. 

they, Dil and ntsn m., }n and ftM/. 

thief, 333 w., ^Z. MM. 

thing, -133 ?n., constr. "Ql, pZ. Dn3"n, 

constr. y%3H, 
think, 3K>n, 3B>n\ 

third, ^^K> m., nB^B* and JVB^t?/. 
thirty, D^2J>. 

this, mm., ntft/., nc 

thither, nft&*>. 

those, on, onn and msrtn m.; rn, inn 

" T T T '..'.. T 

and riunn. 

T T 

thou, nnK m., p. nm, f. dk, p. n. 

t - t t : - : t 

thousand, PpN m., dual D'si>K, />Z. 
three, b6#, constr. &??&; nwb&, constr. 

new. 

throne, ND3 m., w. suff. S KD3. ^KD3, 

till, p. i2v, iny'. 
_ T _,_ 

till, prep. "iy. 



time, n. ny /-, w. suff. *ny; one time, 
once, nnN DyQ ; two times, twice, 
DTOQ; three times, D*OyB 85^#. 

to, unto, ^5, i>K; "iy. 

Tob, ^r. w. 3it2. 

to-day, Din. 

together, in\ VI IT < VTT- 

to-morrow, "irtD. 

tongue, fi&Jv, rarely m., constr. fi&y, ]>l. 

nfoiJ$6. 

tool, ^3 m., p. ^3, pi. 3^3, con**r. ^3. 
top, n. (highest part), &&) m.,pl. D^fiJ^n. 
toward, towards, ?, 7N, /oca/ //< . 
transgress, 1, injP, tt#A f; ye>s. 

tree, py w., w, tuff, ivy, pi. fe , *2, 

constr. s vy. 
tribe, ntSO wi., co*r. HBO, pf. JTDD; 
D3K> and tD3', /> E3K>, w. sw/f. 
^3^, Z. DJB3C*, tfonslf. "BSE*. 

... t : : 

trouble,?!, m*/., ro^s//-. rm, p& nm. 

T T T T 

trust in, v. P1D3 wii/i 3, 7V anQl ?H ; HDn. 

truth, nK/. (/tor WOK),w.J. *FIDK, 

turn, v. T|2n, IJDiT, if&HMi into b ; turn 
about, away, v. i. 3^; turn 
away, v. t. 3^ Hiph., 33D HipA. 

turtle-dove, tin/., />Z. Dnfi. 

twelve, -ib>y d^b* 03#), rnk>y D^ntf 

One?). 

twenty, Dnfc>y. 

two, p?i#, cot^^r. "O^, D^rW, constr. *r\t\ 

twofold, D^, D^B3. 



250 



sluggard, pJJ m. 

small, pp and jbp TO., ilJDp/. 

smite, PJJJ, PJSP ; J133 //?>/< 

so, 3, a correlative of the conj. as : ''toys 

^E>y3 as my people so thy people ; 

in connection with a verb, 113 ; |3. 
sojourn, v. TRS, W, TIJ1. 
Solomon, fr. . TO. rJD?& 
son, j3 TO., constr. -|3, w. sw/T. *J3, *|I3, 

/>/. D^3, constr. "03. 
song, T# to.; nV>/ 
sorrow, rijP TO.; njn/. 

' T T T 

soul, ^s: /., -. svjf. ^p:, j& niK>sj, 

constr. ni^DJ. 
south, 333 to.; southward, ?1343. 
sow, v. yiT, yi*\ ' ace. of the field sown. 
speak, 13% p. 131, 131\ 

spirit, mi/., jrf. nimi. 

spy, n. tpTp TO., pi. D^nO. 

stand, t?., stand up, loy, iD^_; Dip; 

3J iVtffc. 
statute, pn to., u\ aitjf. "'pn, TJpn, 

pi. D^n; npn/., ft rripn. 



stay, ipy, fBfTj 3B>\ 3g*. 
stay over night, ]V and pp, \fy. 

stead, in, nnri, tv. suff. 'Jinn. 

steal, 333, 333\ 
stone, t>. i?pD; DJl. 

T T 

stone, n. }3K /., fi. |3K, >. a^Zf- i:3K. 
pi. D'X3gf. cona*r. *33tt. 

storm, u. msjo/.; niyD mi/. 

stranger, 12 to., w. s'/.^f. "?pa, p/. D'13. 
strength, 11133/.; 113 rn., ir. stiff. '13 ; 
fy TO., /r. *?//. "ty; p$n TO. 

strong, pjn to., npm/.; ry to., rg/.; 1133 

stumble, v. b&l, h&2\i also Niph. 
surely, t|{< ; s 3 ; /ft/. a6. of the verb. 
surety, to become, 31 y, w. ace. ofpers.: 

for, TIN. 
surround, 33D, 13D and 133D, 3D' ttwd 

3D\ 3D S 1_; abo iVfy/i. wtt/t ">y. 

sustain, ?373. 

sweet, piilD to., flpUlO /; 3iy to.; 

D7: to. 

1 1 

sword, 3in/., p. 3in, ty. 8wjf. ^lll, pi. 

ni3in, con6'</-. ni3in. 



X 



tabernacle, htikrn., w.suff. ^IN, I^.IK. 

t: t ': ti t 

table, n. |ri7^ to., constr. \TpW, pi- 

tablet, mi? to., pi. r\Snh, 
take, np^, nnp, rig, np\ inpn 

tarry, ly, ly\ 

teach, |TV Iliph.; 10^ Pt. 



teacher, niiO to., J. awjf. v)i ; nafe to. 

tear in pieces, t|ip, spt3\ 

tell, IftK; 12D Pt\; T31 ; TTK TO." 

- T - T ' V T T 

ten, i^y, p. ib>y mfcg, ro.sf/-. mg>y. 

tent, ^IN to., ft. D^HK, conafr*. ^nN, 

tenth, n^y to,, nn^y 4 nn'lpy/.; i ; ^y. 



249 



search, v. *C v p3 Pi.; b'BH, t> ; 2n\ also Pi. 

- t - t : - 

season, n. ny/., w. suff. iny, pi. DTiy 

and niny. 

second, ord. number, *}$ ?n., JVJK> /.; 
a second time, JYOB\ 

. n*n, ni*n, nx-i, nan\ &o\ &ni_. 

seed, yntm., p. JTlT, w. suff. ^yiT. 

seek, L 4 ''p3 Pi.; Ch^, BhT. 

t - t : 

seize, ptn #*pfr.; irsn, e>sn\ 

sell, 130, i30 s ; to sell grain, -Q> Hi ph. 

t : t 

send, vhv, ri7B^ ; to send away, Pi. 
Sennacherib, pr. n. m. 3 , "inJD. 
separate, v. 713 Iliph.; Y1B, Ti2\ 

-t -t : 

servant, *ny w., p. 13JJ, w>. swjf. ^Itf, 

pJ. DnnjJ, comrtr. nap, 
serve, 12V, "by\ 
set, p. D*fe> and D^, ^DfcN D^, DfeA_; 

rvtf, *n^, nns*, ne>\ n^i ; mj ; 

- T " T V T~ ' - T 

to set (make stand), *loy Iliph.; 
to set over (appoint), T2, aZso 
Iliph.; to set (sun), N13. 
seven, y3>, constr. JD#, ny3K>, constr. 

seventeen, -ib>y ri]D#, mfcflJ JDB*. 
Beventh, *y*2& m., T\y2& f. 

seventy, D*y3\ 

shame, n. KBIT) /.; noi?3 /.; nca /., 
w. 8uff. TlC'3; to feel shame, 
L*'i3, *ntT3, 0to*; D^3 MpA.; 

: - t 

to put to shame, K*Q Iliph.; 

_ T 

Shaphan, or. n. m. jqe\ 

' T T 

Bhe, &rn. 

Sheba, />r. n. N3>. 



sheep, Jfc& C, collect. 

shekel, hpV> m., p. ^ptf, pi. D^ptt>, 

constr. vp#. 
shepherd, njp m., to. sujf. 'yi, pi. D^JTI. 
shine, r. nix. 
ship, n. n s : /"., coMect. "OK c. 

r* t: t: 

show, r. nxi Hiph. w. two ace. of per*, 
and thing; T2n ; to show oneself. 
flfcO iWp/i. 

T T 

shut, shut up, ijD, nap*; -ivy, ivy; 

and ivy\ 
sigh, v. riJN Niph. 

sign, n. nix c, pz. nirix. 

Sihon, pr. n. m. p!VD. 

silent, to be (keep silence), tthn Hiph. 

silver, rc. 5]D3, w. suff. *BD3. 

Simei, pr. n. to. ^yO\ 

simpleton, TIQ m., pi. D^ns and D'Sns. 

sin, t>. xon, xon\ 

t t t v:v 

sin, n. Ktpn m., w. suff. "KOFI; rtKn/., 
constr. riNOn, 79?. DINOn, constr. 
nxon; py m., corzsfr. py. pZ. 

niiiy. 

sing, V#, VE>\ n^1_. 

sinner. NOin to.; KOFI m., pZ. D'Nttn. 

sister, ninx/., constr. rrinx, w. suff. pi. 

^rrinK and "qnvnx. 

sit, sit down, 3t?\ n3ti>, 3^\ 3K>1_. 
six, VV, TX&&, constr. nt'V- 
sixteen, -\t f V Ht^, m\W K^. 

T T t : 

sixth, ^B> ///., T\Vf#f. 
sixty, D^C ; . 
sleep, v. p\ p". 

sleep, ti. nJL'V'.. constr. rijl*'. 



248 



remember, 13T, 13P* 

remove, . t. pm Hiph.; TiD ifip/i-. 

rend, yip, JHP*. 

reply, ff. nty, H^, , /o. by 1DK, 

report, n. (rumor), 121 wi., njflOB*/. 

reproach, n. nBin/. 

t : v 

require, >p3 Pi. 

requite, 2W Hiph.; D7t? Pi. 

respect, n. 1)23. 

T 

rest, . nu, rw\ n*i; niB>. 

T T T 

rest, n. nfTUD/., iff. */. TUIUO. 

t : t i : 

rest, n. (remainder), IKE* ?>?., constr. 

t : 

restrain oneself, pBKnn. 
return, v. i. 3*# 2W*V, tr. Hiph. 
Reuben, pr. n. m. p!|K1. 
reveal, 172, 17^ ; ^so Pi. 



rich, Te*D m., pi. Dl^y; to be rich, 
l&V, W; to become rich, 
to make rich, l>y Hiph. 

riches, 1>y TO.; pn TO. 

right, n. DSt^O to. 

righteous, p^1 to.; IB* to,, pi. DnK>\ 

righteousness, p1 to., p. p1, iff. *t/Jf. 

s p1; njHV/., constr. Dpi*. 

i 
rise, rise up, D^p, Dp s V. 

river, 11J to., constr. HJ, J. D'HU and 

t t : t : 

nfrvu, constr. nnj cwd nhru. 

roar, o. JKK>, 3KB*, 

rod, tDai> to., p D2C>, iff. suff. ^2t\ 
pi. 0^3^. 

' t : 

roll, roll away, 773, Tl$2, s&i?. 
_ T _ T 

rule, v. h&ft, h&to\ with 3 over. 
run, ff. pi, W1, f1 s \_. 
Ruth, >r. n. f. nil. 



S. 



Sabbath, 713^ mostly /., constr. D3B*, 

to. 8t*jf. in3>, pf. niri3C>, coa*r. 

sack, sackcloth, pCM/i.,^Z. D^b*. 

sacrifice, ff. PI3T, (IBP. 

salute, ff. Dl7K>7 ^t#, 

salvation, y^ 1 awd ys$J s to., w. suff. 

s y s &\ njrife*/. 

' : ' t : 

Samaria, pr. a. jiiob*. 
Samson, jor. n. to. \\2fou;, 
Samuel, pr. n. m. 7tf5|DK\ 
Sanballad, pr. n. to. L223JD. 



]}3p and y3b>, y3b w ; 
adj. y3b> to., _pZ. D s y3b\ 



sanctify, EHp Pi. and Hiph. 
Sarah, pr. n.f. mb\ 

TT 

sated, to be, 

satiated, 

satisfied, 
Saul, pr. n. to. 7iK\ 
say, ff. TDK, 1DK, "10*6, TO#, TOtfn, 
scorn, ff. P|in P. 
scribe, 1DD to., pZ. D"HBD. 
sea, D 1 to., constr. W except PD"D* 

T T ~ 

pi. DnD\ 

seal, v. Dnn, bnn\ 



247 



precious, 3itt ; 1p s m., mp'/. 

preservation of life, rvno/. 

price, VPID "' 

priest, J13 to., p?. D'OHS. 

prison, 1D6?Dw.; tfi?3 to., to. suff. iN^3, 

pJ. D^3 ; K^3 1T3 ; DnipKjJ JV3 : 

tp put in prison, 1DN. 
proclaim, Kip, K1p\ 
produce, n. 7%y* TO. 
prophet, fcTZlJ m., j)l p , K , 33. 
prosper, r. /. npY, PipV ; V. f. (to make 
prosper), npV iftp/t. 



prostrate oneself, mnn^.1, iriFISfK 

prove (test), |na, jny. 

prune, v. IDT, 1DTR 

purse, D*3 to. 

pursue, 5)11, PJ1T. mtcJa TIN and nnK. 

pursuers, D*S11. 

put, TMPundwiP; put away, 110 Hipk-; 

put forth the hand upon or 

against, T rhw with 3 or PK ; 

put on, Kbi? and (#, tfgV; 

put together, 5|DK. 



q. 



queen, 137D/-, constr. fiSPft ; j?L 

t : - - 2 

ni3fe. 



quickly, mitt. 

t ; 

quiet, n. nnj (from ITO to rest). 



R. 



Rachel, pr. n.f. ~>m. 

1 
raiment, 133 to. 

rain, ?i. IDE TO,, coixtr. IDE; D>3 TO., 

t t - : v v 

p. nm, pi. DNpBto, eerfr. W3; 

early rain, 11 V m.; latter 

rain, BHp?0 TO. 
Ramoth-Gilead, pr, n. to. iy?3 niDI. 
read, Kip. 

T T 

ready, p33 m., pZ. D^i3J {part. Niph. 

of ^3). 
Rebecca, pr. n. m. np3l. 
recognize, T3n (from 133). 
recommend (enjoin upon), ipQ with 

?y, also Hi j>h. 



record, n. p13T m., constr. p13T, pi. 

niJh3T. 

red, D1K m., ."ID1K/. 

redeem, ^K3, tar; ,113, .11^. 

- t _ : ' t t v : 

redeemer, ^3 w., 10. snffi. "9N3. 

refuse, )KD. 

reign, v. T|fe, *jta\ 

reject, DXD, DKD?; ftp, ftp^ 

rejoice, v. i. riDfc> and nDfc>, PIIDB^, at, in. 

- t - t - : 

3, bv; b>% !>', fea\ 

rejoice, v. t. riDfc? K. 

remain (abide), 3tr\ 7131". 3tr ; 1DJJ, 

1DJT_; remain (tobe left), 1JV 

NipU. 



246 



O. 



obedient, to be, y ; , y#\ 

- t : 

obey, Hp2 yC\ 
observe, "IDB>, i?X"\ 
oil. je> in., p. pc\ "'. at//. -od^, />/. 
D^DP; inV' in. (new oil). 

t : t : 

old, }pT *n., constr. |j?? ; pZ. D'Op?, constr. 
"Opt; (wifi ///c number of days, 
months, years), ~p ?/;., 03,/. ' 
nJB> nxp-JZl one hundred 
years old. 

old age, D"Jpt i>^- w. 

one. in** m., constr. iriN ; finK/.,p. nnx. 

one to another, vnx _ ^K B*K; S> t'"X 

T 



only, p\ -]. 

open, r. nns, rms* ; rraa, nvs\ 

- t - : t t : 

open, adj. PRTIQ m., nniriS/. 

t t : 

Ophir, py. n. VDitf. 

opposite to (Over against), 1)1, w. stiff. 

Orpah, /;/. n./. HSny. 

other, -iriN* m., rnnx ./'.. D^flN ;>/. w., 

nnnspz./. 

out of, 19; D, p, u>. 8M#. ^D, *JBD, 
over, hy, w. suff. ^y, Tp^y. 
overthrow, TjDH, *JBn\ :]BrO. 
ox, nvj ; ni.; pi. D^nl'\ 



P. 



pardon (particle of request), *3, 

pasture, t>. rtJTi, P!JH\ 

pay, DbC 1 Pi. 

peace. Di7B*m., constr. CiX'\ 

people,;?. Dy *., w. suff. "py; ^2. 

perhaps. *7Ut. 

perish, "QK, "Qtf\ 

Pharaoh, pr. n. m. riy~iS. 

Philistine, "nris m., pJ. DTIK^B. 

pit, -na m.. pi nhia. 

place, 'n. Dip?:) ///., constr. DipD; p. 

nioi pp. 
plant, v. ypj, nyp, yp> 

pleasant. 3"iy m., PlTty/.; D^yj. 



pleased, to be, ftn, }'Bn^; HV"i, HW; 
if it please thee, nnx }'n DX 

-or spyga nio dn. 

plenty, w. y3l M m. 

plough v. chn, Bhn\ 
_ T _._ 

poor, hm.,p. ?*!?, />/. D'Vl. 

possess, Bh\ Dfteh\ JVJh. Bh 

pot, TD m. 

pour out, Tj^L' 1 , TJ2L 4i \ 

praise, t?. 7]*13, also Pi.; 7}7), 

praise, n. n^ilF)/., constr. florin. 

praiseworthy, ?p2S m. 

pray, f. ^ann. 

prayer, n^QTl/., constr. ri^Efi. 



245 



mourning, n. ^2N, w. suff. *?3K. much, adj. 21 m., p. 2"l, /. PQ"1 

mouth, nsi m., constr. B, w. #. *S, ao*t>. iNO. 

VB and tfPB, />/ Di'S. multitude, 3"1 m., w. suff. DZTW 

murder, r. n"l, nw. 



N. 



Naboth, pr. n. m. nUi- 
nakedness, PmjJ/., const r. TWty* 
name, DL 4i m., to. 8jf. Mp#, ^DB* 

(p. *j#); p*. nto#, nioc>. 

Naomi, ;>/. a./. V3JJJ. 

t;t 

Naphtali, pr. n. m. "^flQJ. 

nation, Dy w., 7/;. art. DJ?n, w. sitjf. 'tDy, 

pi. Dnsg; '1i wi., ^. D^ia, 
constr. * % ia, 
near, (//*. 2hp m., POfop/.; bring near, 
21p Pi. and Hiph.; near, prep. 



M. 



neck, 



1WV m., congfr. *WV, w. st#. 
*}Ktt[ ; )i.tfr. pi. n^V, 10. suff. 
VIS^lV, o/Vn uged for the singular. 

T T - 

neigbbor, p# rn., constr. }DK'; u>. gMjf. 

b>; nja^/., w.'fu/. nnMe/. 
neither, l6l 14>; V-&6; &6 D3 D3. 

Ni'thinali, pr. n. m. HiTl^ 



new, tnn ///.. ncnn /. 

T T T T- 



nice, p|B m., 1W/., jpi. m. D^B*. 

nigh, ahg.m., nnhp/. 

night, W, mostly flWw., p. nW f const r. 

M?, pi. niW>. 
nine, yeta, ny>n, ecm^r. ytrn, nytrn. 

nineteen, i^y ny l^n, mfe>y ye>n. 

t t t : :. : 

Nineveh, pr. n. TfWH, 

no, ^p ; ptf; no longer, no more, 

liy *6. 

nobles, D^in m. 

nobody, no one, B^Kfc6; |"N; t'\X p. 

not, ^P; before the jussive ?x ; there is 

not, pM (/row ))H), w. suff. "33 ; 

I am not, ^N, cfc; not yet, 

$ niy. 

nothing, not any thing, -Ql &6 ; pK 
i:n ; nW PS ; 5>3 p. 

T T t : 

now, nny, j>. nny: KJ (paragogi 
number, r. n: ; "IBD ; *1B. 
number, n. "iBDft m. t constr. "iQDD. 

t : ~ : 

Nun v p. n. m. fO. 



244 



lion, *")N and nnx m., pi. D""1X and I lo! fn ; ITSn. 



nns. 



lodge, v. (pass the night), pi? and p?, pp\ 
lip. nab'./"., constr. riDb'. dual D;n2^; | look at, HK1 wi*ft 3, ^, ta, !?V; look 



constr. V\E&, also ninDK>, w.suff. 

listen, i>K 5?DB>; 1W\> Hiph. 
little, adj. JDj? and jtDj? to., PI|Bp/. 
little, n. or adv. (not much), DJJB. 

live. r. n^n, rrrn, rp ; non- 
living, the, Q^nn. 



at one another, Hithp. 
lord, }HX to., constr. jriN, W. suff. *fcVL, 
VhlX. w.pref. ^{O; the Lord, 

^ria (ni.T). 

T -; T : 

love, v. 3|1N ana 7 3fJK, 3IJK, 3fllC\ 

love. w. nan^/., constr. ranx. 

T _. _ . _ 

lover, nn n., w. suff. s nn. 



1VI 



madman, y2>E) to. 
magnify, hll Pi. 
Mahalalel, pr. n. to. i>K^ruo, 
maiden, mjtf/., pi. nrijtt. 

maid -servant, nns^ /., pi. T\\r\Z&\ 

t : t : 

t t * t : t ; 

majesty, nin w. 

make, c. nb>J?, n^_, >jn_; UW and D^\ 
maker, n^V to.; w. suff. "O^ty, tftfefy. 
man, tTN, jd. DHSbM, conafr. 'BbK; 

Manasseh, pr. n. to. PIBfalD. 
Ilanoah, pr. n. to. niJD. 

many, d*3"i to., nfefi/. 

be, *nx. 

treasure, v. TlD, Trim "i\ 

T - T 

measure, n. JTCD jf. 
meat, nb>3 to. 

T T 

meet, r. ^B, &$& ; KS; KVO^ ; nip 

T : T T T : T T 

and {Op ; to go to meet, towards, 

ninpk *n. 



meet together (by appointment . ny 

Niph. 
melt, 0. v DDft Niph. 
messenger, TjfcOD to., constr. TJfcpO. 
Mieah, jpr. n. m. nyo. 
mighty, D^Vy TO., pi. ErTNty] "1132 to.; 

to be mighty, DVJJ; 122 and -Q|. 
milk, 3?n to., constr. X>n, w. suff. "O^n ; 

;. ar. x>nn. 

T T I V 

miss, v. npQ, ipS* ; to be missed, nps 

Niph. 
Moab, pr. n. 360D* 
Moabite, "QNiD to., ]T3Ki and iTOKID f. 

T I T I T " I I " 

mock, v. tyh, tyb' with b. 

- t : : 

money, S|D3 to., p. P|D3, "' 8wjf. 'BD3. 
month, >in to., pJ. DHShPI, constr. Wn. 
morning, np3 to., pZ. D'HpS. 
Moses, pr. //. to. H8PD. 
mother, DK /., w.suff. T3K, ^Z. niftN. 
mount, i 

. --in to., w. art. nnn, pz. Dnnn. 

mountain, \ ~ T T n 



243 



K. 



keep. -lEl", ift^ ; IV:, ijp. king, ?|pp m., w. suff. *3?0, ?>/. D*3^ffl 

keep hack. yjD, yU*; keep away, conaJr. 'OPE ; to be or become kind 

prn /'<'. ?; to make king, 7|!? ///>//. 

keeper, -iDfet'm., tr.'au/. nsiir. : kingdom, mate/., pi. ni s D^D; roi>DDjj 

kid. na m. />/. D^a, corwjfr. <*13. constr. "na!>DD, "' aw/. 'na^DH 

kill, nn, hjT; rrci; t^d Hiph. pi. nis^DD; fia^p/ 

kindle (anger), mn Hiph.; to be kiss, pBb, ptT- m*//A "FIN or b : c//j 

kindled, rnn, mn\ in\ J. 

kinaness. ion *., w. guff. ^Df] ; />/. , know, ]n\ Jljn, JH, JJT ; to make one^ 

EPTDn, constr. -IDFI. self known. JJWin. 

kindred, n. m^O/, w. suff. Write, knowledge, njH/., ' ^'"/. *RJPI. 



Laban. ;>/. n. m. p*>, 
labor, r. foy, foy\ 

lad. -ijn /// . />. njn. pi ony:, ro>/a/r. ^:_. 
i i 

land. pN /., rarely m., ir. art. pKH, 
W. suff *"]**, pi nWOK, fo/i.s/r. 

rmn ; noiN/., co/^?v. nmx. 
large, 5>Tia m., il&l/. 

latter, fhriN >"., njhnN/.,- latter end, 

rnn*/ 

law. m\JR /., constr. ryvifi ; pn m., pi. 
D^n; nsn/.; DBKfc *., cowafr. 

lay up, 1K, 

" T i 

lay upon, D*B> and D s t", D't M \ D^J 

JV#, JVB*; 1JDD, TJDD?; lay 

hand upon. ^N I s H^'; lay 

hold of, a prn Hiph. 



leader, pvp w., <-o//*/' 
lead out. NV* Hiph. 



pvp. 



learn. TP^ -i^. 

leave, v. (forsake), 3TV, 3TJPJ leave (let 
remain), -fly Hiph.; to be left 
(remaining), 1JV Niph. 

lend, mi? Hiph.; lender, nfe w. 

lest (that not), }fi. 

letter (epistle;, rrj3K /., pi. riri3X ; 
2FW3 m.; 3n3 n., constr. 2H3 : 

t : t : t : 

-)SD m. 
Levi, />/*. n. m. ^?. 
Levite, n!> m., pj. tfyb and &$. 

lick, r. ppb, Wpb, Vfl>\ 

lie, lie down, 33K', 33B*\ 

lie, n. (untruth). npL'\ p. ip*^, />/. DnpL". 

life, D^n //*./*/., "' stiff, ^n. sp*n ; l M 23 /.. 

w. suff. t^;. 
lift up, Nbvj, riNr;. Nfe, air- 
light, /' llK "',. /'/ DniN. 
like, prep. 3: tf\ guff. ^103, Dni23. 



- 242 



I. 



, \33K, p. ^K; ^K. p. ^K. 

,T T -; T 

f, DK; <3. 

n, a. 

ncline, nttJ, i1B\ D* ; /*o m /ftp/i. 

ncrease, v. i. r\2"\, TtSV t 3T ; 

T T VI* 

ncrease, v. t. nm Hiph. 

T T 

nhabitant, 2W m., pi. D'3fcK 
nheritance, ntf 4 ^/,; ItfehiD/. 

T . : ' T T 

nk, iH/. 

nquire of, 3 5>KS?; after f> *?#. 

nstead of, nnri, w. suff. 'rtrw, Tnnru 

nstruction, "iDIO ., constr. -|DW ; mlft* 

T ~ T 

ntegrity, Dfi m., iv. suff. *n. 



intelligent, ji3J m., pi D^inJ (Porf. 

iWp/i. o/ pa), 

into, i; ^K; focaZ ff: rUV3n into the 

house, 
intoxicate oneself, "13$ ITithp. 
invite, Nip, Kip'. 

T T T : 

iron, ?H3 *. 
Isaac, _pr. n. m. pnV 
Isaiah, pr. n. m. fcTJfB^. 
Ishmael, |>r. n. m. 7K$HDK>\ 
Israel, pr. n. m. ?K")B>\ 
Israelites, i?iOr '33. 

t : : 

it, &nn or KM; ace. Sm or !VW. 



'acob, pr. n. m. 3pJJ\ 
iehoiada, or. n. w. yrin\ 

t t | : 

r ehoshaphat, pr. n. m. t2BK>iiT. 

iephtha, pr. n. w. nPlD\ 

Jeremiah, pr. n. m. rPttV and 'liTEV, 

t : : t : : 

Teroboam, pr. n. m. DJDV. 

t:t,t 

Jerusalem, pr. n. DvEJ*fl\ 
Tesse, pr. n. m. Bfy p. H0\ 
Fethro, p. w. m. ViJV. 
;Few, ^TJIT m., pi. DHVP. 
lezebel, pr. w. /. ?3?H*. 
lezreel, ^>r. n. *>KJpT\ 
Tezreelite, "^NJpr. 
Job, pr. n. m. 3i 8 K. 



Jonah, pr. n. m. nit 1 . 

T 

Jonathan, pr. n. m. jruin\ 
Joseph, pr. n. m. P)Di\ 
Joshua, pr. n. m. Vt^in\ 
Josiah, pr. n. m. VTOBtoC* 

joy, nnfe>/, pi. ntattb; pbbw. 

Judah, pr. w. m. IfWF. 

judge, v. BBK>, BS ; P^, P*T\ 
judge, w. t3BiB i W., pi. OTflfite*; p*, 
judgement, DQt^O w. 

t : 

just, adj. p^V. 

justify, piv Pi.; to justify oneself, 

p*iD*n. 



241 



he, Nin. 

head, EP*h '., pi DH^m* 

hear, ynt\ PDgK 

hearken t.. "?K yD#: 2&D Hiph. 

- T - T 

heart, 37 >". "' # '3^, pZ. ni3^> ; 
33^ m., <v,x/,-. 33$>, w.*t*/. *33f>, 

T- - : t : 

pi niii 

heaven, D , fti^ m. /</., constr. s Ofcj\ 

- t : 

heavy. ~!33 //<., JT133/.; to be heavy, 

t t : 

-133 and 123, 133*. 

- t t : 

Hebrew, n3 ., nn3y /., pZ. Dn_3y 

/vd D\n3y m., nin3y/. 

Hebron, pr. n. }i")3n. 

heed, v., take heed, lft& A T ?'/>/i. 

height (high place), HD3/., p*. ni3, 

const r.- nio3. 
hence, nflD. 
herb. 3b'y w., w. tuff. D3E>y, pi constr. 

ni3fry; pV //*.; herb-garden. 

Pll In- 
here, ris; ma. 

Hezekiah, pr. n. m. JilTpTn. 

high, H33 in., 1121/. 

high-priest, i?H3 TH3. 
i 
Hilkiah, pr. n. m. Jin s p?n. 

him, iris. 

hither, nan ; hitherto, nanny. 

T " .1 T " - 

holiness, chp m.; his holy name, 

itrip dk>. 



holy, 6?ftp //*., pi D^hp. 
honest, |3 m., pi D*a3. 
honey, B>31 w., w. suff. 't'll. 
honor, v. 133 Pi. 
honor n. "1133 m. t constr. 1133. 
horn, pji/., p. }1\>. w. mff. ^ip. dual 
D^anp and D^ip. constr. ^ip, 

pi nirjj?, <-o/.*//-. ninp. 

horse, DID m., pi. D^DID. 

Hoshea,' pr. n. m* yi'nn. 

host (army), X3 m., constr. X3V, 

T T T ; 

pi nixav. 

i t : 

house, JTa m., constr. JV3, j>/. DTIS. 
- .. . T 

how? !pN; WK; in exclamations HD : 

how good ! 31D""ID. 
liowlong? (until when?) Tltny. 
Huldah, pr. n.f. Tvbn. 
human (man), DIN m. 
hundred* fitfQ ./'. constr. nxiD, tfwai 

hunger, v.. (to be hungry), 3y~l, 3JTP ; 

t _ : 

for fe. 

hunger, n. 2]}1 m. 

T T 

hungry, 3JH m., f. rQJTV 

hurt, n. ny*i ;'., u>. suff. s nyi. 
, " i T T 

husband, L M, N m.; ^y_2 m., u>. ujf. *pJJ3. 

husbandman, nmNH l'> % ; HOIK TIP; 

-I3N /. 

T 

Hushai, jjr. n. m. ^n. 



Gad, pr. n. to. 13. 

gain, n. yV3, p. JTC3, w. suff. ^3. 

garden, }3 to., w.art. |3JT, pi. Ml; also 

133/., pZ. ni33. 

T 

garment, BIX> TO.; "133 to., w. suff. HJ3. 

i : i '' 

gate, iyp c, p. iyt5>, pz. Dnyt?, oo/^,-. 
ny\ 

gather, (together, np), *jDN, spX" 1 , 
*papK^; Dp!?; jajj, also in Pi.; 
D33. 

Gedaliah, pr. n. to. ,tSh3 and wtl3. 

t : - : t : - : 

Gehazi, pr. n. to. 'tm. 
Gideon, pr. n. to. jiyi3. 
Gilboa, pr. n. y3?3. 
Gilead, pr. n. iyi>3. 

girl, rnyyf., pi nVm 
give, jnj, nnj, nn, |n, jn. 
glad, nofrm., nriDfe>/.; 3iD. 

t t : ' 

gladden, nfe> Pi. 

T 

gladness, TWXGfof.; fo&m., constr.fofy, 

glorious, V1K in. 

i 
glory, "1133 w., constr. 1)23; DINED /. 



240 

O. 

go, ?n and ?jV, TO^, ?, l}^ ; go about, 
33D; go down, TV; go in, &03 ; 
go out, forth, N^"'; go up, rbv ; 

T T T T 

go far, na^ p^rnn ; to let go 

(dismiss), r6# Pt. 
God, 7N to.; D*ii^N to., the latter also gods, 
gold, 31T to., constr. 31f. 

t t - : 

good, 3to to., nniD /'. 

Goshen, y>/\ . \t*l. 

grace, n. |n />*.; IDn to., w. swf. ''IDn, 

grain, "Qg* to.; 13 am* "13. 

grass, 2&V '"/ NCH to. 

grave, n. 13p, 37. 13p, 10. suff. n3p, pf. 

Dn3p and nil3p; ^iK# c. 
grayness, gray hair, l3 , L"/-> "' *".//' TQ^L". 
great, ^113 to., 1^13 /'., 3") to., ,131 /'. 

T t : ' - T - 

(much); to be great, 713, Pi. 

to make great. 
greet, Di!?B $>#. 
grieve, 3y, /-so in P/. and Hi pit. 
ground, HOIK/, ,^,-. ri1N. 
guard, r. TD#, TOB*; 1V3, IIP. 



H 



Hagar, p/\ n.f. 13,1 

T T 



m 



). suff. vvn; 



half, s vn to., /j. 

rvvno /. 

hallow, KHp Pi. rm</ Hiph. 

Haman, pr. n. m. p,l. 

hand, T/., constr. 1\ dttal D"H\ constr. 

T -T 

*T, p*. nil\ con**r: niT; PJ3/., 
". suff. ^Q3, tfwoZ. D?B3. 
handsome, na* ?>'., ID 1 /. 

V T T T 

hang, r. f. r6m, ^D\ 

t t : 



Hannah, pr.n.f. ,1311. 
happen, ,1M, a/xo in Niph. 

T T 

Haran, y>/-. n. pn. 

hard, ,1>p to., 1K>p ; 133 to., ,1133; 

to be hard, n&p, n&p\ 

hardened, to be, 133 and 133, 133\ 
- T .. T - . . 

harm, n. pDN to. 

hasten, make haste, 1.1D Pi. 

T 

hate, v. fcOb, N3t"\ 

have, i? ^ ; I have, ^ #\ 



239 



fault, Ntpn m., w. guff. *Kttn,pZ. D , NDn; 
P&B m , p. Jrt5fc, ir. %uff. *JHPB, 
p*. D'JJtrs. 

t : 

favor, |n in., w. suff. fan. 
fear, v. NT. 7WV, KT, NV\ 
fear, n. PIKT/., eo^r. nXV. 
feast, n. jn m., ronstr. in (also before ?), 

t : 

iv. art. jnn, w. suff. an, ^z. 

T V " 

D^n ; IVp to., p?. DHyiD, consJr. 

feed, njn, nyy ; 

feel, B^D, 0D*; a?so ##D. 

fetch, npb, nnj?, np, np\ injp> 
few, D^tsyn m. pZ. 

field, rnt> ru., const, mfep, w. sm/. nb, 
imp, pi nnte>, c<msr. nne> 

t t : 

and "Hb\ 
fifth, fe^DH and 'Btoh m., TVBton/. 
fifty, D^Bton, 

fig, fig-tree, HJNri/., pi. D J 3KW. 
fight, . DFP, mostly in Niph. 
fill, *6lD, *6\ a?*o * Pi. 

t t : 

find, find out, KD, NV^. 

T T t : 

fine, adfj. nS^ w., constr. HS\ nS* /., 

V T : T T 

constr. riS\ ^>Z. DiS^ 
finish, ,1^3 Pi. 

T T 

fire, n. K>N c, w. swjf. i$N. 

first, |i#to m., nji&ftn /. 

fish, a. Zl m., pi. D^l, constr. M'l, 

T T 

five, Eton, cotwtr. Kton, piBton, eon**r. 



flee, du, DU\ d: s 1 ; ma, niT ; 11 J ; TtJ. 

T T T T : T 

flesh, nfe>3 m. 

flock, //. }NV e. 

flourish, v. rns, ni2\; ^3 Htpfc. 

flow, i?. nit, m?\ 

T 

follow, nroc ifyn. 

food, fex m, w. stiff. ifcjK; DP6 w. 
fool, n. ^p3 m.; ^1N. 
foot, fen /., p. fen, w. sit/. 'fell, <ZaZ 
befell, ron.^r. *fen, w. 8MJT. *fejn, 

rfen pz. D^ji. 

for, e&n jj; pf*p. ?, ^JJ; "tyS ; 
: i : 

instead of, nnn. 

forest, -|jp m., p. IJP, w. suff. hjP, 
forever, D^, rf'ijny. 

t : t 

forget, n30, n3^, poet. ntf*. 

- t - : T T 

former, aeZj. jifc>N") m., iMtflH/. 
forsake, 3TJJ, ity\ 

- T, 

forty, D^S/IN. 

found, ID 1 , 1D^ ; a/so in Hiph. 

- r ( 

four, ysn**, njm-w, constr. nysiK. 

fourscore, D^Dt^. 

fox, ^tj> m., L D^yi^. 

T T T | 

friend, Jp in., pi. D S V"I, constr. "'jn, 
from, -|p, D, . 
frontlets, niSDitO /. />/. 
fruit, s "i2 l., p. ^Q, w. suff. "nfi, 
fruit-tree, nfi fg. 

full, w. (fullness), J^7D w.; my house 
full of silver, P|D3 W3 ^. 



238 



eighty, D*iD55> 
Elazar, pr. n. m. "tfy?K 
elder, 7H3 m.; elders, D^JpT m., 
constr. *JpT. 

eleven, -\&y nn, mb>y nnK; 

t t : v 

*\\py nnc>y, rnfcj wy. 

Eli, pr. n. m. yV. 
Eliezer, pr. n. m. ITVvX. 
Elijah, pr. n. m. Tvbtt and \Vlh&, 
Elisha, pr. n. in. yt^K. 
Elkanah, pr. n. ra. flJp7K. 
emigrate, ,1^2, T\Shl, r&P, !b1. 

tt : v : . 

empty, p^l; empty-handed, Dpn. 
encompass, 32D, =I22D and" 13D, DJ"li3D, 
3D, 3D\ 1D S 1 ; also in Niph. & Hiph. 

T T T 

end, v. n!?3 Pi. 

T T 

end, n. nnriK /., fj? m.", w. *wjp. ^p; 

enemy, 3"i i., pZ. D^TIK; KM>. 
enter, W3, TIN3, Ki3\ 

T T 

entice, nns -?*; to be enticed, nns, 

T T T T 

nna\ 



entrance, 8130 m., constr. tfi2D, pZ. 

i 

Ephraim, pr. n. m. D 1- lSN. 

ephod, niax ra. 

Esau, pr. n. ra. ij^y. 

escape, v. DpD iVYp/i. 

establish, p3 Pi and Hiph.; 1Ey Hiph.; 

Dip Hiph.; be established, pa 

iWpft.; Dip ifop/i. 
Esther, pr. n./. "lfiDN. 
eternity, tihfy ra., pi D^iy, constr. 

^iy. 

ever, everlasting, D^iy, /. . D^iy *n, 
everlasting life; forever, Dpiy?, 

D^yny. 

T 

every, &3, -f)3 ; every one, B^K ; B*N "5>3. 

T T 

evil, n. & adj. y-| ra., nyi / 

eye, |;y /., constr. py, dwaJ D^y, 

constr. ^y. 
exalt, DV1 Pi and ift'p/i. 
exult, h and *?% 5w, *?? 

T T 

Ezion-geber, pr. n. o/ a c^y, "123 |VVy. 



face, n. D^S m. pi., constr. *3B, w. swjf. 

V3S ; D^QX ra. dual, from 5)tf nose. 

faint-hearted, 33? TJT, 

fall, r. i?20, fej, S>B\ 

" T . : i 

falsehood, -|pBMn.,p. ipB>, pZ. DnpB>; 

X1B>ra.; a false witness, *lpB> *iy 

or we* ny, 

: t 

family, nn3B>lp/., constr. nnS^D, w.sw/. 

*nna#D, pz. ninsBto; rn6te. 

famine, ayi m. 

T T 



far, adj. pim ra., npim /.'; to be far, 
prn, pm % ; far be it from me 
(God forbid), ^ nWn. 

fast, v. DJ, DV, D1\ D s 1 and D1V31. 

t T T T T 

fast, n. Di ra., pZ. fllOiV. 

i 
father, 3N ra., constr. ^atf, w. suff. T3K, 

t ; ' t 

pi niax. cons. nil**. 

father-in-law, frin ra., w. aujf. ijfin, 

sprin; on m., w. suff. rron. 



237 



D 



Damah, pr. n. m. HOT, 

Dan, pr. n. TO. p, 

Daniel, pr. n. in. 7K s n. 

darkness, 7jE>n to., iv. suff. '3BTI. 
i : T 
daughter, n3/. (from HJ3), w.auff. 'na, 

pZ. D1J3, constr. niJ3. 

David, pr. n. m. Ill and 111. 

T - T 

day, Di 1 TO., rarely /., pi. D*D\ 

constr. 'DV poe/. niC. 
death, DID to., constr. flio. 

VT 

Deborah, pr. . /. mtafl. 

deceit, nDIO /. 

deed, nb>VO to., consJr. PlfeWD, pZ. D^B^O. 

delight, r. pan, ^Qm and p3T ; 

ron, mn\ 

T T v : 

deliver, 7J Pi. and Hiph., }^ss. in 

T 

Niph. and Hoph. 
descend, TV, nil, T, IT, TVV 
desert, r. 3ty, 3?g. 
desire, v. pan, p3T. 
desolate, to be, WOW Niph. 
despise, DNO, DKD' ; B3, W ; HT3, 

- T _ . * T T T 

Hp;;, nn; fJO, pW\ also in Pi. 
destroy, 31 n and 3*1 n /ftp/i. 
devise, . 3ETI, 3BW. *5"38S>TP; 

Khn, Eh it. 



die, rwo, no, w, ro\ non. 
dig, ma, my. 

diligent, pin TO., pZ. DWn, 
diligently (emphatical), Tnf. abs. of 

the verb. 
distant, pini to., Hj>im /. 

distress, 11V /., constr. ni. 
divide, p5n, p5rr. 

do, nfcyy, nifc>y, nby, njyyv ^>i. 

XT, 

door, nnS3 to., pi. D^nnQ, constr. ^nns ; 
rhm'f^dual DTlK ^o??.s</-. -t6i; 

pz. nin^i. constr. nin7i. 

door-post, nflTD / 

T 

double, D?J#. 

draw near, nip, 31p s . 
T i : ' 
draw water, D;D 3N>, 3K85K 

dream, 0. Dpn, D7T. 

t ; 

dream, n. D17n to., pi. ntoi7n. 
dress, n. Vh2? m.; 1J3 m. 

drink, v. nn#, nnE>;, Mjljj. 

give to drink, npB* BTipA. 
drink, n. (strong), 13K> TO. 
drive out, Eh-i mostly in Pi. 

T 

dust, IQy m., constr. isy. 

1 
dwell, 3B>\ n3E>, 3#, 3B>\ 365*1. 



K. 



each, 5a, "73; 65*8. 

ear, UK/., u\ *wf. ^TN, dual D'JTK. 
1 -:T .-" :T 

earth, plN/., rarely m., p. plK, v. art. 

pun ; nn /. 

1 V T T T T ~: 

eat, 73K, 73K, 73*^ ; give to eat, iftpfc. 

~ t v: ~ 



Eden, pr. n. py, 
Egypt, pr. n. D^1V?p dwaZ. 
Egyptian, nXO "'., />/ D*WD 
eight, nSD85>, nJB\ 

eighteen, ib>y nJ0K>, nit5>y n}#. 

t t t : : 



236 



call, r. Kip, fcop^ ; to call for (send), 

T T t : 

h SIP; to call upon (invoke), 1 Nip. 

: t t : t t 

camel, fel c, pZ. D^03. 

t t : . 

camp, n. run c, w. suf. ^TO, T3?> 

pi. nijno. 
can, fa*, v#i\ fc\ 

Canaan, pr. n. jy33, j9. JJttS. 

carry, Kfeo, nxfc> and m&, NC>, Kfr\ 

T T " : " T T 

cast forth or out, r6$ Pi-; ?6# Hiph.; 

- T '- T 

cast off (reject), DKE, DKD\ 

catch, b>an, E>sn\ 

t : 

cattle, "ip3 m.; mpD to. 
cause (suit at law), izn to. 

T T 

cease, H73 P<". 

T T 

celebrate, Jjn, Dnsn, 13nn. 

T V T 

chair, KD3 m., w. suff. ^D3, ^KpS, 

j>Z. nlKD3. 
Chaldean, s lb>3 to., pZ. D^feG. 
chariot, ni3")D/, w. J". 'PI33"}0, >Z. 

rfaSTO, consZr. ni23"lD. 
Chebar, pr. n. of a river, "OS. 
cheerful, 3iD m.; be cheerful, 3tt\ 3,tD , \ 
chest (box), ran /. 
chief, $&h ?7?., j>Z. D^iO ; R^J m. 
child, "6\ m., pZ. Drii?\ ccmsZr. H^; 

p m., p*. D^3, constr. \)3, 
childhood, DntyJ m. pZ. 

choose, irn, ini\ 

city, vy /"., ^z. Dny, u>. art. Dnyn. 

T * T|V 

clothes, DHJ3 to. pZ., constr. HJ3. 



mro /., pi. nivo. 



cloud, py wi. (aZso coZZ.), w. ar<. pyn, 
consZr. py, p?. D^jy. 

colleague, inn m., pi. onnn. 

come, come in, N13, TIN3, KiT ; come 

T T 

back, again, 2Y& ; come down, 
TP, TV ; come near, (ftp, 0jP ; 
come out, N\ KV ; come to 

TT 

pass, fprt; come up, r6y, n!?y\ 

i T T V : " 

command, r. ni P?\, "JV1V and TI1V, . 

T T - 

command, n. 
commandment, 
confide, nDn ; nD3. 

T T - T 

confound (put to shame), D73 Hiph. 

T 

congregation, ^np, constr. hilp. 
consecrate, tJHp Hiph. 
consent, ,-QK, rQ#. 

T T 

consider, p3 Hiph. 
consume, ?3tf, aZso Pi. 

T 

continue, S]p\ mostly in Hiph. 

counsel, v. yV\ HTN 

counsel,?!. HVy/., constr. JlVy; to take 

counsel together, py Niph. 
covenant, JV13 /. 
cover, v. HD3, mostly Pi. with TlK & "py, 

T T - 

craftily (with craft), niy3. 

t : t : 

create, K"l3, N"ll\ 

tt t : 

creator, &03 to., act. part. Kal. of fcOS, 

w. suff. **na, Tjxin, pZ. met;. TN 3 

cry, cry out, WV and pyi pyv ; Nip, 

cup, 0)3 f., pi niD13 ; y s 32 m., constr. y<33, 



Baal, pr. n. m. ?][2. 
Babylon, pr. n. 733. 
back, n. 12 m., w. suff. "'IS, 
Balaam, pr. n. m. DJJ73. 
Balak, pr. n. m. p?3. 
Barak, pr. n. m. p")3. 

T T 

Bathsheba, pr. n.f. JQeFTB. 

be, n\n, n^ft; rw, *n\ 

t t v: v : * : 

bear (give birth), &, JVg, 1?n. 
beast, nH3 /., constr. hDHSl, w. s#. 

"nprra, pJ- ntori3; rin/. 

beauty 'D' 1 and ^ m., p. " , B\ w. sw/f. rT'DV 
because, "3 ; tjPK ?y ; 1^ nnn ; 

^ nnn (see page 1128) ; because of, ?y, 
become, DTi, n\T. 

T t v : 

bed, ns /.; 33>ft m."; fcny /' 
bed-chamber, Tinm., p.Tin, w. suf.)-\in. 
befall, mp and Nip; KVft. 

T T T'T T T ( 

before, prep. *:zb, w. suff. 'JS?; 133, 

'/. si//. JM; co//j. DID and Dip3. 
beginning, rc. rPB^Tl/.; ilVHW/ 
behold, r. njO with 3 and Tftt, 
behold ! inter}. \7\ and H3n, w. 8i*Jf. *3Jn. 
believe, JEK Ifip/i. 
Benjamin, pr. n. m. po^ja* 
Bethel, pr. n. 7tTJV3 
Bethlehem, pr. n. Dn? n*3. 
Bethuel, pr. n. m. PfcHflS. 
better than, !p 3fo. 
between, pa. 
be'warej nK> Niph. 
bind, -idn, iDK s andiDtf; -ie>p, ieto*. 

- t : v v:v T : 

bird, P|1V m. coll.', lifiV c, pZ. DHBV. 
birth, birthplace, m^O/./^.s^T-W^D. 

black, -liner "', nrftfl&f. 



235 
B. 

bless, "ijia, mostly in Pi. 

blessing, n. n3"13/., constr. nana, w.suff. 

wi3, j>z. nia-o. 

t : t : 

blood, D1 >n., constr. CH ; "'. su/f. W, Dam. 
bondman, 12V m -> w - suff. H3y, pi. 

DH3V, constr. Hay. 
book, "IDD m., w. suff. "HDD, p/. D"HSD. 
borrow, mp, n"6 s ; borrower, hi?. 

t t v : 

both (of them), DiTjjfc* ; both-and, D3-D3. 

bow, bow down, rnnnsrn. 

i T : r 

bow, n. J1B>p/., p. nK>p, w. stt/f. "Wp, 

pi. nin^p. 
boy, ny: m., p.iyj, w. suff. njtf, pZ. onyj. 

bread, tirb m., p. tin?, w. suff. iftrb* 
break, v. t. ~\2U>, i3>\ 

- T : 

breath, TXOmf., constr. nnV>2* 

t t : ; 

bride, n>3. 

T 

bridegroom, \Y\T\* 

bring, tfi3 Hiph.; bring down, IT Hiph.; 

bring near, K>JJ Hiph., 31p Pi. & Hiph.; 

bring out, WHiph.; bring up, TVVHiph. 

T T T T 

broken-hearted, af> 1*3$, 3^ "I3t&. 
brother, ntf w., constr. ''nK, w. sw/f. 'ntf, 

t : t 

*pn, pi. D^nN, Con**r. hK, it', sw/. 'nx. 

build, nj3, s n^3, niJ3, nja\ pv 

burden, KfrO i /'. sw,//'. iNu'Q, D3X^D. 
burn, v. t. ?\1W, 51")^ ; v. L mn, mn\ -in\ 

- t ' : t t vv: v - 

business, naXPTO/., constr. n3K?, w. *Mjf. 

t t : v v : 

but, conj. 1; i?3K ; D^N; s 3 or DN "3 

: t -: t 

after a negative. 
buy, rnp, n:)p\ |p s 1_; buy grain, 13^. 
by (means of), 3, T3; by (near), ns, 



English-Hebrew Vocabulary. 



Aaron, pr. n. m. pHX. 

abide, "W3, lfo\ 1J1; 1>\ 1B>K. 

T TT I _ T " 

Abigail, pr. n. f. ^3*J. 
able, to be, fo?, ^1N. 

T 

Abner, pr. n. m. "03X. 
above, prep. ?y, iw. 8tjf. ^V* 
Abraham, pr. n. m. DiTQtf. 

t t : - 

Abram, pr. n. m. D")3K. 
Absalom, pr. ra. w. Dvt^DN. 
accept, I1J57, ^>3p P*. 
according to, 3, a 

act, r. n^y, nwy, ro\ 

t t ~ : v : 

act, n. ( ilK^O m, constr. nfefb, u>. sw#- 
action, ( tHPytt, p/. DW; !*02 m. 
add, 5}D\ i/Vp/i. $<2 same, 
admonish, 1D\ Pi. 
Adonijah, pr. n. m. }n s nK. 
adversity, mV /., constr. niV, 

T T - T 

advice, HVy /., constr. Dy ; w>. sw/T. YlVJ/. 

t ' : t _ : 

afraid, to be. fcO\ RV\ 

after, "n, *ing, w. suff. nriK ; 

after that, afterwards, p" s inX. 
against, 3; i>K ; i?J>; nxnp^ 
Ahab, pr. n. m. 3Xnx. 

t : 

Akabiah, pr. n. w. iT3py. 

alive, 'n m., n s n /. 

all, %, "i>3, w. su/. ttfej, 

T T . 

alone, *13? (13 n. separation), w. suff. V! 13?, 

also, D2; *|K. 

Ammon, ?>r. n. pTSy. 

Ammonite, ''tfDJ? m., n\3i|j /. 

i 
among, 3; TJ^nil ; 31|?3. 

Amorite, s iDX m. 



A. 

angel, IjKT'D w-, constr. T|K?ft, ?. sw/f. 
*3*6i JZ. B s a$>D, constr. "9$6o, 
anger, DV3 m. ; f]X m.. w. suff. ,| SX. 
angry, Sjyj w. 

animal, n*n /., constr. n*n, also coll. 
anoint, nw. n&>\ 
answer, v. roy, T\ty\ jy s _V. 
anything, with not, nDIKD *6 ; ^3 *6. 
appear, i"IK*l Niph. 

apple, man w., pZ. D^roart, 

appoint, TpS, also Hiph. 

approach, &)), ^, Niph. in Preterite \ 

3"lp, a/o Niph. and Hiph. 
arise, Dip, Dlp\ Dp\ Dp s V. 
ark, }hx c, constr. jhtf . 
arrow, ^nm.,p. D^n. 
as, conj. 3: as so, 33; adv. -|>K3, 

as so, }3 "1K>K3. 
ashamed, to be, fc>i3, TIE'S, K>i3\ 
Ashkelon, p. n. ji^p^K. 
ask, ^K>, i>K^, with DX ; 

(entreat) DNE, j> $>KB>. 
asleep, to be, j&r, ]&". 
assemble, v. i. ly Niph. 

v. t. PjDN, PJDN; f2pj. 
Assyria, pr. n. "il$K* 
atonement, D s 133 m. pi. 
attend to (care for), 1ID# 

T 

aunt, mil/., constr. mil* 

T 

avenge, Dpi, Dip]* 

awake, v. i. Y\>\ Y?2\; also ppn; 

"liy to 6^ awake. 
awake, v. t. "iiy Hiph. 



233 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



ace. accusative. 

adj. adjective. 

adv. adverb. 

c. common gender. 

coll. collective. 

conj. conjunction. 

constr. construct state. 

dem. pron. demonstrative pronoun. 

/. feminine gender. 

Hiph. Hiphil. 

Ilithp. Hithpael. 

inter j. interjection. 

m. masculine gender. 



n. noun. 

Niph. Niphal. 

p. in pause. 

PL Piel. 

pi. plural. 

pr. n. proper noun. 

prep. preposition. 

pron. pronoun. 

rel. pron. relative pronoun. 

v. verb. 

v. i. verb intransitive. 

v. t. verb transitive. 

w. suff. with suffixes. 



231 



yesterday fen 
an image n:i&n/ 
continually TOn 
integrity, perfect D'En 

a palm-tree "IDFI m. 

fruit H3n/. 
slumber nn/. 
an oven "njjn m. 
to err, to go astray nyfi 
a secret nof>j/fl /. 
to deceive, to mock ynyn 
splendor, glory n^isn/. 
an apple man m. 
prayer rfen/. 

t : 

to make straight, to dispose jpn 

rightly 
the sound of a trumpet fl^WI /. 

Terah, the father of Abraham mn p- n. 

deliverance, victory nyi^n/- - 



desire, lust mxn/. 

t - : i - 

a fig-tree, a fig (D\5Kfl pi I rOKfi /. 

understanding n^2n / 

the earth i?3n/. 

a wave, an abyss (ntoinn pi) Dinn C. 

praise rhr\T\f. 

thanksgiving, praise mifl / 

T 

from the . triflo middle fain e.) TT\F\ m. 
midst of " 'vt 

a reproof nniin/. 

a turtle-dove lin m. 
instruction, law min/. 

T 

beginning r^r^ f. 
under, for, instead of rinn 
must, new wine C'ivn i. 
to weigh, to prove pn 



to r wonder non 

- T 



230 



to look, to look down [,-|] spg* 
to lie lpL' ; 
a lie, a falsehood 1pg> m. . 
to serve rHEJ* 
to drink nn^ 



W 



to be satisfied, satiated y3C'<fcy3t" 

plenty, abundance y^b'&y-b' >. 

a field (nnfe>J>Z0 Hlb . 

; to put, to set, to make D^&Dlt? 
to give peace DI^C? D*fc> 

T 

to laugh pnb* 
hoary hair, old age T\y& f. 
to understand [n] h"2V 

intelligence ?Dfe> m. - 
wages, a reward "Ofc> w 

T T 

to gladden riETJ'; to rejoice riftl 4 ' 

joy nnp^/. 

a garment r6fe>/. 
to hate iO> 
an enemy XJb* . 
a lip, a border TlS&f- 
a sack p\& m. 
a leader, a ruler, a chief "lb* , 
Sarah, the wife of Abraham *nb> & mfc' !> 

-r tt 

gladness jit"o' w- 



a name (niDK' i>?0 DK> *. 

thither n# ; there DC' 

Samuel, the 15th judge of hwOW P- 
Israel 

heaven (*> c.) D*Ct? . - 

i [nn]; to lay waste, to desolate DEL*' 

; to be astonished 

fat ;ec ; 

' 

oil \ov m. 

to hear, to obey, to understand yCL'* 

to keep, to observe ICC' 

the sun *' c. 

Samson, the 13th judge of [i#DB*j>. 
Israel : ' 

a tooth (D^t? dwa/) f# 6. 
a year CTlW&D^JplO fU^/ 
sleep nwf. 
to inculcate Jj)' 
to tear in pieces yDC* 
a moment, an hour \X$$f. 
to lean upon [j] jy^ ; 
a gate -|# c. 

to delight ytrytr 

delight, pleasure WVVVp 
a maid-servant (rrinQl''i^-) PIPIBC'/- 

t : t ; 

to judge LDD^ 
to pour out, to shed 7|Q^ 
to be depressed, low ?$ 

T 

to watch "|pfc> 
to give to drink [n] HpJ? 



a lily (D*^)|BliBlw. 
a gift, a bribe "irit? m. 
to prostrate oneself [fflnn^n] nnc* 
black "line* 

T 

to seek "intf 
to destroy, to corrupt [n] nnC' 

a pit nnwf. 

to sing "btf & *\*p - 

a song "Pt? m. _-- 

to lie down 33K> 

to forget rGK' 

(post-biblical) residence, n^SE*/. 

the Divine Majesty T ' : 

Shechem or Sichern, a city m DDK>2>- 
Ephraim v : 

to dwell p# 

a neighbor p# m. 

liquor *"D> m. 

snow jfe 

Shiloh, a town in Ephraim }fop & rife 2>. n. 

welfare, peace Dife * 

T nfe ; to send, to stretch out nfe 
to lay hand upon 2 or ^X 

a table (TnOnfepZ.) }nfe m. 

to throw [n] Tjfe 

thine Tjfe 

perfect, unhurt (n^fe/.) Dfe 

[n] ; to pay, to requite cfe 
to make p< 

Solomon, the third kinir of riftfe^- 

the Israelites : 

the day before yesterday Dfc6$ 



229 

i ^ 

to draw (water) 28$ 

to roar 3XK' 

roaring (TUNE* c.) rUKE*/. 

to be astonished [DHj !"IKK' 

a subterranean place, the grave ^ixt^ c. 

Saul, the first king of the ^lN>.p. n. 

Israelites T 

Difei? ^KE> ; to ask, to request i?NC ; 

T : - T - T 

to salute , 

a week {r\)V2U> & &V2W l )l -) Jfl3t? m - 

an oath KW2Vf. 

to praise n3> 

a staff, a rod, a tribe :}> m. 

to swear [j] yneJ 

NE"13B>; to breaking 

to quench thirst 

sabbath n3K> c. 

T " 

a solemn jina$ rQB* ; rest |ij"D# W. 
sabbath T " 

a robber TT$ m. 

the Almighty **[$ m - 
a falsehood, an iniquity, in vain m$ m. 

to bring back, [n] ; to return 2\W 
to reward, to turn away ; 

to answer "lm T&n 

to recall to mind dWn 3*#n 

a whip, a scourge BiE> m. 

a cry Pljn^/. 

a fox isjflB* m. . 

a door-keeper "ijni*' m. 

a judge BBigJ ' 

an ox (Dnit" p7.) ire' m. 



228 



mercy, pity D^Orn m. 
to wash, to bathe ]*m 
to remove [~] ; to be afar off pm 
a contest, a forensic cause in m. 
tender, soft (nan /.) 7p 
to ride 231 
property, wealth vfay) m - 
slander ^3") m. 

T 

to deceive ffisn 
fraud n s D"i/- 
evil, bad (fljn/0 JH 

an evil, wickedness JH w. 

a friend, a neighbor fl . 

hunger, famine 3JH W. 

to be hungry 2p 

to feed, to pasture, to delight in njH/. 

a shepherdess njh/- ; a shepherd 7\V1 m. 

an evil, wickedness n]}~) f- 

a desire, a thought JVJp m. 

to do evil [n] : to be evil yjn 

to be delighted, pleased, to nvi 

delight in T T 

delight, will jfa-| w. 

empty p~l 

only p~i 

to leap, to dance "lp"l 

poor Jjh 

wicked ytsh w- 



, to be seen [j] ; to see, to look ntfl 
to appear ; to show [n] 

Reuben, the eldest son of Jacob |2W] P- * 

the head, chief, (D^*n pi.) >&*"! m. 

summit 

first, former pEJJO m. 
beginning rPt&O/. 
many D'2~i i much, large 2~l 
multitude, abundance 2~\ m. 
to be much, many 221 

- T 

to multiply, to increase [n] H2") 
T T 

Rebecca, the wife of Isaac npllp. . 

i 
rage ]p m. 

a foot, a step ~>il f. 
to follow after, to pursue cyn &5|*n 

| breath, spirit, soul, (nillVl jpk) ITTI <* 
wind 

a storm mjJD n^jl 

to raise, DOn i to rise, to be high DY1 
| to exalt, to extol, to bring up 

height, elevation DVl in- 
to run pi 
to be poor n 

Ruth, the great-grandmother of mi p> n, 
David 

to be wide, to dilate 3m 

Rehoboam, the first king of DJDm p. n. 
J udah T : " : 

merciful D^m 
far, distant pirn 
Rachel, a wife of Jacob ?mjp. n. 

" T 



vn 



an ape t\Sp m. 
small, little (natpp/O pp <fe jbp 

the little finger jdp wi. 

to burn, to incense [n] "it3p 

.1 

incense mop./- 

i 
summer ]"p m. 

Eish, the father of Saul &f)p. n. 

to lighten [n] ; to curse ^p 

to acquire, to buy Hip 

T T 

creator nip m. 

a cane, a reed mp m: 

an acquisition, possession j^p w. 

a bowl, a dish my p /. 

end yp m. 

harvest y^p Wfc. 

to cut off yxp & yyp 

to reap ivp - 
to call, to invite, to read fcOp 
to bring near, to offer [n] 3*1 p 

the midst 3"ip w. 
a sacrifice (niEHp pl>) |3"jp . 
near ; a relative 3Y"lp > 
a horn }-\pf. 
a city rnj?/- 
to listen [n] 3E>p 

- T 

to be hard, heavy nt?p 
to bind -|^p 
a bow nt'p c. 



Zion, a hill on which Jerusalem }iV p. n. 
was built 

a flower pv w. 
a hinge TV m. 
a shadow ">y m. 
an image, a likeness D? * ~ 
a cricket 7V?V w. - 
to be thirsty NOV 
to sprout forth riDV 
small, young TJJV 
to cry out pyy 
a bird to^BS pi.) "llSV & 
a frog JTnDV w. 
Zipporah, the wife of Moses rhSVji. to, 
distress iTl/. "*" 

rr 

to press, to be in anguish "nv 



to receive, to accept ^3p 

to bury *i3p 

holy tfnp 

[n] ; to sanctify Vfafr ; to be holy &\p . 
to consecrate 

holiness CHp . 

to be gathered together. [3] 7*lp 

to assemble " T 

a congregation, an assembly pnp w. 

to expect, to hope mp 

voice, sound, noice, [nfappl-) ?Sp . 
rumor 

! [n]; to arise, to stand, to remain Q^p 
to erect, to raise up, to establish, 
to confirm 



226 



Phafaofc, a title of the ancient njTlBjP n. 
kings of Egypt : " 

to spread out, to distribute fcnfi 
Euphrates, a river of Syria mBjJ- 
to strip off [n] LDE>3 
to break away J7E>3 

- T 
I 

a transgression y&Q m. 
a piece ]"I3 / 
suddenly DND3 

to open nna 

an entrance, a door nriB 01. 
a simpleton (D'NnB & DY1B pi-) H T)B m. 



** 



a flock, sheep fj^V c. _ 
a host, an army (nlN2Xi>^) K2 m. _ 
a gazelle, a stag ; splendor, glory *22? W. 
a side "TV fn. 
just, righteous p^y m. 
justice, righteousness pIV * 
justice, righteousness, virtue npIV/- 
to hunt, to catch "nY 
to command niV 

T * 

to fast Qto* 

a fast DiV m. 

a rock lift . 
i 



hunting, prey TV w 
a hunter "!*< w 

T 

provision nTT{/ 



a snare PIS > 

to frighten [n] ins 

fear, terror "*nB m. 

a pit nns *. 

Pinchas, son and successor of Dn*P3 p- n. 
the high-priest Eleazar T : '' 

to be distinguished, wonderful [j] ^q 
the upper mill-stone 23*1 I"6b / 

to pray [nn] ; to think, to suppose y^Q 
to supplicate 

a Philistine, a nation in the TlK^Q p. n. 
south-east of Palestine 

lest -|Q 

to turn [n] ; to turn ms 

H3B |2tf or f!3fi #6*1 ; a corner ,133 / 
a corner-stone 

the face, surface ("OB c.) D*OB t. 

pearls 3*^:3 w. 

the passover nDB w. 

a graven image, an idol ^DB w. 

this time, now DyBH ; a step DJ*B / 

to urge 1V3 

[n] ; to be missed [j] ; to visit ipB 
to set over, to intrust, to deposit " T 

a deposit jVlpB m - 
to be dispersed liB ; to separate 113 

m "T 

a cow niB / 
to flourish, to blossom "1*13 
a blossom, a flower n*13 m. 
fruit "IB* m. 
(post-biblical) to nourish D31B 



225 



a raven 2"iy m. 

a desert miy / 

sly. prudent D11V 

cities (TV) Dny/. 

slyness ncny/. 

Orpah, a sister in-law of Ruth 7\QT\VP' 

rich TEfy 

T 

smoke }K>y m. 

to become rich [n] ; to be rich "ijjjy 
to enrich " T 

riches i#y . 

herb 2K>y . 

to do, to make, to create TWV 

workmen n3N^D "\ff}J ; creator n&y *. 

Esau, the twin brother of Jacob )\yy p. 

time (niny&D'TiyjrfO nvf- 

now nny 

T " 

Athalia, a wicked queen of iT^ny jP. 
Judah T: " " : 

8 

to glorify oneself, to boast [nn]")NS 
. . .. T 

to meet, to entreat yjQ 

- T 

to redeem, to deliver msa 

TT 

ac- *B"7)?5 the mouth, order (>Qc.) na m. 
cording to the orderof, according to 

here ,ia 

to get, to obtain [n] p}3 

a lot "na m. 

to scatter, to dissipate "l^a 



a pillar way m. 

Amnion, Ammonites, a people jiBy p. n. 
east of the Jordan 

Amos, a prophet D1E>y P- ?' 

T 

a neighbor ft'DV m. 
to load [n] DDy 

deep (ni5oy /") pby 

depth p6]} m. 
a cluster of grapes, a grape 2jy w. 
to delight oneself [nn] J3J? 
to answer, to testify r\2V 

T T 

meek uy 
afflicted, poor (n^y/O^y 

t -; t 

affliction, misery (*}]}])) ^y m. 
a cloud py w. 
a fine, a punishment $iy m. 
the eyelids D'ajJQy 

dust ")Sy w 

T T 

a tree, wood yy m. 

to grieve [nn] 2W 
. . .. - 

i 

grief, anger 2y w*. 

an advice r\1y /. 

slothful, lazy iflfy 

an assembly rnyy / 

a heel, footstep {nUty pi) 3j?3J 

a scorpion, a scourge with sharp 2")pV w. 
points T ! " 

pleasant 21V 

i 
evening 2~iy c 



224 



forever -tyi D^iy I eternity, Q^iy w. . 

and ever VT T the world T 

an iniquity, a sin (niJiy pZ.) ny w. 

-: ' t 

a bird, fowl f]iy m. - 
a skin, a hide niy w. 
strength iy m. 
strong (n*y/.) ry 

T - 

agoat(D^yi?Z.)Ty/. 
to leave, to forsake, to desert 3ty ^ 
to help, to aid ity 
help, aid "tfy to. 
to cover oneself C|t3y 

a crown (may c.) may/. 

V V " TT'i 

an eye, a fountain \']}f. _ 
a city, a town (Dny i>Z.) Ty /. - 

T 

because ")#&? ^y; upon, over, by, ?y 
*' " : against 

therefore jir^y ; on account of 121 ?V 

a yoke ^y to. 
to bring up, to offer [n]; to go up rOV 

T T 

to burnt-offering n?'y '/ 

T 

a leaf rh>V m - 

Eli, high-priest and 14th judge of *hv P- n - 
Israel 

the Most High }i^y to. 
to hide oneself [nn] D?y 
a people (D^DyjpZ., Dyj?-) Dy c. 
with Dy 
to stand, to remain, to arise "jjoy 



[J J ; to lay upon, to uphold TpD 
to rest upon " T 

to sustain, to refresh "iyD 

to mourn ied 

to re- "13D ; to number, to count "iDD 
count" 

a book, a letter iqd To. 
to hide [n] ; to hide iriD A inD 
hiding, a hiding-place iflD m. 



V 



with me "Hey 



to labor, to serve, to worship, my 
to cultivate " T 
a laborer my m. 

a servant, a slave "Dy m. 

labor, service nmy/- 

t -: 

to be thick my 

T I 

[n] ; to pass over, to pass by my 
to remove 

a Hebrew, a name applied to the "my to. 
Israelites ' : 

a cake ruy/- 

Eglon, a king of Moab jpjy p. n. 

eternity iy i. 

; for a moment ny'SIK - "^ ; ,to, iy 
T ' '' "unto, until" 

how long f \-lft~iy ; exceed- iXtt'iy 
" ingly, veiy : 

a witness, a testimony "iy m. 

au assemblv, a congregation niy /. 

not yet &6 "liy; still, again, more -jiy 
no longer, no move liy n!? 

iniquity piy to. 

V T 

wickedness miy/- 
a child ^iy w, 



to revenge DpJ 
women (n#N) D^J / 

T T 

to kiss p#J 

: to lift up, to carry, to pardon KB'3 
to be exalted, proud [nn] 

to favor Q>js tfb'j 

T 7 T 

clouds DWtM 

a piece nnj * 

a path HTnj/. 

t : 

to give, to put, to allow fj-|3 

Nathan, a prophet in the time \D2p- 
of David r T 



; to turn, to go round, to surround, 22 D 
to encompass " T 
to go about, to protect 331D 

a thicket "-pD m. 
to deliver up [n] ; to shut "iJD 

-T 

Sodom, a city that was destroyed DID P- 
in the time of Abraham 

an assembly, a secret lio w. 

a horse D'lD m. 

, to turn aside, to departfrom, -flD 
to remove [n] ; to turn in 

Sisera, a general of Jabin, XID^D Jo- 

king of Canaan T: '' 

a pot TD c. 

a booth, a tabernacle n3D/. 

a fool 73D w. 

T T 

a basket (D^p p?-) ?D m. 
to pardon H7D 
a ladder D?D m. 



223 

Nahor, a brother of Abraham ninj p- n. 
a stream, a brook pro . 
a possession rpnj /. 

t-:i- 

desirable, delicious CllDn) "IDHJ 

I to stretch out, to incline, nt3J 

to turn aside T T 

to guard, to keep (anger) noo 

T 
to smite, to beat [n] r\22 _ 

TT 

straight, sincere (nribJ/0 flDJ 

to act deceitfully [nn] 73J 

to recognize, to acknowledge [n] ")3J 

- T 

strange, a stranger (n"OJ/.) na: 

T ; t : t 

an ant (D^OJ J?*-) Pltej/ 

t : T t : 

youth, adolescence D^liy: . 
pleasant, agreeable D^y: 

T 

Xdeasantness oy: m. 
Xaomi, the mother-in-law of Ruth ""jay: p- n. 
a boy, a youth iyj w. 
a girl mjN/. 

t-;i- 

to rush upon [nn] ; to fall *>DJ 

: - t 

wonders niX^DJ/. 
soul, person, oneself (niE'DJi>Z-) $23 e. 



n. 



[n] : to save oneself, to escape [j] 7V3 . 
to take away, to deliver, to save " T 

a flower ]yj n. 

to watch, to keep 1VJ 

a female nap: / 

to be free from punishment, [j] npJ 
to be unpunished 

innocent (Q*p: pi) i\)2 



222 

saith DJO I 

Nebuchadnezzar, king of "iSfKJID^J p- n. 

Babylonia '' : " : 

intelligent (|*3) ffaj 
to look, to regard [n] 023 

- T 

a prophet fc^33 m. *. 

to wither ?22 

foolish, impious (r6ll3 /) i?23 

Xabal, a rich farmer in the time |?33 p- n. 
of David TT 

a villainy fp3J/ 
the south 233 w. 
to tell [n] -]}) _ 

before 133 .prep. 
to reach [n] ; to touch, to reach JJ33 

-T 

to smite, to defeat C]33 
to come near ^33 

liberal QH3 in. 

T 

to vow ")13 

-T 
I 

a vow VI3 m, 
to lead, to drive 3H3 
to bray pH3 

a river, (nnm fe onnj p*.) IHJ w. 

a stream T : ' T : 

to set down [n] ; to rest rH3 

to slumber D13 

to flee D13 

to move to and fro, to vacillate, Jft3 
to wave, to sway " 

venerable, terrible, (XT) NT3 

wonderful " T T 



Noah, a pious man n*3 p- n. 



bitter (mo/.) 10 

T T 

appearance, sight ,1X10 * 
Mordecai, the warden of Esther OTlOj?- w. 

- : :t 

height Di"IO rn. 

Miriam, the sister of Moses D ,- )0 p- n. 

deceit nO"10/. 

an evil-doer jno w. 

pasture PIJTIO w 

a request, a desire ]"6x$0/. 

Moses, the great leader of the n&Qp. n. 
Israelites 

to anoint n>0 

- T 

a tabernacle p?0 m. 
to rule i?^0 
a ruler, a prince ">G?iO or ?>0 
a family (nnst^O c.) nnBBto/ 

: t t : 

a judgment, right 05>0 

a butler r\p&0 m. 

a banquet, a feast nffi^O w. 
a burden tft^O *w. 

T " 

a bridle 3no w. 

sweet (npno/O pino 

when? TIO 
the loins D"3nO 



i. 



w. 



m. 



sweetness prio&pno 

a gift nno /. 



now, pray ! K3 



221 



to withhold yj 

- T 

poor |3D!0 ' 

to melt DDS 

a number "1QDD m. 

ever since "HiyE; ever since liyo 
I was 

a habitation, a den rOiyD /. & jiyo m. - 
a little oyo ... 
the heart, inmost soul WVO 
a fountain (niryD <fe DTyO pi) PPO 
upward n^VD 
ascent, a step rpyo / 
deeds D^yft 
a reply DtyD w. 
a cave my/. 
a deed, an action, a work 7]pyp m. 
from the face of, from "3 SO 
to find, to befall K0 
a pillar, a statue (n^O c.) mtf / 
unleavened bread i"lS?0/- 

T - 

a command, a precept iTlVO/- 

an Egyptian "HVO . 

Egypt, a country in the north- D*"lD P- w. 
east of Africa ' " : " 

a sanctuary, a temple CHpO w. 

a place (nioipO pi) DipO m. 

a rod, a stick ?po m. 

an asylum, a refuge D^po 

T ; 

a convocation jopo w. 



delicacies D'OyOO w. 

rain 100 m. 

to rain [n] "IBO 

who? "O 

water (o c.) DVO . 

pain, sorrow 21X30 tn. 

: - 

Machpelah, a field near Hebron n^QDD i>. w. 

a stumbling-block ^>it^30 . 

to fill, to fulfill tfta ; to fill, xta 
to be full " T 

fullness, full &^o m, 
a messenger, an angel TlN^D m. 

t : - 

work (nifrte c.) rDH^D/. 

a word (D^O^O nfe/- 

T 

a lodging-place }i">o m. 
war non!>/. 

t t : 

to deliver oneself, to escape [j] 07D 

to reign, to become king "-pD 

a king ^ 

a kingdom, reign runta/- 

from above ^yoo 

bitterness, sadness "00 . 

dominion, rule ipbwSO c.) vh&OOf. 

manna, food of the Israelites in the f m. 
Arabian desert T 

from p 
to count, to assign HJD 

T T 

rest nnuojf. 

a gift, a tribute nrUO/. 






220 



Midian, an Arabian nation piOj?- n. 
a province ilJHO / 
what f how \ [nD <fe HD) HO 

V " T 

to delay, to linger [nn] JTOHD - 

to hasten ino 

quickly, speedily rnno <fc mo 

Moab, a people east of the ^NiO p. n. 

Jordan T 

to totter, to shake CMQ 
birth, a birthplace m^iO/. 
a blemish, a defect D30 m. 
Monabaz, a king of Adiabene T3Ji0i?. w. 
correction ID'IO w. 
a set time, a feast -jyio m. 
a teacher mio m. 
to give way, to cease E*io 
a seat, a habitation 3io w- 

T 

to kill, to put to death [n] ; to die n^ 

death (nio <:, mo . 

an altar (ninziro pi) PI3TD m. 

a door-post rw?o/. 

food }i?0 HI. 

a thought noro/. 

the rising of the sun, east IT1TO vn. 

t : 

a camp rUTO m. 
want, need liDno . 
to-morrow iriO 

T T 

a thought (jny&nv c.) mpno/ 

abed noo/. 



Laish, a place on the northern gh^ p. n, 
borders of Palestine " 

to take, to capture ini? _ 
therefore pS 

to accustom, n^ ; to learn 1E^> 

to teach - T * 

why then ? HT noS> ; wherefore ? nai> ^ 
v T T why ? T T 

on account of, that, in order to jyAfj 
to mock [n]; to mock jyjj 

~T 

before "O^j 
to take, to fetch npf> 
to gather, to collect op!? 
towards, to meet TMtD\A prep. 
tongue, language p^ c. - 



very, exceedingly adv. ; strength -jno m. - 
any thing HOIXO 
of old, long since TXD 

T 

whence? ps<E 
food ^ONO w. 

t -; i- 

to refuse [NO 
to reject, to despise DNO 

" T 

a curse mNO/. 

entrance, the setting of the 5030 m. 
sun, west T 

a shield po m. 
a wilderness, a desert "1310 *. 
to measure 110 
why? yvta 



Carmel, a promontory on the 70"i3 p. n, 
Meditcranean Sea, in the tribe v : " 
of Asher 
to bend the knees, to bow y~G 

to make a cov-JV73 JY"G ; to cut rP3 

: -t -t * 

enant ; to be extirpated, destroyed [:] 
the same [3] ; to totter, to stumble 7>3 

- T 

to write 3TJ3 
a tunic, a coat njn3 / 



not any 73~X7 ; not K7 
Leah, a wife of Jacob l"IX7_p. n. 
the heart 337 & 37 m. 

T " 

apart, alone 137 
a garment, a dress 8^3,7 *w. 

white (ruai/o p*3 

Laban, the uncle and father-in-law p*j j>. . 
of J acob T T 

Lebanon, a mountain in the |iJD7i>- " 
north of Palestine T : 

to put on, to clothe oneself b7 

if 

to lend [n] .117 

t r 

Lot, a nephew of Abraham fti7 ;? " 
Levi, the 3d son of Jacob; a Levite ^7 p. n. 
if not, unless ^7 & K717 
to pass the night, to lodge p7<fe^7 
to fight [:] on 

bread, food Qri7 c. 
to press, to afflict yn? 
night (nWj^) rM w. 



219 

that, when, for, because, but, truly 3 
l)ut, except DX "2 

a purse D'3 >. 
while "HJT73 5 a H> every (-73) 73 

T T 

a dog 373 m. - 
to finish, to cease H73 

T * 

a bride, a daughter-in-law ,173 /. 

T - 

a vessel (D'73^^, 'PS.pO ^pS - 

to sustain 7373 

to put to [n] ; to be ashamed [2] D73 

shame " T 

like, as i3 

so, thus, rightly, well p 

Canaan, the land on this side ]yj3 p. n. 
of the Jordan "*" 

a Canaanite ^^23 *. 
a wing f]J3/- 
a throne (niKD32>*0 ND3 m. 
to cover HD3 
a fool ^D3 * 
to desire, to long [2] ?|D3 
silver, a piece of silver, money Pp3 W. 
vexation, grief DJ73 >" 
to bend P|33 
to atone 7*23 
atonement 3^23 W. 

to dig ma 

to dance "1313 

1 
a vineyard D"13 w. 



218 



there is, there are ("") t" 
to sit, to remain, to dwell 21*'" 
salvation, help njflE^/' 

t ; 

Jesse, the father of David *& P- n - 

to sleep !#* 

to deliver, to help [n] yc'" 

straight, upright, right "i^ 

uprightness 1{^ TO. 

Israel, the name of the ^frOt^ p. 

Israeiitish nation " T : ' 

an orphan D1IV to. 

to let [n] ; to be left, to remain [:] TV __ 
remain, to leave 

Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses injV p- n. 



as, when 1^X3 

to honor T33 ; to be heavy, T33 

burdensome " T 

honor, glory Tt33 to. 
to wash, to purge D33 
a ewe lamb n^33/. 
a pail, a pitcher 13 /. 
so, thus ri3 
a priest Jri3 m - 
a star 3313 TO. 

T 

[n]; to be firm, established, ready [:] ft|3 
to establish, to direct, to prepare 

a cup 0)2 f. 
to lie, to deceive 3}3 
strength, power n*3 m. 
to deny, to deceive $ri3 



Jacob, the 3d patriarch of the 3pJT p- n. 
Israelites ~ : '~ 

a wood, a forest TjT m. 
to be beautiful riD" 

TT 

fine, beautiful {U^ pi) ilC to. 
beauty fEr|>0 ^ to. 
Jephthah, the 9th judge of Israel nnS" 1 p. n. 

to go out x:r 

TT 

to stand 3SJ & 3V 

- T -T 

to and fro 2\SA K)W 

Isaac, the 2d patriarch of the pnV^ p. n. 
Israelites T : ' 

to pour out pV 
to form, to create T^ 1 

-T 

to awake ypi* 
precious Tp* 
preciousness, honor, dignity Tp* to. 

t : 

to lay snares, to catch p* 

to fear, to be afraid KV 

fear HNT/ 

Jeroboam, the first king of DJJ3V p. n. 
Israel T: TT 

to go down *w 

-T 

Jordan, the largest river of jTV p- n. 

Palestine " : " 
to teach, to show [n] TV 

TT 

Jerusalem, the metropolis of D^>TV_p. 
Palestine " T : 

the moon riT to. 

Jericho, a city of Palestine near 1lWj>. n. 
the Jordan and the Dead Sea ' : 

Jeremiah, a prophet VWP & \V V CT\ > p. n. 
verdure py m. 

to dispossess [n]; to possess grv 
to impoverish " T 



217 



Jehoshaphat, the 4th king of DDBHrp p. n. 
Judah 

a clay (D'E^ pi) DV *. 

a day DEV m. 

by day DDV adv. 

Joseph, the 11th son of Jacob P)Di* jP- " 

a fowler >pv m. 

an inhabitant 2&) s m. 

Jotham, a son of Gideon ; also QHV p- n. 

the J lth king of Judah T 
Jezreel, a town in the tribe of ?Kjnp p- n. 
Issachar v ' : ' 

together mv&irv 1 

Ezekiel, a prophet who lived ^KpTrT 1 p~ n. 
in the Babylonian exile " : ' : 
to expect, to hope ?IT 

to do good, well [n] ; to be good, 3D" 

cheerful " T 
i 

wme p m. 

to be able (Hoph.) ; to be able fe' 

to beget [n] ; to bear - 

a child, a lad "fa m. 

to cause to go, to take [n] ; to go *p^ 

toe sea (D^jp2>) D' m. 

the right side pD" m. 

to oppress [n] T\T 

to found ID* 

to add, to increase [n] 7\C 

to chastise, to correct "\Qi * 

to meet (by appointment), to [j] ""ly 

assemble 
Jael, a resolute woman of the bv* P- >< 

K'cnitcs " r 
to be fatigued C|j?* 

to consult one [j] ; to advise vjp 
another, to deliberate " r 



goodness, goods HE m. 
good, welfare niitD/- 
bands, frontlets niDBltD/. 
a (young) lamb n?t2 m. 
unclean NE> 
to taste EJrt2 
before C^'J 

to tear 5pE 

i 
prey spE m. 



to begin, [n] ; to be foolish [j] ^ 
to be willing " T 

produce ?}T w. 

a sister-in-law J"lT /. 

to be dry, to dry up $y 

grief, sorrow fiy m. 

to be weary yy 

a hand, power T /. 

T* 

to confess, to give thanks, [n] riT 

to praise TT 

to know JJT 

the Eternal, God ,T 

T 

Jehoash or Joash, the 8th king 'NiiT p. n. 
of Judah, also the 12th king of T : 
1 srael 
Judah, the 4th son of Jacob rrUiT )> n. 

a Jew *WF m. 

the Eternal * or nirr 

Jehoiachin, the 19th king of p2*irp p> n. 
Judah ' 7 : 
Jonathan, a son of Saul |nJi!V.p. n. 

Joshua, the successor of Moses J7t}>iiT f>> ". 



216 



to rake refuge, to confide HD~I 

kind, gracious, pious TDH 

to lack, to fail, to be wanting iDn 

- T 

to make haste T2PI 

to be willing, to desire V2n 
i .. T 

an arrow ]'n i. 
grass TT m - ' 
a statute, a law npn/. & ph m. - 
investigation "lpn tn. 
to lay waste, to destroy [n] J"in 

a sword HIT/- - 
to burn, to be kindled mn 

T T 

diligent pin 
Haran, a town of Mesopotamia pnj>. 
to scorn Ppn 
autumn, winter 5|in m. 
scorn, disgrace HQin/. 
to keep silent [n] ; to plow grin 

- T 

to think, to consider 3#n 

darkness 7]Dn m - 
to withhold, to spare "q^n 

a father-in-law jnh to. 
to break rinn 

- T 

CD 

pare nfntt 

T 

to purify VIB 
bencvolent$rafa ; good, pleasant 2YC 



to smooth, 

to flatter 



to be or become wise DDn 

- T 

wise, sagacious Q3n - 

T T 

wisdom, sagacity nosn/. - 

wisdom niDDn & nton / 

a ditch ^n to. 

milk 3?n w. 
[nn] ; to be wearied [j]; to be sick n^n 

: t t 

to feign oneself sick 

a dream (niDlbn pi-) Di^H to. 

f .1 , 

sickness (^n />) vn to. 

to dream Qpn 

- T 

[n] ; to divide p^n 

a lot, a portion, a share ppn m. 

smoothness, flattery (nip^n i?Z-) Hp^n/. 

to be weak gon 

warm, hot (D'En !>?) Qn 

cream HXEn/. 

anger, wrath (non c.) nn /. 
: . t 

a donkey lion to. 
a mother-in-law niion/. 

T 

to pity, to spare fen 

" T 

to be warm, hot DDH 

- T 

leavened |>pn to. 

grace, favor |n to. - 

Hannah, the mother of Samuel TlUnp. n. 

gracious j^n. 

initiation, dedication nSDil/. 

to beseech, [nn] ; to favor pn 

to implore : ' " T 

love, kindness, grace, mercy IDn w. 



215 



a company rron/. 
a festival, a feast (lT3~i pi*) 2n m. 
to celebrate }jn 

to leave off, to cease, to give up pin 


a room Tin W. 

new (HBhn/.) CHH 
the new moon, a month ^in w. 

a debt (rrinin 2> 7 -) sin m. 

Eve, the first woman mri2>- n. 

T- 

to turn, to tremble (jT! & ^in 

sand pin w- 

a wall npin/. - 
a street (nimn j*0 pn ? 
to see ntn 
strong (nptn/0 ptn 

to [nn] ; to take hold, to seize [n] pTn 
strengthen oneself, to take courage 

force, violence PIpTTl/. 

to sin XDn 

a sin KBH m. 

a sinner XlSn m. - 

to seize Ppn 

as the Eternal *-*n ; alive, lively Ti 
livi' 

to live rrn 

an animal, a beast i"l s n/. 

< i 
strength, ability, an army yp w. 

life ;*n c.) D*n *. 

the bosom pTI w. 



to flow 2)1 

besides, except Tl^T 

to feed, to nourish M 

an olive-tree, an olive JVT w- 

pure (nSt'/O -IT 

to remember 13T 

-T 

a male "O? w. 

remembrance, (ji"l2T c.) |il3? > 

a memorial 

to meditate DST 

to prune ")ET 

singing mCT/ 

the tail 3JT m* 

sweat nyt/ 

to cry out, to exclaim pjft 

aery (npyr.c-) nj$;/ 

to be old, to become old p? 

an old man jpT >. 

old age jpT w. 

old age D*3pT vi, 

a stranger, another "it >> 

an arm, power yHf/. 

to sow y-iT 

seed, descendants jnj ro. 

n 

to liide oneself [j] {On 
q cord, a band S^n w. 
;i companion ~Qn m. 



214 



to-day Di s n 

to walk [nn] rfep ; to go t^n 

flory, to boast [nn]; to praise ^n 
hither, here D^n 
those Dnn ; they nftn cfc DH m. 
noise, multitude, plenty |i,n m. 
man, a minister of Ahasuerus |Di1.p. . 

they nan&rn /*. 
T .. >.. 

lo ! behold ! fi3 n 
hither nun 
to turn, to change 7jD,n 
a mountain (Qnn j)2.) nn . 

t 

much nann 
to kill :in 

a thought (Chald.) imn w. 
Harau, a brother of Abraham prt p. n. 
to pull down, to destroy D~n 

I 
Yashti, a queen of Persia *ft&\ p. n. 

I 

a wolf 2 NT *-* 

this ntf? / 
a fly 35>3T m. 
to slay, to sacrifice, to offer fiST 

a sacrifice nzu m. 

this n? w. 

gold 3HT w. 



a generation Cn1"l1l & D^nin pi) nil w. 

ink H/ 

Dinah, the only daughter of nm p. n. 

Jacob T 
to be broken, contrite [j] ,131 

T T 

weak, poor ^n 
to leap, to spring J^n 
to draw (water) nfn 
to be weak ^n 
a door n^T/ 
blood Cn w. 
to be silent der 
Dan, a son of Jacob jn ;>. >i 
knowledge nj?n / *. 
to push, to knock, to drive pen 

thin (n^i/.) pn 

i 

way, manner Tpn c. 
to seek, to inquire, to demand grn - 
(tender) grass K>n m. 



fatness \th m. 



n 



vanity ?3n . 

to boast [nn] nnn ; to respect nnn 

an ornament, splendor nnn m. 

TT 

that fcnnn ; he wn w. 

majesty, splendor nin m. 

riches, substance }in m. 

that N\nn; she x\n /. 

to become, [j] ; to be, to become n\n 
to happen T > - 



213 



a garden |3 c . 
to steal 333 

-T 

a thief 222 w. 
to protect [n] }22 
to rebuke, to reprove 1J?2 

a reproof (rnjtt c.) mya / 

a vine |2 c 

a stranger 12 . 

Gerizim, a mountain in the tribe DT*3 JP 
of Ephraim * ' : 
to expel, to drive out C ; 12 

rain, a heavy shower D^'2 w 

Goshen, a region of Egypt jtjjg p. 



T)oeg, an Edomite, chief of Saul's 3^1 p. 
herdsmen 

a bear yi > 

Deborah, a prophetess of the miT 5 ! j>. 

Israelites T : 
to cleave, to adhere, to be glued p21 

to speak lectin* 1 ] 

a word, a thing 131 m. 

a plague, pestilence 131 m. 

honey C'31 m. 

a fish 31 w. 

T 

corn ?21 m. 

't t 

a friend, an uncle lii m. 

David, the second king TH&m.p. 
<)f the Israelites 

an aunt HIH/. 



Gibeah, a town of the Bejamites ny32 p- * 

Gibeon, another town of the }iy22 P- n. 
Benjamitea : ' 

to be strong, to prevail 132 

i 
a man 132 . 

Gad, a son of Jacob 12 p- 

large, great (r6il2 /.) 7H2 

t : t 

a kid , 12 ' 

to be or become great, to grow 712 

to magnify one- [nil]: to magnify 712 
self, to boast : ' 

greatness n?12 / 

T \ : 

Gedaliah. a govern- W913 & H vH3 j>. " 

or of the Jews, T: " : 
appointed by Nebuchadnezzar 

Gideon, the 5th judge of Israel pyig p. >t. 
the back 12 
a nation 12 w*. 
exile, exiles 1712 /' 
to expire yi2 
to sojurn 7} 2 
to exult, to rejoice 7^12 & P"2 
to disclose, to remove, to emigrate .172 

TT 

to lead into exile [n] ; to reveal il?2 

idols 0^2 > 

to shave nW 

to roll 7b 

Gilead, a mountain and a prov- 1J772 P- 
ince beyond the Jordan r : ' 

both-and D2"C2 ; also, even Q3 

a benefit 7^2 < 
a camel (D*fea pi) S>2 c- 



212 



morning *ipa to. _ 
to seek for, to demand #|33 
to seek favor, to solicit D^S G?p3 
to create &oa 
hail T13 to. 
to flee ma 
(post-biblical) a creature ma/- 
a covenant rP13/- 
to bless, to praise !Q3 & ?p3 
a knee 7]"I3/. 
a blessing, a benediction rQ"3/. 

t t : 

to announce, to proclaim "|$3 

flesh, meat, the body, living -ifcya m. 
creature T T 
men, human beings -\&2 *J3 

a daughter (nU3i>Z.) H3/. - 

T 

Bethuel, the father of Laban p^na p. n. 
and Rebecca 
in the midst of, among 7pri3 

houses (JT3) DT13 *. 

Bath-sheba, the mother of ya^'Da/ 1 - 
Solomon ""* 



to redeem ^X2 
a redeemer ^2 to. 
high H23 

height nn'a . 

strong, a hero iia3 to. 
strength ITVQ3/. 
cheese n^33/. 



the belly [03/. 

before WM23. 

pray! a 

between pa 

to have under-[n] .to understand, pa 
standing, to turn ' to discern 

the mind to 

understanding, intelligence nra/- 

a house (DTD pi) JV3 to. 
a store-house, treasury "iis? jva to. 

T 

the prison D 1 "ViDNn JV3 m. 
the school "RtS&n ]"P3 to. 

to weep naa 

not ^a 

without N^a 

to swallow, to devour y^a 

a worthy 7*rT}3 i a son (Q , 3a >?.) j3 to. 
man v " T 

to build HJ3 

TT 

daughters (na)nija/. 

T 

sons (fa) D*J3 ' 

Benjamin, the youngest son of pD"J3 29. n. 
Jacob ' t: ' 

because of, in order that TQya 

i 

about, near nya & 1JJ3 

Boaz, the second husband of Ruth fy'a p> n- 
a lord, a master, an owner ^ya to. 
Baal, a Phenician idol ?ya p. n. 
to graze, to kindle, to consume nya 

stupid nya m. 
dough pva to. 
oxen, cattle "ipa c. 



211 



guilt fiDEta/ 
who, that, because V^X 
happy ntTX 
with, near (TIN) DX 

( mf* 

thou < 

/ nrix w. 

a she-ass pns /- 
you DDX w. 
yesterday ^EHX 
you }fl/. 



a well 1X3/- 

Beer, a town in the south of "1X2 i>. 
Palestine 

where "ItPXa 

Babylon, the metropolis, and ^22 p. 
Babylonia, the province VT 

a dress, a robe, a cover "1:3 m, 
to separate, to distinguish [n] Sna 

-T 

to terrify, to hasten prQ 
a beast, animals, cattle n!"G/- 

t : 

to bring [n] : to come, to enter X13 

to despise f!fl 

a pit, a dungeon (nV"li3.pZ.) 113 w. 

to be ashamed !Q 

to despise nTS 

in this place, here HT3 

on the outside, without *pr"Q 

to trust nWH 



faithfulness, truth DON* /. 

a sack nnnipK / 

man Jjjfax > 

1 
we njx c. 

I CJNi>.) *JX c. 

a ship PMK/. 

I ^JK c. 

men (t$JK , t^X) D^KON w. 

to gather, to assemble, to re- C]X 
ceive 
Esther, a queen of Persia -jflpX p. n. 

also S]X 

anger C]X w. 

to bake HDN 

the face D^qn m, 

darkness r6s>X/. 

end, extremity; nothing, only DSX m. 

near, by h^k 

to lay up-nyx 

- T 

a locust HSHX m. 
an ark, a chest jinx c. 
a cedar plN m. 
a traveler rhX m 

a lion (ni & d";-in pi.) nnw <fc ns m. 
long (n2n/.)*pK 

earth, a land px/. 

fire t''X c 

a woman, (0*SW pJ., D^X C.) H$X/ 
a wife ' T 

a step THUfa 



210 
a man, a husband (D'EU X pi) tTN m- - 



lthamar, the youngest son of ICJVXi?- n. 
Aaron T T 

only, but TJX 

to consume ?3X; to eat, to con- ?2X 
sume " T 

surely ! pX 

T 

a husband-man "GX m- 

T * 

not 5>X 

God i> m. - 
to, towards, against ?x _ 
an oak i"6x/- 

these (rr^xn) rbk c. ^ 
God D'n1?x<fcn$x _ 

an oak p^x m. 

Elijah, the zealous ^n^X&IT^X i?. n. 
prophet in the time of Ahab 

idols D^"6x ; vain, nothing ^x 

Elirnelech, the husband of Tjta^Kjp. n. 
Xaomi '' '' ' - 

Eliezer, the faithful servant "tty^X P- n. 
of Abraham '*" ' " : 

Elisha, the disciple and sue- ])&"?# P- n. 
cessor of Elijah ' '" 

Eleazar, high-priest, son of "iTjAx p- n. 
Aaron T T : 

a mother (ni?2>X pi) DX / _ 



a sign (niniN pi) nix c. 

then TX 
an ear }f x / 
a native niTX wi. 
a brother (D'HXi^-, s nx c.) nX 

- -; t 

Ahab, the seventh king of 2XHX p. n. 

Israel T : 
some, a few DHnX 

a sister (ninx c.) ninx/- 

-: t 

to seize fnx 

- T 

possession n^rtX/- 
to delay "inx 
another inx 
behind, after nnx & inx 
the end mnX/- 
Ahasuerus, a king of Persia tTYWnx P- n - 
a bramble TX m. 

T T 

to shut DBX 

- T 

woe ! *X 

a calamity TX w. 
where ? ,TX 
Job, a pious man 3ix P- n. 



if, whether, or DX - Jezebel, the wicked wife of Ahab i?nrx p. n. 



firmness, faithfulness nj^DK/. 

to be faithful, trustworthy [j] pX ^ 
to believe, to trust [n] 

to harden f*ftX 
to say -|X - 

- T 

a word 10 x m. _ 
yesternight *>ex 



how? nrrx&^X 

a ram p'X m. 

nothing, not, no, without (px e.) px 

nothing 13"H f*X ; no one L'^X pX 

unsearchable ipn j"X 

where? HS^X 



209 

VOCABULARY. 

Xote. The ground-form of the verbs is designated by the third person masculine sin- 
gular of the Preterite. It is usually expressed in Hal, except when the verb has a 
different signification or is exclusively used in other conjugations ; 2 in brackets 
denotes Niphal, n Hiphil, and nn Hithpael. 

This vocabulary comprises also all the proper nouns which occur in this book ; 
they are designated by the initials p. n. 

Before a noun or pronoun, m. denotes the masculine, f. the feminine, c. the com- 
mon gender. 

Before a noun in parenthesis, c. denotes the construct state, pi. the plural, and 
p. the pause. 

Before an adjective in parenthesis,/, denotes the fern inine gender, pi. the plural. 



N 



earth, ground, land HOIK/- - 
Adonijah, a son of David irpOlN p- n. 
to love 3ns 

- T 

a friend nrix m. - 

love nan* /. 

Ehud, the second judge of Israel THIN p. 

a tent, a tabernacle ^HX m. - 

Aaron, high-priest, the elder pnNj?- n. 
brother f Moses ~ : '~ 

or ix 

rn*tn ronn ; to desire [nn] njs 

to burn with desire 

alas ! woe ! ^N 

an enemy a^lN m. 

a fool ^1N m. 

perhaps ^X 

folly rWie/. - 

iniquity, wickedness j!N m. 

to lighten, [n] ; to be light, nix 
to cause to shine , to shine, 

Uriah, a captain of David n"flN p. n. 



a father (ni3K pi, 'UN c.) 2N m. 



j to destro}-, to waste [n] ; to be -QN 
lost, to perish 

to be willing, to desire rGN 

Abigail, a wife of David ^WDN p- n. 

needy, poor JV2N tn. 

Abimelech, a wicked son of TpD , 3N P- n - 
the judge Gideon '' '' ' " : 

L ' 

mourning J2X m. 

.... 

truly, indeed, but ?2N 
a stone (D'WN pi) }3M / 

Abraham, the first patriarch omiS p. n. 

of the Israelites 1 T : " 

Abram, his former name D"ONjP- n. 
a pond D2X m. 
to gather in ijix 
a letter rP3N/- 
a master, a lord pix m. 
red (ITB"!/.) DIN 

man DIN m. 
Adam, the first man DIN,/;, n. 



208 



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v: 


.fcs 


.fej 


..V3 


..'*3 


.1*3 


U 


:VJ 


D 
U 


-J 


_# 




D 
U 


-U 


_l 




O 




:_J 


i-T 


_i 


.-J 


.J 


.-J 


-1 


-J 


-J 


U 


hU 


u 


hU 


'U 


hU 


HU 


u 




HU 


.J 


..-J 


J 


..^1 


..J 


..J 


..-J 


..J 


H-J 


D 
















B 








1/ 


a 


1/ 


.J 




Ij 


CD 

B 
cr 







u 

. 


u 


4J 


;U 


u 

. 


u 


u 


2 


HU 


D 






















~t 


-1 


D 




^J 


J 




a- 




._! 


,-l 


:_l 


_J 


..-I 


._J 


._! 


-I 


po 


_J 


" ~M 


' -# 


~* 


~# 


-J 


_* 


j 


-J 


o 


_ 


O 


n 


a 


a 


a 


n 


a 


a 


c_ 


rj 


u: 


ia: 


u: 


\n 


i 


^ 


u: 


u: 


* 


Hl^ 


D 






















.j 


_ 




D 


^u 


^ 




0* 




G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


2 


G 


m 


H|H 


in 


H|TJ 


un 


hI9 


-H3 


CI 


H|Tf 


Q. 


*2 


Q. 


<* 


<3. 


^ 


<3. 


"Q 


Q 


O 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


D 


ef 


u 




~# 


._# 




a 
u 


^j 


_# 




, 




a 


'D 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


D 


c 


D 


..-j 


nJ 


..j 


hJ 


.j 


H-J 


hJ 


.J 


p^ 


H^l 


D 


-^ 


-^ 


a 


D 


_il 


^# 









:_l 


,-l 


:_l 


._j 


..J 


.._i 


_J 


J 




_l 




0- 














o 




-J 


-J 


-J 


^j 

2 
i 


If 


if 


II 


If 




X 

OQ 


2, 


<j 


o 


p 






5. 









e 


ffg 




3d 


C/i ^ 






03 






BJ&9 

CD Q5 


K ^ 
^ 






log 






^ 







CD 


e-f- 






CD 




<rt- 









ai O 

P 

B 

OB 



203 

N. Regular Verb with Suffixes. 

3.Plur.f. 3.Plur.m. 2. Plur. f. 2, Plur. m. 1. Plur. 3. Sing. f. 

pp# Lrvgv }?"]&# nzipP Wlflff ^HRV 

?mp# ornptf prnntf Drmotf urnctf nninv 

I - TT " -tt:! v :-t: - : . - t " : - t : t - t : 



opnpp vniQp nrn.P# 



I T: t: | v t : v f : , T : x t : 

miDp aaipp pinos? dtuid^ rwinpt? 

pDtf did^" pipe? DZHptf rnptf 



riDVf anctf p*o? DDiptf tfiptf mptf 

) t : t t: t ) v : t : v : T : "Tt t : t 

pptf Diptf . inptf rnptfl 

! : t : t -Tt t v" t I 

mptf ( 

TIT ) 

pDtf! copp* PH 1 ?^' 1 . D 7W. ^1?^. nipjfu 

jnptf? Drip^ }?npi^; Dsr*p^ tfripij^ rfnp^ 
j^a ojna };?^ d^i u^a n^ji 



202 



N. Regular Verb with Suffixes. 
3. Sing. m. 2. Sing. f. 2. Sing. m. 1. Sing. Suffixes. 



TT\uv 



tt : 



vrf\j2p \ 
Turnup ) 

t : 



TIDE? 

: t 



npef 



i^lP^'Pret. Kal Sing. 
~~ ' 3. m. 



Tjrn^* *]Plp# s VpJ$ 






vnrsop "Wotf *PT& 



I : : t 



^nicff 



t : - : 



TmcE? 



t : 



3. f. 
2. m. 

2. f. 

I.e.- 

Plur. 3. c. 
2. m. & f. 
I.e. 



"HE^Noni. Sutr\ 
: T Inf. Kal. 

* "TT 

Vpngflmp. Kal Sing. 






^ll T|^fl. 



^"OJfl Fut. Kal Sing. 
3. m. 



i !i^rw> 



'nets 



with Nun 

epenthetic. 

Ijhljlff 1 P^r. 3. m. 

"O^UI Pret. Piel S.3.m. 



201 






M. Verbs JJ'J 


f. 




Hophal. 


Hiphil. 


PualorPoal. 


3QU 


3DJ 

T 


aato; 


QDin 


iaon 

T 


laaiop 


nraow 


nraon 

T V " : 


ruaiton 

t : - : 


12DT 


" T 


nato: 


nraom 

T V " 


nraon 

t v : 

ao'i 

;T - 


ruaaton 

t : - : 



'J2D' 



naoiD, agio (ago) ago 



naoD 

t : 



aaioc 

T 



Hithpael. 

t ; ~ : 

t : : 

etc. 



200 
M. Verbs JTJ7. 
Hophal. 



Toon 
riao-in 

T 

riapn 

3QV1 

roan 

T - 

}rpori 



Hiphil. Pual or Poal. 



rapq 
'rjapq 
riapq 

i 
rcon 

T " " 

lispq 
oriapq 
jnapn 



12D1H (GDm) 12C~ 



^2212 

npito 

ri22ic 

22iC 
rQ2lc 
U221C 

ormic 

|n22lC 
Q2iD 



2DTI 



2DH 

" T 

Don 

' T 



221C 



2C~ 

* T 
T 

nraon 



2D1K (3D) 2DN 



2010 

39QVI 

3PP 

2Din 



2cn 
"son 

" T 

2D 1 



2on 

" T 



221D*? 
22120 

"35toCi 

221D? 

22ion 



Piel or Poel. 

3310^3 



rnrmon 

t : : 



oato: 



t : : 



199 

M. Verbs JTJ. 



Niphal. 



3DJ 
i 



nraon 

TV ' 

XSSP 



nraon 

T V ~ * 



Kal. 

-j2Dn 

t : 



or 3DJFut. I.e. 

T Plural. 

T 

nrapn 2. f. 

t v : : 
QQi 3. m. 

T 



nraon 



3. f. 



1 ^33iD , : 

ZOlDD 



t - : -t 



(3D'l) 3D'l Fut - with 

T" TT~ Vav Con. 

^30^ Fut. with 

: : Suff. 
33iD Pres. Part. 
313D Past Part. 

T 





198 









M. Verts J?'J?. 




Piel or Poel. 


Niphal. 


Kal. 




^3310 


nl2g; 




1 ni2D Pret - ! 

Singular. 


rqiio 


ni2o: 

t " : 




ntec 2. m 


P331D 


rapj 




niao 2. * 


2210 


3P3 


(22D) 2C 3. m. 


-3210 (? 

1 


13DJ) H3DJ 

T T T - T 




H3D 3 - f - 

T - 

1 1 c 

UuD Plural. 


U221D 


U13DJ 




an22to 


anl2g; 




artac 2. m. 


,n22ic 


|ni2o; 




jnl3D 2- f. 


oato 


126: 


(Q3D) QD 3.c; 

: it 


22iD 


3ten 





3UD Illf - aby - 

T 


(22D) 221D 


2DH 


133D) 2D Inf. const. 


221D 


3DH 




^D Imp. m. S. 


TJSto 


'2D- 




13D f. 


D21D 


Qpn 




QDlmp.rn.Pl, 


"Q221C 


nraon 

T V ~ * 






3210$ 


2DvN 


3DK 


or 2DN Fat. I.e. 

T Sing. 


221DP 


2Dn 


2bn 


3DH 2. m. 


rpatoci 


"2Dn 


"3Dn 


^on 2. f. 

T 


3310 1 . 


3: 


2b 1 . 


2D^ 3 - m - 

T 


2210P 


3DH 


2bn 


2bn 3. f. 

T 



197 



L. Verb vy, 




Niphal. Kal. 






m 




wan 



K. Verbs yj?. 

Hiphil. 



DpJJ 



nrrari njopin 



rugpn 



ira' 



m 



toj?* 





n^rap 


n:cpjn 




i?; 






RP 






, ^ 1 31 






" I? 


Dps 


Hiphih 
ithpael: 


pas 

pjanp 





pudpr 



. .. ( . . 

CPpQ 



196 



L. 


Verb i'J?. 




K. Verbs TJ7. 


Viphal. 


Kal 






Hiphil. 


izfaiQ} 


'niya or 


'wi 


"ncpj- 


np^-) 'n'^pn 


g\kq 


nli"a 


$3 


njapvi 


n'^pq 


nttfij 


nir? 


P52 


ntppin 


rfa'pq 


ItiJ 


r? 


If 


apn 


cp~ 


T T 
| 


T * 
| 


T T 


"?i?" 


nc'pn 


uttoj 


uirg 


1J2 


uppn 


Ucrpq 


onuoj 


DniP3 


an;a 


onppn 


ancpn 


jnttnj 


inir? 


in:2 


JFjopn 


irira^pq 


T 


w? 


U2 

T 


icpin 


^p" 


pan 




P 




Qpn 


jian 




r? 


apin 


D'pn 


)ian 




r? 




p? 


like oisn 




1^3 
IT? 


i 


rugpn 

t : |--t 


}13K 




r?< 


DpiN 


a-p? 


like OlDsN 




r?n 


apin 


^pn 






T 


ppm 


v& 






PS 


D^l" 1 


v; 






ran 

! T 


Dpin 


a^pn 







- 195 






K. 


Verbs yy. 





Pual or 
Polal. 


Piel or Polel. 


Niphal. 


Kal. 


Q&pl 


Dpip^i 


i 


fflpjPut. I.e. 

1 T Plural. 
I 


1 


toplpfi 


i^isn 


teipn 2. m. 


ruooton 

t : 1 '. 


rupoipn 


njqplsn 


ruppp 2. f. 




t . \ . 


(nrcipn>' 


tocip: 


tepip: 


ttlB'! 


WfT 3. m. 


t : - 1 : 


mpiipn 


rgpiin 


ruppn 3. f. 

T T] T 

Dp;, Dp; ApocFut. 
Dp'I.Dp'IApoc.Fut. 

1 T- 7 ITT" with Vav. Con. 




^$9^. 




Future 

with Sufi. 



DDlpP (D.^pp) Dpiplj DlDJ HDp, DpPres. Part. 

Hithpael: HOlD} 
DDlpnC Q^ Past Part. 



PDlp fippip 

flPPlp PPPlp 

DDlp DDlp 

njpplp 

ttpplp 

anpplp 

jnpplp 

topip 

&P*p 
(D'p) DDlp 



noplp 

ftpplp 

ilfrpplp 

}nppip 

fapip 

DDlp 



194 
Verbs Yy. 

Niphal. 

r : 

tito% 

T T 

Dten 
Dten 



(Df.p) DDlp Dten 

ten 
njtplsn 

ton 



=ipp1p 
rupplp 

Dplpg (IBJ2B) Dpips 
Dplpp DpIpP 

'pplpfl n pp1ptf 

DDlp? DDlp: 

DDton DDtori 



Eal. 



flDp Pret. 1. c. 

' )- Sing. 

2. m. 



PPP 2. f. 

Qj? 8. m. 

-D|^ 3. f, 

UDp 1. c 

: I" Plural. 

onpp 2. m. 

jnpp 2. f. 

top 3. c 

to Inf. abs. 
(DlD) Dip Inf. const. 

^p Imp. m. s. 
^p f- 

iDlp m. pi. 

rnpp f. 

M?K Fut. 1. c. 

I T Siug. 

cipn 2. m. 

''pipn 2. f. 

Dip' 3. m. 



DtoFl 3. f. 



193 






,v it.-. ,\-T ,>_ iv. :^ |V. *vT 

:y p :y p a ,!g a :^ 5 5 g :g g 



3 . a >; ..a a . a te a a a .*? 



11 11 

-J -J J _i# -| _J -. _# 

HlJ H^J H^ H^ h H^ h^ h^ ,3 H% 



ff*-s ?rs -s -K a> ;^ s S * ;y -a 



n HL J *3 ^ -. zi -. ^ n n 

n 3 .^ !n -3 :& .3 ;^ ..g .Tf , % 



-?r- l^ ^r -^ - 'I ^ "I - 3 -I II 

o . . ^ .- ^ ^ .it: & ,s .s .3 .% : ,^r-a 



11 



?. ^ ' Zi 



H -i HL- 



=L .3. ^ t -^ u .-' 1 ^ -' 11 HU J - 



H_ h^ H ^; m h ^; h ^ hsT. H ^i !! ^ ^ -^ ^~-a 



H 3 vr* u_ 



P3 !J \^; D ^j IB ^ 1*3 5 5 7^' :g :i 



u 3 - 



y n V ' HU I ,ci "I -1 -1 I 

^ > ^ ^ HH 

B 3 *9 hj 2 

^: T^ * g L - cc f* 5 .^ J* 1 1 - w M po w 5' M H9 g 

3> 3.&-E"P*P , v3. H Bp hh 



~# 


II 


m- 


11 


\J~ 


vT 


vT 


\J' 


lii- 


i5^- 


IS^J 


IUj 


.1 


1 


J 


"J 


CI 




II 


11 



192 



CJ d c; H d -. Ci h3 a S 

\JT =vT : vT* t\J~-\JT H\J" : \J^ :vT- -nJ^^ 

iu* iiu liu is^ li^j |^* iu iv^i is^j $ 

a a a a o a a a a g. 

CI II CI CI CI CI CI CI CI t- 



CI -, CI -D C? .^ -, CJ O d o 

\J~ :\J~ \J~ : \J~ : \J~' : \J~-"\_r h\J~* :\T :\J~- : vTL tr* 

L_ "S^* ..!-# "J_ !__# .._ !__ _* ..S- ..!__r ..L_ M 

nil nil nil hU nil nil h^ -O H n H 3J -CI p 



-, 3 -, ci ci c; A -i ci -a a 

\_T :\T \T :\T \T =\T \T :\Jl"vr H\J~ :\J~ : \T- :\J~_< 

iii in in in ci ci ci ci ci cj cj d cj F 



n -, cj ci c; .^ -, !3 -a q * 

vT^ \T \J~' :\T \JT : \jnL--vT' -Kjr -vT* :\J"1 -vT^p: ^ 

...\U ...Ui ...tiJ ...l^f ...l^j ...Uj ...l^f ...UJ ---V^ .--^i **** H- * (ft 

- a _ -1 ~ 

_# I # -LM J -J -# M _J I __#_# M 

\J~' :vT vT' vT' vT' -\j- *\J~ 'vT-"^ HvT 'vT' 'vTl "xJ"-: 

|U* \\^m ISjj |V 'S^j -3^ -L_ -Vj -V-. -Vj .iu -Vlp Ui f^ 

^ z\ 3. -1 -s!3 3 ^ A -, ^ o cj * 

^1 = = "5-* "S-* "^ *-* -^ 8 - J - 1 -' S - J s -' , -' C- 

J *J -J U# -L# !-# 1-^ .L-# .l^# -L-r -U# l_# U# f - 



..Uj ..iu ..Vj Hi^* HUj ..Vj .-Sjj HSjj Hli* Hl^* HitJ Hl^i Hiu " 






g 3 - ?? :0 ^ ) 3, h,4 . 0;, ? ,0 ^ >oE'i-* 



191 



U II 

HL# -II 



55 * X X 

a a !4 a u ^ a U a a n a a 



II II 

55 H i; H X X x 55 <, X 55 X 

hO h!3 J h^J h!3 H Li h!U f h!H h3 h55 



U II ^ _, II ^ 

,a H '^ M a i3 its ^ .4 ^ !j ,55 a a 
ii .^ 

H\/' : ^ t ..?5 L-:vr-"<JT H 5G H g~ 55 ..3- h<j- h^j- 






55 

rj 

a 



H|__, H L-* -^# _# 

55 ^ *L *L 55 -^ -z 55 55 2 

-j \H "23 -j Li ~j ::4 -3 -23 & 



u n 



X^XX5S-58 585gHti 

o ;^T o ,n n 'O IrT o a a -:vr 



n 

. _J _l J 





II 




n 










H 1 -* 




HU 


j 








55 




55 


55 


55 

L# 


55 




:K- 


:- 


ttf 


:l^ 




H 


<G5 


hG5 


hO 




3 


3 


3 


D 




II 




II 










HL-i 




HU 











55 


a 

* 


55 


55 


55 

a 


55 






a 


a 


a 




~j 


^ 


^ 


!^ 


> 














~ 














c 












2 

C3 . . 





\rt Afl Art . : l^-l^ 



^H h hp? ^ hQ H g ho ^ HfJ nrj hC5 hC5 hl5 

!3 
55 

u 

^- ^ jy ^ A <* A +* ' s* A At hl# _i# 

4 55 <M\- & rt-'K ^ ^ J? 15 ^ ^ 55 55 

S a !3 : u - ^ !u Li ^ 53 ^ d 55 n n 

ro i> ~ ^ c 

rt- an ^ 2 co ?t 

HH L, <^, 03 IO tO ?H CC OJ tO t>0 |' 



190 

% 55 52 X X hX 55 . .. g 

'<J- :\3~ :\J- '\T =vT :vT :vT_-\r :\T :\J~ : vT -vl^g! 

,a "D iO 'O 'O iU "U iH O ii J 'U- 'U ^ 

5j a a a a a a a a a a ..g g. 

zj n ci a o ci ci ci ci ci a a % 

55% 55555555h55 55%555Sh 

d -a a u a a a a a a a g 

hU -CI hII nil -O O O hJ nil O -O P 

*5 55 3 55 ^5J5555 H> 5?55^55ft 

a a a a a ..a a a a a a a a E 

II ci ci 'II ci ci ci ci ci ci ci ci ci F 

rT 55 5555 55h%55 35 55.55p? 



D 



a a . a a a -a -a -a a p <i 
%. 5- 

55 55 55 55555555^55 55555555^^ 

a a a a a a a a a a u a ? 



2 .g .2 % 55 % 55 55 ^55 55 55 55 % 

*& -*& H t5 a a a n n a u a a a p 

-J *J 'J *L-r |_# L-r |_j L# L# U U# L# L-# 5"* 

5 i 

%. :^ 

%J~ HO 

G __ D ^ 

55 55 55 3 55555555H3S5S355S5s w 

a u a h d hd d a ^a ^n ^a ^n ^a ^a r- 



o i i h d 

p cc |>s to c f P 3 9^ . to ^ I'L 



3 

n 



189 



3- _- ^M "vi -r, -vJ -~ TQ -O -vJ ^ 



vJ \J -^ =^7 -^Fi ^- Ti ^ -r-i *\J v-i v-# -r=i 

^-i . >-* .. ..vJ ^tj "\J ~ v -' -* \J j -* j -'Vi 



^ ,t^ -, ^ -\J ^ .- 



H 9": 3 : 3 i3 3 :3 :i2 ^3 :3 3 di -52 CI CI 



II II 

-^ ^1 -si* ^Vi "XI -ri 7* -r-i ~-P vJ "^i nu -~ 

^ *s-iJ ,l j- "S .tJ lu ; ,ti ^ ,l j *^ 'S.^i 

i 1" 3 1 3 3 CS -3 .3 3 3 52 .H *% 



II II 

u rt "U u li u , , u u u 

q-.M '3 -H ' >R ' * 

3 ^2 33 C. 3 ^3 3* 

iJ u . . u u ti 4 u 4 u y M 4 u H 

<3 Q ^ :p i- n- r i" - d ^ d ~ ^ 3" 

,=j , J- ^3 3 -5 3 3 CT 3 ^ 3 3 X -l Z\ 



, , U ri U U 1 1 U > , U U U U U 

r3 -3 W -3 -3 IS -3 -rt 3 3 -II II 



II 



q <-i-5 v4-~4 a a 3 4 3 3 

:-} 3 73 3 3 ti 3 .3 3 3 5 



. H Cg CM :H M :H 

Q n*- ; *3 l -- r\ r\ :h :*j 



pa 



u 




^. 




. iJ_ 








"^ 


^J- 


p 


T3 


r*- 


O 




o 


Q 




O 
P 

<5 






j-h, a 



to to q I l cc 



u 


U 


U 


II 




^ 


: ^. 


: ^. 


U 


d 


3 


3 




^f- 


B 


to 


to 


s * 
n 


M^ 


B 


M* 





O 




*2- 



188 






CI II 



^3 ,._o r I 



D 






w 



_^ 13 .13 c; n -3 S3 13 o 

U U U U U U hU u u u u ^ 



4 u 4 u 4 u u u H 4 4 u u u ^ 

.- : . 

zi fi 



3 zi zi !j zi zi ff zi n zi if P 



u u 


u 


-<3. j 


3 


H_^ H-f 


H-i* 


ci a 


CJ 



C* Lj C# l# C# l* l? C# l# J" - 



2 



T3 * H ^ co 

*B P CC tO tO c H W . w !*> ^> to 



a 



C3 cr 

00 QQ 



H 



\J \J\J ^ taJ aJ aj ^ ^ aj aJ XI d <j 

L^ :L^ U#- IU |U# IL-#- !_-#- L* ILr |L_r- |L-#- & ZZ* 

CI CI CI CI CI CJ CI CI CI CI CI P ^ 



o 






o 

fa p 

g- 

U U CJ-' : y r -aBpSe^; ,^_ 

T3 



ca 



- 187 - 





F. Verbs J 


'P 




lophal. 


Hiphil. 


Niphal. 


Kal. 


04) 


E^J 


T* 


Bfjjl 


fctyjl 


H|n 




te^n 


na#an 

t : - : 


ru#an 

t : - 


t : - T 


t : - 


W|J 


12^2 


war 
i * 


^f! 


ruitfin 

t : - : 


t : - 


nSffaR 

t : -t 


rtt;n 



Bfr 



ne/ao 



ntfao 



D v tf3D 

t ! 
t : 



&$3 

n^ag 

or 

ntfag 

D^ap 

nWao 



Eta 

T * 

ntfu 

T T 
or 

cPBfa 

T 



mcfgoi 

t : 

or 

nzfai 

nWM 



,\ 



186 





F. Verbs 3*B 




Elophal. 


Hiphil. 


Niphal. 


Kal. 


Wan 


Wan 


Wi3 


50 


ntfyi 

t : - : 


t : - 


nd;: 

t : - 


o po 

K 


W*? 


wan 


F]#i3 




efan 


e^an 


Bf4) 


2 3- 


ntfan 

t : : 

1 


nghan 

T * * 
1 




c 


Win 


U^n 


wy 




on?fan 


on#an 


DR^D 


5- 8 


}n#an 


jn^jn 


jrw#aj 


5 so 

SO J ' 

2- 


Wfn 


Wan 


W|3 


- 


#3n 


#an 


Bflaa, Eton 

.7 T . 


eflaa 

T 


tfan 


Ef|PJ 


Eton 

"T ' 


ntfa 




Eton 


Eton 

T * 


(Efa) ^ 




W^an 


Wain 


n#o wa 




*fij 


wain 

:it- 


Wf 




nj#an 

t : - 


t : r 


rah 


&i% 


Ef3K 


"TV 


&m 


efap 


efas 


Eton 

"T * 


Efan 


waa 


^fe 


>efajn 

:it 


wan 


b 


tf!K 


tfljf 

T 


tf-p 


efap 


Bf|0 


Eton 

"T ' 


tfan 



185 

E. Verb N'C D. Verb Lamed Guttural. 

Kal. Kal. 

tjjgj jnj}#3 Fut. 1. c. plur. 

ru^rtfn rojratfn 2. f. 

t: - t : - . * 

t: - t : - : * 

Apoc. Fut. 

*1D^1 br^"1 Fut. ^ av Coriv, 

^x jjdIe? Pres - Part - 

'ST* * m. s. 



t : t. 



or 



VlrX JflC5> Past. Part. 



n^2N n;p3# 



184 



E. Verb N'C D. Verb Lamed Guttural. 

Kal. Kal. 

hh VWDttf Pret. 1. c. sing 

i : - t 



m. t^: - t 



9 



m. 



M 



* I 



2. f. 



a 



PD 

S3 
P- 

$ 

a * rmnttf 3. f. 



nj/Qty 



I7D&* 3. m - 



S3- Htf 



*t : it 

o q Wj?Dtf Lcplur. 



* 



jq y v *: - : 

2. f. 



$a pa 



CD 



tyDttf 3. c. 



bira | # , Vfep Inf - abs - 

e-K |_j l^ ^ I 

^rN s- ^ J1P$ Inf const - 



CD & 
g O P 

Sns> i^ J7D$ Imp. m. sing. 



L 



*\5. 



&2N I**? WW m ' plur ' 



CD~ W 



tew 3:1 W. 



3. m. 



p-2 

CD 



O 






183 



C. Verbs Ayin Guttural. 



Hithpael. 



t : -t : 

:it : 

t : -t : 



Pual. 



t : - : 



runam 

t : - : 



Piel 



inan 

:it : 

ruynan 

t : - t : 
:it: 

ru;rofl 

t : -t : 



Niphal. 



t : - t 

":it 

t: - t 



Kal. 

t : - : 



t: 



TV? 



nnariD 

t :it : 

I or 



DTnanD* 



mnariD 

:it : 



TO TW 



nznar; 

t t : 

I or 

t : 

ntnao 



.-cod 

t :it : 
I or 

v vt : 

DCOD 

nCaa 



t : 
t t : 

t : 



?' I or 

T 



182 



Hithpael. 



: -t : 

nytann 

t : -t : 
: : -t : 



t : 

ro*onn 

t : it : * 

uznann 

: -t : 



Dnrronn 

v : - t : 

jro*OOn 

onaon 

: it : 



t : 

T-iann 

:it : 
:it : 

njyonn 

t : ~T : 



C. Verbs 
Pual. 

'JTO'o 

n2l2 

t : - 

1-12-52 
-T12 ( 

H212 

t : 

1J2-52 
Dn2"12 



Ayin Guttural. 
Piel. Niphal. 



O-O 



T]12 



VTP'o 
n"ro 

t : - 

)-p2. 
H212 

t : 

uyio 

rg-G 
jrQ"0 

1212 



t : - : 

r6Ett 

T - : : 









"T * 

-:it 

1212 &NE*f1 

:it -:it 

niya ru^wsfn 

t : - t t : - t 



"TO 

:it 



Kal. 

: - t 
t : - t 
: : - t 

~ T 

t -:it 
: - t 

&KE* 

- :it 

T 

^KE* 
^KE* 

~:r 



N 



t : 

2i2nn 

:it : 



""p3^ TJ"12}? : 



TO 



TO! 



"T V 

bm f n 

" T ' 

' ~IT 

""NE* 

*T ' 



^E''n 

bE^ 

^E'n 



181 



Hophal. 
"ft) 

rtpjgn 

nncyn 

t :-^:it 

npyp 
rngyo 

T r'TlT 

onoro 
nlnogp 

t'tiit 



B. 

Hiphil. 

vrojen 



nncyn 

"nay 

~:r 

rrreyD 
nnpgD 

~-.r 

rrtrpm 



Verbs Pe Guttural. 
Niphal. Kal. 

2t]Jp pim aiJJFat.l.c.FL 

Olp iptnn otse 2. m. 
nJ3]j;n rupthn ru^n 2. t 

Q]! it>VV m OtJE B.m. 

ru^fon ruptnn nijtan 3, f. 

t :-t t|:- V :v T ! *f- 

Apoc. Fut. 



TO 

l' 'or 

row: 



caw J 

t v:i v 

maw: 

tv:iv 



2|t; Pres. Part. 

^ m. 8. 

naty * 

t : 

lor 

D^atj? m- pi- 

maty f- 

Slty Past Part. 

na^s 

t -: 



180 





B. Verbs Pe Guttural. 




Hophal. 


Hiphil. 


Niphal. 


Kal. 




UTTO 


^lojgi 


"Pjfe 


^SJJ : 


Pret. I.e. Sing. 


morn 

t : - *t:it 


PHDJM 

t :":v 


rain 


t : -T- 


2. m. 


mran 

: : - t:it 


CTjCSP 


W& 


P3IJJ 


2. f. 


- "TtlT 


i^?^ 


3SgJ 


au? 


3. m. 


t : *T IT 


JTTpgn 


"TO 


n ?$ 


3. f. 


Utqsp 

: -*t:it 


trjoyn 


u *% 


3JJ} 


1. c. Plur. 


DRHDOTl 

v : - *t:it 


Drnsyn 


npi^j 


ona^ 


2.m. 


1 v : " t" :it 


jn-ipyn 


I^W 


tnaij? 


2. f. 


ttgyn 


iT'pyn 


Q]# 


my 

:it- 


3. c. 




TDJJp 3lT^, aijjn 


311^ 


Inf. abs. 




"Trajjn 


awp 


312 


const. 



"I02p 

n TPsn 



3,120 p!Q 212. Imp - m - sin ^- 
own ^n 'aw * 





FPQJJp 


W1 

:it " 


ipin Q]2 


m. plur. 




t :-- c :r 


t : -T- 


rupin ' 

t): : 


f. 


ID^g 


TDgjj* 


aura 


pirn 3wn 


Fut. 1 c. sing 


"1D2P 

-t:it 


-ropsp 


aujC! 


pinn awn 


2. m. 


m?i5 


TPfijp 


awn 

:nT-- 


^pinn ^yin 


' 2. f. 


- 'tiit 


TPiy 


=ffi?:i 


pirr 212: 


3. m. 


-"t:it 


TPJZP 


3KJS3 


pjnn 3i2P 


3.1 







- 179 








A. REGULAR VERBS. 




Hithpael. 


Hophal. 


Hiphil. 


Pual. 


Piel 


^Sj2BJ 


b m 


^IPJ33 


^>$ 


^pJ 


&pflFl 


6cpj?n 


^8?f?0 


^TO 


fccppB 


t : )- : 




n ^S?p : Q 




nj*?pn 


m^pnn 

t : "J- : 


ro^epn 

t : - ): t 




ni^pp 


rch&pp\ 


rtepriD 

t : |- : 

> 1 or 


t |: t 

rhwn 

t t|: t 
> 1 or 

rbapn 

V V 1 : T 


n^Dpc 

t I: - 

> 1 or 

npcopD 


^PR9 
rfaspp 

T I ' cr 


*?&pp 

"tepP 

> 1 or 

rropp 


D^tpp_rp 


D^DpD 

t ): t 


D^Pj?0 


D^ispo 

t j; : 


D^pl? 


m^epnp 


ntf?opD 

t 1: t 

hwv also 


m^ppp 


nfepp 


mbtppp 



178 - 





A. REGULAR VERBS. 




Hithpael. 


Hophal. 


Hiphil. 


Pual. 


Piel. 


t : _ |~ : 


: -): t 
t : - |: t 


nbipn 

t : - J: 


r6p 


^p 

nbp 


p^ppn 


i^opn 

: : - ): t 


ptepn 


l^lgp 


$>p 


^Bpon 


^9pn 


^ppn 


^i? 


^p 


rtepnn 


n^cjpn 

t : |: t 


n^ipn 

t |: 


n^ep 


r6p 


l^Bprin 


: - ): t 


Vj?n 


uVibp 


^p 


ontepijn 


v : _ l : t 


rtepn 


nn'pBp 


Dn"?Bp 


|n^>prin 


jrVpBpn 

^pq 


jfi^Opn 


}n"?p 

6p 


|n"?Bp 
&p 




^S?f?n 


^>pn 


*?Bp 


"?p 


^isppn 


^pn 


^>pn 


?P 


^>p 


^prw? 




^pn 




^p 


^prn 
fcpr>i 




l^Bpn 




^p 
>p 


rc^Bpnn 

t : r : 




ru^opn 

t : !: " 




n$p 


bepnn 


^>f?N 

^pn 


"^pN 


'^BpS 
?Pfl 


^pB 

^pfl 


fypppi? 


^pn 


^PPS 


^BpP 


^BpP 


^pw 


^|7t 


^pp: 


^P"! 


^P? 


^eppn 


^plp 


/'epn 


^prp 


^P? 





177 








A. REGULAR VERBS. 




Niphal. 


Kal 






^?$! 


"I3?J 


bop; J 


Pntl.c.Plur, 


J 1 


ri3?n 


tepn 


2. in. 




-ram 

T I * 


n$Dj?p 


2. f. 


; JlT" 


ii??. 1 


toppi 


3. in. 


n^gj^n 


t : - : 




3.f. 

ipoc. Fut. 


ty?J 


133 

T 


^$?'p : 


Pres. Part. 

m. 8. 


nbvpi 

t t): 


n "??r 


nVpp 


f. 


r_ 1 or 




> I - r 




t ): 


a -1 !?? 


abvp 


111. pi. 


rrt^ppj 


rfl"03 


rfhpp 


f. 






^sjp ] 


Past Part. 

hi. b. 






n^cop 

T ) * 


f. 






D^ ! KDp 


m. pi. 


, 




ntef? 


f. 







- 176 - 






A. REGULAR VERBS. 


Niphal. 




Kal 






Middle Cholem. 


Middle Tsere. 




i n 1 ?bpJ 


: t 


: - t 


Tl^Op Pret. l.c.Sing. 


^fepA 


t : t 


t : _ t 


P\b6p 2. m. 
t : -|t 


flfopJ 


: : t 


mas 

: : - t 


nbcsp 2. f. 

: : - It 


tepj 


*=$ 


"03 

T 


^ 3. m. 


T :|: 


t :it 


mys 

t :it 


n?cop 3. f. 

t : Iit 


u<>bpJ 


: t 


:- t 


U^tDp 1. o. Plur. 
: ~ |t 


Qpbvpz. 


v ' t : 


DR"p3 


an^ep 2. m. 


jn^Dpj 


)*&% 


}ni35 


jntef? 2. f. 


6r?pj 


:it 


*T03 

:it 


^Dp 3. c 

: Iit 


JBp^Bgn 


to 

T 




b)p Inf - abs - 


It 






?GDp const. 


"It* 






/COp I m P- m - sing- 


: |it 






^Pp f - 


6c?jpn 






6c?p m - P lur - 


t : - It 






n$op i- 


JfpjjJK 




"0? 


*?CDp5>? Fnt - * c - sin ^' 


biP||n 




-rapn 


?ropr) 2 - m - 


^PBP 




1_ ]3?ri 


^c?pn 2. f. 


fcp 




"135"! 


JBpi 3 -m. 


tepn 




~ra:?n 


topn 3.f. 



JT * 



PARADIGMS. 



- 174 

2. Derivative; these are formed 

a. from nouns, either with or without prefixes and suffixes : "Q 1 ? 

"in separation" * "alone," T"^ "in my separation" * "I 
alone;" pTTD "without," ^20 "within," ""JIT "union," 
"junction" * "together." Some adverbs are formed by ap- 
pending Q^ (or Q") to the noun : Qjp^ (from jft^ "truth") 
"in truth," "truly;" UT\ (from jfi '"'favor") "gratuitously," 
"for nothing ;" Qpfi "by day;" QNnS "suddenly." 

b. from adjectives or ptoftwijsles, especially from those of the 
feminine gender : ftjjeftn "first," "before;" ft3") "much," 
"enough;" H^WT "Jewishly," "in the Jewish tongue;" 
ni*6BJ "wonderfully." 

c. from verbs, especially from the infinitive Hiphil : tiSTV] 

"much," 2t\ "well ;" frequently the adverb is expressed by 
a finite verb (see 16, 4 and 5, and 17, 4). 

d. from pronouns : ft| "this," HT2 "in this place" * "here." 

24. INTERJECTIONS. 
The exclamations of grief: ^ , ifi , HH , Flfig, iTiK, "6^K, 
IK, PWt, "oftT "twe/" "afa*/" are usually followed by $ : 
)27 IK "woe unto us!" (I. Sam. 4, 8), Tlb'^ "woe unto 
thee!" (Ecc. 10, 16), ^ tyfa "woe unto me" (Job 10, 15), 
nVV "tfTX nr "alas, o Eternal God !" ( Jud. 0, 22). rk\M 
is an exclamation of triumphant joy or derision ( Ps. 35, 21 ; 
Eze. 25, 3). ^2 is an exclamation of urgent request : ^jHK "2 
"O my Lord" (Ex. 4, 10): |fl and fQf] "lo!" "behold)" with 
suffixes : ^JH "behold, I" : ^ ]pfH UJTI "behold, I give 
unto him" (Numb. 25, 12), ^H "behold, here I am" (Gen. 
22, 1). 



173 f 

s jaii *s Dpi;, r? bji p by ^- ntfi n^y *& "because thou 

hast don<5 this" (Gen. 3, 14), DHOW?^? ]T "because you have 
despised" (Numb. 11, 20), *>21p2 ^V? PiP? ^JJ "because our 
God is not among us" (Deut. 31, 17). ">3 and l&J^ are sometimes 
conditional, "if:" &HC32f\ ^2 "if a man steal"- (Ex. 21, 37), 1W 
COPE! Vb$& "if your children ask" (Josh. 4, 21) ; but while CK is 

v * : I t : 

merely conditional, ^ and HEW convey also the idea of time and 
can be rendered by "when." 

The conjunction "if" is yet expressed by )H (HA""!), and by the 
prefix 1 : G"5L/ ; n iyjJS JO "if I shut up the heavens" (II. Chron. 7, 
13), DiSTJ n^GSn T&2N] "if I ate a sin offering this day" (Lev. 
10, 19). 

>3 after a negation means "but:" HUH ^HN DPin^ QFlN~fr6 

^n^jSn "O "not you have sent me hither, but God" (Gen. 45, 8) ; in 

this sense, CK is most frequently joined to ^3 : "ill? H2fcT 3piT_fcO 

^"^"CN "E T pP "thy name sna11 be called no more Jacob, but 

Israel" (Gen. 32, 29). 

22. COPULATIVE AND DISJUNCTIVE PARTICLES 

IN PAIRS. 

n , Drcu , cyrqa , "irp lyp? ' ^"P " a,s ^ ? - a5 >" " M - 

and;" V"lXn rHifcO} "TP1 "both for the stranger and for the native 

) vtt -:v: -: , 
of the land" (Numb. 9, 14;, ?KHEP~$3 QJ) DPfcTCy! "both ye and 

the children of Israel" (Ex. 12, 31), jpHIJJl Hp.?p "both young and 

old" (Gen. 19, 4). 

&6 DJ-QJ "neither nor:" fPJT *6 Tjb"D^ ^"D-I "it shall be 

- - v: r It - 

neither mine nor thine" (I. Kings 3, 26). 

ifrTiN, D6TDN, DKTD8 "either or" "whether or:" "QrDN 
... TT 

i"Qpj~CN "whether it be a male or a female" (Lev. 3, 1), 3iCD"CN 
STTDNI "whether it be good or evil" (Ecc. 12, 14). 

23. ADVERBS. 
1. The adverbs are either primitive, as: 7^5 and ^7 "not," f^ "then,'' 
fig "here," C$ "there," or mostly 



172 

4. ]ft (ft) is sometimes used as a negation before the infinitive 

(see 17, 2, o. 

5. b>2 & ^2 ; ^3 is poetical for fc&: njjjo-^j "thou hast not 
withholden" (Ps. 21, 3), ftlSN"^? "I 'shall not totter" (Ps. 
10,6); v2 "without" "because not" so that not," stands be- 
fore nouns and verbs : \)*\2/ v2 "without clothing" (Job 24, 
10), ^ rby "bsO "because the Eternal was not able" (Deut. 
9, 28)1 

6. The conjunction Q^ "if" nas a negative meaning after such 
verbs or phrases which express an oath, an adjuration, or an 
imprecation : H-'p ^^H'CN flSHD ^H "by the life of Pharaoh, 
you shall not go forth hence" (Gen. 42, 15), T)S^Efa~T0jJ 
TITOD"^* IfcOTDN "JO " so tllat I swore in my wrath 

t : v I : - : 

that they should not enter into my rest" (Ps. 95, 11). All 

these clauses are elliptical, the full form is : ^nEfiJ'T'TD 

dIti vby ye^K wtin Iestdk ppv rioi wrhk "God 

t t t -v: ~:r I- : v: 

do so and more also to me, if the head of Elisha shall remain 

on him this day !" (II. Kings 6, 31). fcO"CK is affirmative : 

D2b PIEWK D *6~CN ^Xm "as truly as I live, if I will 

v t v v:iv ! t 

not do so unto you" ^ I will do (Numb. 14, 28). 
21. OTHER PARTICLES OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES. 
^2 and TW "that" in objective clauses : ^3 )$}fiV} and -JEW UJDttf 

v ~: : - t v ~: : ~ t 

"we have heard that." IVJK indicates also a design or purpose or cause: 
ISDfh Vb "tttfN "that they may not understand" (Gen. 11, 
7), ip nj^jj "TB^ "because David did" (I. Kings 15, 5). This 
is more fully expressed by the particles JjP, J^u? > nOJ?3 with or 

without ngftt: n^^y""1^N % ST "because thou hast done"' (Gen. 22, 

v t: t t |V. - : I v 

16),TO2f^ "W?8 JS9? "that they teach you not" (Deut. 20, 18), 
y"in TD1Q "that thou inayest know" (Ex. 9, 14). ijgjj is also 
joined to other particles: -|gfg nflH , IB^g ^J7, "lEffc HdI ^J, 
""tttftf DOT i h#jj ^JS(? "fceeattfe;" the same is expressed by *), 



- 171 - 

would make me judge!" (II. Sam. 15, 4); frequently the 
phrase |FP ^p is used : "D3 }n?"^p "would it were morning!" 
(Deut. 28, 67), pBfTQjg tf'Tn t&TV " oh that f ou woul(1 
keep silent !" (Job 13. 5). 
3. By the particle QN "if" but more frequently by ^ "oh if!" 
"oh that!" (utinam) followed either by the Future, Preterite, or 
Imperative : Ufch Hl^K ^prTQ8 "oh that thou wouldst 
slay the wicked, o God !" (Ps.*139, 19), IJ^fl t>) "oh that we 
had died!" ^XJfifi -b nFWTDN "oh that thou wouldst hear 
me!" (Gen. 23,13). 

. 20. PARTICLES OF NEGATIVE SENTENCES. 

The most important particles of negation are : 

1. fcp and 7^ ; $0 is used before the Preterite and Future, ^ 
only before the Future, mostly in prohibitions : ^Fvrfcs frO > 

2 * ]'^ ' ^9 ' OTjSS) DBN : PN is the negative of P and in- 
cludes, the copula (see 1, b) : TQ2 Hp'T"]^ "Joseph was 
not in the pit" (Gen. 37, 29) ; it occurs before nouns, infini- 
tives, and participles ; when the subject is a personal pronoun, 
it is appended as a suffix to the particle j^ (see 18, 3). 
^H /2 mostly occurs before an infinitive : Plt^!? Tv J? ' TvZl 



7JP "not to do." 
rrfO Uriot yet" is mostly used before the Future, to which it gives 
the signification of the Past, (see 12, 4, b.) : QSlfh DTD 
"they had not yet laid down" (Gen. 19, 4). 
DDK "no farther" "no more," "not" "nothing" "only": E?^ 
DlpD "no more place" (Isa. 5, 8), ^HiNIp DDK "not by me" 
(Isa. 54, 15), TQVrnK DDK! "but only the word" (Numb. 
22, 35), ^3 DDK "only that," '"'however" (Numb. 13, 28). 
3. jB "lest" usually stands before the Future (see 12, 5). 



170 

b. the immediate Future (which is considered as present) : jH? 
D ^h rr6? "Sarah shall bear thee a son" (Gen. 17, 19). 

e. the Past: 2& CDI^l "and Lot was sitting" (Gen. 19, 1), QH 
QTTO& QP^P " the J em ptied their sacks" (Gen. 42, 35). 
In this sense, the verb HM is frequently added, especially 
in the later books of the Bible : jfTED YT*1 "and he was grind- 
ing" (Jnd. 16, 21), rhv TW1 "and I was going up" (Neh. 
2, 15). 

3. When the subject of the Participle is a personal pronoun, it is 
sometimes appended as a suffix to the particles P and T^s : 
rfpEto 1&J n "DN "if thou wilt send," H?P? Sfr&TCW "but if 
thou wilt not send" (Gen. 43, 4 and 5). 

4. In sentences which express a general truth (proverbs), the Parti- 
ciple includes the subject and the relative pronoun : ifVDIK 131? 
Db"1DI1 D'P'H Hlipi tU^T^JSO] "he that tilleth his land 
shall be satisfied with bread ; but he that pursueth vain things is 
void of understanding" (Prov. 12, 11). 

5. As a noun, the Part, can stand in the construct state and have 
suffixes : \$SF) TO "the doers of his will" * "those who do his 
will" (Ps. 103, 21), mgptf ^ "the Eternal is our judge" (Isa. 33, 
22), ^ OH2 "the blessed of the Eternal" (Isa. 65, 23). 

6. The Participle passive has frequently the signification of an ad- 
jective or of the Part. pass. Fut. (in Latin : ndus) ^"11 J (metuen- 
dus) "terrible," TpHD (laudandus) "praiseworthy," K1DJ (crean- 
dus) "to be created" (Ps. 102, 19). 

19. OPTATIVE SENTENCES. 
The Optative is expressed : 

1. By the paragogic Future and the particle frO (see 13, 1 and 3). 

2. In the form of a question : 02^ "^BTpD " ol * that they 



169 

b is sometimes omitted: WQp OKl6 (Isa. 30, 9). 

c) |0 means because, since, but is mostly used negatively : that 
not, without: " rQHKb "because the Eternal loved" (Deut. 
7, 8), irf?EHp "since lie had sent" (I. Chron. 8, 8), JTQTYI 
n^"l*0 WSJ "and his eyes were dim, so that he could not 
see" (Gen. 27, 1). 

d) IV "until" b]!_ "because" : Tplfcj "iy "until thou returaest" 
(Gen. 3, 19), DDTJP*?!? "because they have forsaken" (Jer. 9,12). 

3. The verb n*H , the particles P and pfc$ and the interrogative pro- 
noun HO followed by 7 and the Inf. constr., indicate that an 
action is about to take place or should soon be done: Z^WH ^iTl 
K'bS "and the sun was going down" (Gen. 15, 12), *|J?$n TF1 
TUG*? "&<* the gate was to be shut" (Josh. 2, 5), nifctyb pfe 
"what is to be done" (II. Kings 4, 13), b)$h pK "there is none 
to redeem it" (Euth 4, 4). 

4. As the Hebrew language is deficient in adverbs, the Inf. constr. is 
often joined with a finite verb which is then rendered adverbially : 
rf?EJ HD*! "be added to send forth" * he sent forth again" (Gen. 
8, 10), nn&6 TiEW tfb "I shall not return to destroy" * "I shall 

- : T 

not destroy again" (Hos. 11, 9). But frequently both verbs are 
finite : ISfTl p^T 38^1 "and Isaac digged again" (Gen. 26, 18). 

18. THE PARTICIPLE. 

1. The Participle participates in the nature, of the verb, the noun, 
and the adjective, and can, therefore, be considered as a verb, a 
noun, and an adjective. 

2. As a verb, it denotes the following tenses : 

a. generally the Present : Trhb DEfi 1 AHX jjffTD " wh . v * tllou 
sitting alone?" (Ex. 18, 14), frG THl T^'D Tfl "one gen<> 
ation passeth away, and another generation cometh" (Ecc. 1,4). 



168 . 
'Joseph has surely been torn" (Gen. 37, 33), ^ Tp""^ TTQ'^- 
"for the Eternal shall greatly bless thee" (Deut. 15, 4), yift^ flflp# 
"hearken diligently" (Isa. 55, 2). 

2. The Inf. abs. is often used for a finite verb, especially for an 
Imperative : rO^H DV"H^ ""O "remember the sabbath day" 
(Ex. 20, 8). 

3. The Inf. abs. is sometimes used instead of the Inf. construct : 
7]ibn QtTjt6l " for tlie y would not walk" (Isa. 42, 24). 

4. The Inf. abs. is sometimes used adverbially : j"0"in OnjT"! ) "y 

have sown much" (Hag. 1, 6), 3C0^"| IfcHT) "they shall inquire 

:it: 

diligently" (Deut. 19, 18). 

5. The idea of continuation or gradual progress is especially denoted 
by the Inf. abs. of the verb T] /H "to go" : 3ftfi Tj^h DPSH OBfa 
"and the waters returned continually" (Gen. 8, 3), GH3N 570^1 
H2Jiin yiD^I TTPH "and Abram journeyed, going on still toward 

T : v - - ' : ) T 

the south" (Gen. 12, 9). 

17. INFINITIVE CONSTRUCT. 

1. The Infinitive construct is a verbal noun and occurs, consequently, 

in all cases, with suffixes and prepositions : "HP^ UV "the day 

of thy going out" (Deut. 16, 3), UPCb ^TIN "after their going" 

t : v :i- 

(II. Sam. 17, 21). 

2. The Inf. constr. preceded by the prefixes Q 7 3 3 or other pre- 
positions, is usually translated by a finite verb : 

a) 3 ail d D express the idea of time, 3 generally referring to the 
present, 3 to the past : 7|rV33 "Hn3CQ "when thou sittest 
in thy house" (Deut. 6, 7), "JniN DHifrTG "when they saw 
him" (Jud. 14, 11). 

b) 7 means to, that, so that, because: y'ftp? ON iOl "and they 
were not willing to hearken" (Eze. 20, 8), inipS "that he 
may know" (Isa. 7, 15). 



167 

lengthened nor shortened: ^HlpJ? ^ , "'^5"'' , "* e * ^y servant speak" 
(Gen. U, 18). 

14 VA V CONVERSIVE. 

1. The Future with Vav conversive which is, at the same time, a con- 
junction, always follows another verb ; as this preceding verb is 
generally in the Preterite, the converted Future denotes the 
historical Past, but it may also indicate : a) the Present, when 
preceded by a Participle : blXPi*} HID Tj^H Hjjl "behold, the 
king weepeth and mourneth" (II. Sam. 19, 2) ; b) the Pluperfect, 
when preceded by a Preterite with the signification of a Pluper- 
fect: 3pjr PDEfa "and that Jacob had obeyed" (Gen. 28, 7). 

2. The books and chapters of the Bible generally begin with a con- 
verted Future, because they are considered as continuing a pre- 
ceding narrative. 

15. THE IMPERATIVE. 

1. The Imperative which is connected by ) with a preceding Impera- 
tive or Future, frequently expresses the consequence of the pre- 
ceding verb and is 'translated in the Potential Mode: ^SITI 
,Trn ?pSD "and he shall pray for thee that thou may est live" 
(Gen. 20, 7), Z3to"fcw ^ ^6p W!2p "hearken diligently 
unto me, and ye shall eat that which is good" (Isa. 55, 2), "V2$ 
iTm ^ITl^uD "keep my commandments, that thou mayest live" 
(Prov. 7, 2). 

2. As the Imperative is not used negatively, prohibitions and dissua- 
sions are expressed by the Future with fcO or ^X (see ^. 12,6, a.): 
ntyyprvb "thou shalt not make" (Ex. 20, 4), fcty'FT'PNl "and do 
not" (Gen. 22, 12). 

16. INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE. 
1. The Infinitive absolute which either precedes or follows a finite 
verb, expresses intensity, certainty, duration : HDV ^HtO ^HlO 



166 

die" (Gen. 3, 3), fafcO "we may eat" (Gen. 3, 2.), "Dtf^T) 
"who can say?" (Prov. 20, 9). 
5. The Imperative : a) in prohibitions and dissuasions, as the 
direct Imperative is never used negatively : Pl^H fcO "thou 
shalt not kill" (Ex. 20, 13), 7]T ["I^FT^N "lay not thy 

I :it - : 

hand" (Gen. 22, 12) ; b) for the third person of the Imperative, 
and for the Imperative of the passive voice, for which there 
are no special forms : "DSP Q^JK7 V2W) "he shall serve six 
years" (Ex. 21. 2), ^DD^ TlBfn " the ox sna11 be stoned" 
(Ex. 21, 29). 

13. PARAGOGIC AND APOCOPATED FUTURE. 

1. The paragogic Future, generally used with the first person, ex- 
presses: a) self-exitation, ivillingness (see Lesson 39, 1); b) a wish 

i 
or a request : TjlJIND iTDi?^ "let me pass through thy land'' 

(Deut. 2, 27)/fcO"rn?W "let us pass, I pray" (Numb. 20. 17); 

c) & purpose, when preceded by the conjunction 1 "that" : HiHfcO 

D^lEDO"nN "that I may know their number" (I Chron. 21, 2). 

2. The apocopated Future, which occurs in all the conjugations of the 
verbs H'-V > i n K&l Y'JJ an( l in the Hiphil of all verbs, expresses 
an order, a wish, a prohibition, a purpose; it is used : a) to supply 
the third person of the Imperative : Tj^ TV "let there be light" 
(Gen. 1, 3), in^H Ntfin "let the earth bring forth" (Gen. 1, 24) ; 
b) after the particle 7^ , and sometimes after $fr : CCQFT^ "look 
not" (I. Sam. 16, 7), JJDB^ HpK &6 "I will not hear again" 
(Deut. 18, 16) ; c) after the conjunction 1 "that" : "O^j "that he 
may take away" (Ex. 8, 4), 3&H "that may turn away" (Numb. 
25, 4) ; d) after Yav conv. (see Lesson 38). 

3. The particle ^J is added to such forms which can neither be 



, 165 

12. THE FUTURE, 
The Future denotes : 

1. The Simple Future: ntf-TH f^iTT*? }Pfc? ^]T) % b "unto thy 
descendants shall I give this land" (Gen. 12, 7). 

2. The Future Perfect: lPTM"!"^ ffiD*T 1W IV "until all 

t-.it t : it v -; 

the flocks be [shall have been] gathered together" (Gen. 29, 8). 

3. The Present, in verbs which express a general truth, or an idea 
of quality or frequency (comp. 11, 2) : JH^ $Q "I know not" 
(I.Kings 3, 7), DNTI!?^ DDP1 ]2 "a wise son rejoices his 
father" (Prov. 10, 1). 

4. The Past : 

a. in such actions or states which were customary or habit- 
ual, or frequently repeated in the past (what the English 
language expresses by "used to do" or "would do") : 

rw r^ya n#n etn ,*?*ofcr9 ^h6 r** unn utFi 

v -:i _ t : tt- t : : Ivv I r t- 

"in those days there was no King in Israel : every man 
did [would do] that which was right in his eyes" (Jud. 

21, 26), DTjirrfei Di'N n&w rds "thus did [would doj 

7 - T V -:i" T 7 

Job continually" (Job 1, 5). 

b. after the adverbs of time ]tf , U1D and D"XD2 : H JT 1 IN 

, T . vv v . v . : < 

VEfiiT "then Joshua built" (Josh. 8, 30), QID DTDN 131 

H3D 1 "and the lamp of God had not yet gone out" (I. 

Sam.3,3), tfdn D"l6^ "before thou earnest" (Gen. 27, 33). 

t vv : 

c. with Yav conversive (see 14, 1, and Lesson 38). 

5. The Subjunctive and Potential Modes, especially when preceded by 
the particles -ffifot , Jjob , '3., 1 (that), }B (lest): j6 H# 
WP^ "that they may not understand" (Gen. 11, 7), jjju? 
rOW "that ye may remember" (Numb. 15, 40), TJ^N ^3 "that 

I should go" (Ex. 3, 11), pjyi ^ Bh fc6 "God is not a 
man, that he should he" (Numb. 23, 19), flnOTHB "lest ye 



164 
I have given [I shall give] into thy hand" (Josh. 8, 1), 
^3J ilbH Q? "therefore my people will go into exile" 
(Isa. 5, 13). 

4. The SUBJUNCTIVE AND POTENTIAL MODES: 'h 

UHI? "that we had died" (Numb. 14, 2), DnEhn $bb 
TOT! Dn^aO vb TbxiS ' <if 7 e lmd not plowed with 

t v 7 : t : v: 

my heifer, ye would not have found out my riddle" (Jud. 
14, 18). 

5. WITH VA V CONVERSIVE it denotes : 

a. The Future, when it follows a verb in the Future tense, 
or a verb or phrase expressing futurity, or a conditional 

clause : ntfi in^N now nnsasn Tina wrvs rrni 

: : i t : : - ) t : tt : 

^Pfcs l!H<"Vi "and it shall come to pass, when the Egyp- 
tians shall see thee and say, this is his wife, they will kill 
me" (Gen. 12, 12), UTT1 UHK jBjSl UTW ^T2N "if 
our youngest brother be with us, we will go down" (Gen. 
44, 26), QnyTl D^y "in the evening you will know" 
(Ex. 16, 6). 

b. The Subjunctive Mode : Til *?2N1 Plp^l IT H^^iS 

- 7 - 7 : I -7 : 7 - : I v 

"lest he put forth his hand, and take, and eat, and live" 
(Gen. 3, 22). 

c. The Imperative, in connection with a direct Imperative 

or a conditional sentence: njJO^l "te$ "observe and 

T : .~ T : . . 

hear" (Dent. 12, 28), HDv^ ITEM EHi"! TV2 fllMI % 2 

|v-:i- 7 7 : 77 - v : 

*ZlHjb "when thou bulkiest a new house, then thou shalt 
make a parapet around thy roof" (Deut. 22, 8), PRT2N 
1170233 HIOjI I 4 ? "if he have nothing, he shall be sold 

7 *; - : : 

for his theft" (Ex. 22, 2). 



_ 163 

another" (Ex. 10, 23), flpB *6 nHW*l HEW "they miss not one 
another" (Isa. 34 16). 
3. Somebody, anybody is expressed by ETN and Q~l^ , nobody by 
*6"ETN or &Vr*b , kVdTJT 1 i anytoMigr by TBT^a or 

7^ T 7 T 7 7 

now? ' ^ an y 'v w^js or ssto #* by tstj^ , -re? 

t : t : I 7 : 7 ) 7 7 I 77 

THE VERB. 

The two tenses of the verb, the Preterite and the Future, denote 
almost all the conceptions of time and mode. 

11. THE PRETERITE. 
The Preterite denotes : 

1. The FAST. 

a. The Perfect: aiTM ifcO HD "what have they seen in 
thy house?" (II. Kings 20, 15). 

b. The Historical Past : hfaj 1 ? ITH 0TB "Naboth had a 

t : 77 

vineyard" (I. Kings 21, 1). 

c. The Pluperfect: jOpH 1X3 k HEW""^ HN JTW "and 

! 7 I 7 - : 77 v -; 

he knew what his youngest son had done unto him (Gen. 
9, 24), 3pJPT^ prjjT "TJTnS lfcty KTQ "when Esau 
saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob" (Gen. 28, 6). 

2. The PRESENT, in verbs which express continued action or 

condition, quality, a general truth : ITnrVnN -1J1D? "we 

remember the fish" (Numb. 11, 5), -JNft n9lj) "rPN * 

: 7 : -7 - .: 7: 

"O Eternal, my God, thou art very great" (Ps. 104, 1) ; 

q rjo fey wtf ,rra nsn6 rrtm "except 

7 : 1 7 : 7 - v : 7 : 

the Eternal build the house, they labor in vain that build 
it" (Ps. 127, 1). 

3. The FUTURE, in prophecies and promises which are con- 

sidered as being already fulfilled : 7TV2 "'HH^ HfcO "see 

I :i7: - 7 : 



162 
to these words a relative signification : up 1W "whose Ian* 
guage," iS HBfK "to whom," C> H#N "WhSro," fa -JN "in 
which." 

2. "l^^s is generally separated from the word to which it refers : 
Ij&P VDpPrtib ""IEW "whose language thou shalt not under- 
stand" (Deut. 28, 49), rtffltb*Q M?W "l#N "whither thou goest" 

7 7 7 7 ~ V ~: 

(Deut. 11, 10). 

3. "1$N "often includes the demonstrative pronoun "he" : IXH H&W 
"and he whom thou cursest" (Numb. 22, 6), ^1T V Mil IfeM? 

v : v -:i- 

"he shall give it unto him to whom it belongeth," (Lev. 5, 24). 

4. Like in English, the relative pronoun is often omitted : ^7 V"^? 
- UTb "in a land which is not theirs" (Gen. 15, 13), 13 "v^ ^ 

"the day on which I was born" (Job 3, 3). 

10. REFLEXIVE, RECIPROCAL AND INDEFINITE 

PRONOUNS. 

1. The Hebrew language has no special word for the reflexive pro- 
noun ; it is expressed : a) by the conjugations Niphal and Hith- 
pael ; b) by the nominal suffixes of the third person : 1HK "with 
himself," HQSJ "by herself," Q|-p "to themselves ;" c) by some 
nouns with suffixes : &> j "soul," 3"p "the interior," 2^ "the 

heart," Qyy "bone" etc. : IDPI $"N W22 *?&3 " a merciful man 

... T . .. ( 

does good to himself" (Prov. 11, 17), )272 1EW T2N"1 "and Esau 
said to himself" (Gen. 27, 41), fttfl QWl U2V2 "on the selfsame 
day" (Gen. 7, 13). 

2. The reciprocal pronouns : the one, the other, one another, are ex- 
pressed by vnN Era , nninN tiWx , inin wx , nrviin TWx , 

Hi HI , "PIN "HN : .T"^ Hi NIDI "and one cried unto another" 

7 V 7 V V V V 7)7: 

(Isa. 6, 3), Eh 1HX1 TEty TIN "the one rich, and the other 

7 t v : 7 7 v 

poor" (II. Sam. 12, 1), mfcCHN &# WTtib "they saw not one 



161 - 
Joy in the harvest" (Isa. 9, 2), jHD"by ^2pV "ye tliat sit on 

car] >ets'" (Jud. 5, 10). 

8. The noun governed by the construct state is sometimes omitted ; 
i f 
"WITT fcO PiSVj "the language (of a man) that I know not" 

(Ps. 81, 6). 

7. ACCUSATIVE. 

1. The particle P^ ("HX) which denotes the accusative, can only 
be placed before a determined noun or a proper name : fcP^rVn^ 
"the man," ij-JN ITQ^ HN "the words of mv lord," T^RTK 
"his father," DnST'nN "Isaac." 

) t : ' 

2. H^ is used with a noun governed by a verb in the passive voice : 
lfe$ ^"QTHN np^rb IJPl "it was told to Rebecca" * "they told 
Kebecca the words of Esau" (Gen. 27, 42). Such verbs are used 
impersonally, and thus the object (in English the subject) governed 
by the action of the verb remains in the accusative : fcGirTN?? 
HOTTIN "its blood was not brought in" (Lev. 10, 18), ^' , "j6l 

T T V * T" : 

"PEGTIN "his flesh shall not be eaten" (Ex. 21, 28). 
t : 

3 The accusative is also used adverbially: nit^n"^j"nD^ "let 
me go to the field" (Ruth 2, 2), OT3H rOU H2K mtEW ETCTI 

t - :it t - : v ~: 

"the waters prevailed fifteen cubits" (Gen. 7, 20), TtfN ^D2H p"} 
^l^P "only in the throne will I be greater than thou" (Gen. 41, 40). 

PRONOUNS. 

8. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 
In disjunctive questions, H is used in the first clause, Q^ in the 

second : !)J2 b&VP\ bW!2~\2X U^S? ^Pn"^GH "ahalt thou 

indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed rule over us?" (Gen. 

37, 8). 

9. RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

1. When *)#N is combined with nouns, pronouns, or adverbs, it gives 



160 

suffix is also used objectively : DDITT) DDiOiDI " and the fear of 
you and the dread of you" (Gen. 9, 2). 

2. A noun in the genitive is often used in the place of an adjective : 
DHi *bs "vessels of gold" * "golden vessels," PJp itfjR "men of 
holiness" * "holy men," Q^ly H'TriN " a possession of perpetui- 

T 

ty" * "a perpetual possession." 

3. Adjectives, participles, and infinitives can also stand in the construct 
state : HS "DD "slow of speech" (Ex. 4, 10), Q^BD "OJ "clean 
hands" iPs. 24, 4), 7jO# "iJTt 1 "those who know thy name" (Ps. 
9, 11), -n W-Q "the blessed of the Eternal" (Gen. 24, 31), nfrjJ 
Ttibn "the rising of the dawn" (Gen. 32, 25). 

4. The nouns ^^ , ^y2 , |3 , H3 m the construct state often denote 
a personal quality : UHZn E^N " a man of words" * "an eloquent 
man," D^DJ3 b$2 " a possessor of wings" * "winged" (Ecc.10, 20), 
H j^ nX?2"Q " a son of a hundred years" * "a hundred years old," 

T T T " I V 

H JGtf D^yE^n"n3 " a daughter of ninety years" * "ninety years old" 

t t : 

(Gen. 17, 17). 

5. To express the genitive, a circumlocution ;or"5 ~W# is sometimes 
used (see 4, 7) ; HON*? TtojB " a P salm of Asaph" (Ps. 73, 1), 

fTQ&6 "WN ftfttfl "lier father's sheep" (Gen. 29, 9). 
t t : v -: I 

6. A noun repeated in the genitive plural expresses the superlative : 
ffJI^n \5l# "the Lord of Lords" * "the highest Lord," -QJ? 
D'HDy "a servant of servants" * "the lowest servant," CH^il T$ 



"the song of songs" * "the most excellent song." 



7. A noun in the construct state can also be connected with a pro- 
noun, a number or a noun with a preposition : HEW DlpD "the 
place where*' (Gen. 40, 3), ^D~V2 "whose son" (I. Sam. 17, 55), 
"PIN EDE&ft "one right" (Lev. 24, 22), T^i?3 PnOEO "like the 



- 159 - 

*1i7Jn "whose son art thou, young man?" (I. Sam. 17, 58) ; Hi'EE? 
D^DH W "hear now, ye rebels" (Numb. 20, 10). 

9. The article is sometimes demonstrative : QJJSn "this time," QiTl 
"this day." 

10. Before the Participle, the article has the meaning of a relative 
pronoun : ntf-TH TJ73 Dfcft'fl Di/H "the people that dwelleth in 

t - T T 

this city" (Jer. 29, 16). 

THE NOUN. 

5. NUMBER. 

1. The singular of a patronymic with the article has often the meaning 
of the plural: yggfl "the Canaanites." 

2. The plural is sometimes used to express dignity or majesty (Plural 

of Majesty) : BTib$ "God," 1 j-flg "the Eternal," bv_2 "master" 

vID "his master"). The verbs and adjectives which are con- 
t t : 

nected with such nouns, are generally used in the singular. 

3. The duplication of a noun (with or without ")) also indicates a kind 
of plural ; it denotes : a) a large quantity : 1n HHSO PHfcG 
"full of pits of asphalt" (Gen. 14, 10) ; b) a distributive sense, 
each, every : QP Qp "day by day," "every day" (Prov. 8, 34),QT 
Cn "daily" (Est. 3, 4), EPfc ETfc (Lev. 20, 2) and &$) B^R 
(Est. 1, 8) "every man," ;ft^ Tjjj 11JJ "every flock by its* If '' 
(Gen. 32, 17); c) a diversity (always with )) : fiSPN fXsk\ J-X 

7 ' I V 7 T I Y V 

riD^l "diverse weights," "diverse measures" (Dent. 25, 13 and 11 >. 

OASES. 

6. GENITIVE. 
1. The genitive is sometimes used objectively: 7PQ HiO*^ "^ H> ^' ::1 * 
of a king," Bnn VJJ TTH "the way to the free of life," nj3J7S 
C"1D "the cry against Sodom." In the same way, the nominal 



158 

2. Names of materials and abstract nouns frequently receive the 
article : PpSH "silver" 2niH "gold," TjETin "darkness" : ETUK\ 
3PB3I ^022 nXXSi i^P "IDS "and Abram was very rich in 
cattle, in silver, and in gold" (Gen. 13, 2) ; "HDD 1 TTin HiirPS 
THX "f r behold, darkness covers the earth" (Isa. 60, 2). 

3. The article stands before an attributive adjective or a demonstrative 
pronoun which are joined with a determined noun : HjOpn ^IFQ 
"thy little daughter," n?H E^NPI "this man" (see Lessons 2 and 46 ). 

4. The article is omitted before proper nouns, and before nouns in 
the construct state or with suffixes : nDT "Joseph," Clp2!"l C&^ 
"the name of the place ;" " l ^"1N "nrj land.' 

5. There is no indefinite article in Hebrew : "l^j "a boy," Tfc$ "a 
man," n&W " a woman ;" sometimes it is expressed by the numeral 

7 * 

TIN = Tfet E^N "a man." 

7 V TV* 

6. When two nouns are connected, the article which stands before 
the second noun determines both : iHOTOD ^jN "men of war," 

7 7 : : - 

nDTPEjn "^ jN "the men of war." Thus the collective noun 72 
means "every," "all kinds of," when it is not followed by the article, 
and "all" "the whole" when it is followed by the article : 'TJ/"/3 

7 

"every city," TJJiT^S "the whole city," Q'HjJiT/S " ail tlie cities." 

7 7 * TV 7 

7. But the absence of the article from nouns in the construct state 
may sometimes cause ambiguity : i{jh p niay mean "the son of 
Jesse" or "a son of Jesse," Q^rGEH ~W "DJ "the servant" or 
"a servant of the captain of the guard ;" to avoid this ambiguity, 
h otb T^isused: ^^ p "a son of Jesse," ^^ HEW pH 
"the son of Jesse ;" CTCED!"! T ?t ? "131? "a servant of the captain 
of the guard;" bwtib ffMfil "the watchmen of Saul." 

8. A noun in the vocative generally receives the article : HH-X ^p~p 



- 157 - 

regular succession : subject, predicate, object : Vt^J^HN tip/ )&]} 
"Esau took his wives" (Gen. 36, 2) ; TyifTTlK ID^TpW "but 
liis father observed the matter" (Gen. 37, 11). 

2. But any word upon which stress is laid can begin a sentence : 
* rbtf TIN "the Eternal has sent me" (I. Sam.15, 1) ; JHJ "1SD 
jrlZn n^p^n V "Hilkiah the priest has given me a book" (II. 
Kings 22, 10) ; JXXlbo ilfctyn D^ H^ "six days shall work 

T T : V 7 ' T V 

be done" (Ex. 35, 2). 

3. The predicate usually precedes the subject in all sentences begin- 
ning with a word upon which stress is laid, also in the following 
cases : 

a) "When the predicate is an adjective : V) ^foyfi U^Ia "the 
works of the Eternal are great" (Ps. Ill, 2). 

b) When the predicate is preceded by "I^N , $s? , an interrog- 
ative pronoun or prefix, or by any particle: "D"" 1N IC^N 
DTfcitfl "of which God had told him" (Gen. 22, 9) ; K^rTS 
#N "if fire break out" (Ex. 22, 5); fitibp TDK ?K "then 
said Solomon" (I. Kings 8, 12) ; TD& H^JJB P^rTC6 
Tp3*"IS ^IFlN "the wages of a hired man shall not abide 
with thee until morning" (Lev. 19, 13) ; ^ "Q'l'TTD "what 

has the Eternal spoken ?" (Numb. 23, 17). 

. i 

c) When the predicate is a verb with Yav conversive : ip^ni 

D"DN"^ "HEf "and Sarai said unto Abram" (Gen. 16, 5); 

PD^n"n^ ^JOE^"^ HDE^l "and the children of Israel 
t - - v t : : : it : 

shall keep the sabbath" (Ex. 31, 16). 
4. THE ARTICLE. 
1. Proper names originally appellative receive the article : "i^H "the 
Nile" (the river) ; T)22 /"! "the Lebanon" (the white mountain) ; 
bySH "Baal" (the master). 



156 

b) If collective nouns are preceded by ?3 , which is itself a 

collective noun signifying "the whole," "the totality," the 

predicate is generally in the plural : Q^il /D WP) "and 

tt t : 

the whole people came near" (I. Kings 18, 30) ; nii"TO ^""P 

V"l^n ^3 "The whole earth shall fear the Eternal" (Ps. 33, 8) ; 

^K^P-^D KG D3& "Q (II. Chron. 10, 1) and: "^3 frC D3E? ^3 
. t: * . T. t . v : t t v : 

TKIBT 1 (I. Kings 12, 1) "for all Israel had come to Shechem." 

c) When the predicate precedes the subject, the third pers. sing. 

masc. of the verb is sometimes used impersonally: ">rpl_ 

D'H^ rUJS^ "and Peninnah had children" (I. Sam. 1, 3) ; 
t: ? t* : 

iE^T 1 ?!? njnn iPQEJniD IMEh "bis wicked device should 

t tt : :r t 

return upon his head" (Est. 9, 25). 

d) When the predicate precedes several nouns, it usually agrees 
with the nearest : ns&fl rpPlN "IDNFl "and her brother and 

t : T ' T , 

her mother said" (Gen. 24, 55) ; p*Q) fl-fOPl IWPfi "then 
sang Deborah and Barak (Jud. 5, 1) ; "PEfatfl 1)1 NZPl "and 

T T _ :i" ' T T~ 

David and his men came" (I. Sam. 30, 3). 

e) In a distributive sense, a subject in the plural is sometimes 

joined to a predicate in the singular, and vice versa : "^3 

VTV2 711 ErfcT'OTl "all the ways of a man are (each) clean 
t :)-: - , , 

in his own eyes" (Prov. 16, 2) ; fTHg 72ST iTDfTW "and 
its friends (each of them) shall eat the fruit thereof" (Prov. 
18, 21); Uh FTh T^l j "the wicked (every wicked man) 

T T I I ' : T 

flee when no one pursueth" (Prov. 28, 1). 

f ) The predicate sometimes agrees with the second noun (Geni- 
tive) of a complex subject : ty LTpyj* ?Pf1X W ^)p "the 
voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me" (Gen. 4, 10) ; 

pvjdtt:? iy3tp vtihti tddi " and the clioice (the best) of 

his captains was drowned in the Ked Sea" (Ex. 15, 4). 
3. POSITION OF THE PARTS OF A SENTENCE. 
1. The parts of a simple, independent sentence generally follow in 



FOURTH F^rtT. 

SYNTAX. 



1. THE COPULA. 

1. The copula is generally not expressed [see Lessons 1, 2 and 46]: 
pbr\ E^N *33K1 Ttffr E^N TIN WV "my brother Esau is a 

ITT T ! *T ' -TT-- 

hairy man, but I am a smooth man (Gen. 27, 11). 

2. The copula is sometimes expressed : 

a) by the verb HTI "to be" : "TtfrmS 1 HHT bm "but Rachel 

tt - - : .t :it t: 

was beautiful of form" (Gen. 29, 17) ; THi] TN HTI JDJJ31 

t tt, I r-:r: 

"and Naaman was a great man" (II. Kings 5, 1) ; HuS/G^ ^ 
iDGtf ITiT "for liis name shall be Solomon" (I. Chron. 22, 9). 

b) by the particles h and ptf : H-TH D1DJ33 j fi "the Eternal 
is in this place" (Gen. 28, 16) ; j^ Q1N1 "and there was not 
a man" (Gen. 2, 5). 

c) by the third person, of the pers. pronoun : DTl^i"! fcOH ^ "the 
Eternal is God" (I. Kings 18, 39); CFifyth II KV1 ."in^'thou 
art the Eternal, the God" (Neh. 9, 7); B&Vf'HvknTFtfXffy 

, : v t t~:it 

UHN CH "these men are peaceable with us" (Gen. 34, 21) ; 

HlViH T3 "who is this?" (Esther 7, 5); *nfip Dm H^N 

"these are my feasts" (Lev. 23, 2). 

2. AGREEMENT OF THE PREDICATE WITH THE 

SUBJECT. 

1. The predicate generally agrees with the subject in gender, number 
and person : AT) 1JJ ^&P1 HiDC? "my soul has kept thy testi- 
monies (Ps. 119, 167);' "n Izn-pN ttTtiDK rOSf'K*? ")#N 

t: - : v -: : it v -; 

"because our fathers have not kept the word of the Eternal" (II. 

Chron. 34, 21) ; 

2. The principal exceptions to this rule are : 

a ) Collective nouns frequently have their predicate in the plural : 
myn JOfcZft "the congregation shall judge" (Numb. 35, 24); 
DS?n '-Gin '"the people wept" (Numb. 14, 1). 



154 

went into the bed-chamber to get the stone, but he saw and behold, 
his father was asleep and his foot was lying (HJlnj) upon the chest 

T : 

in which the stone was kept (nDlfcO* ar) d he did not want to wake 

T 

his father from his sleep, so he returned to the elders empty-handed. 

The elders thought that he acted craftily in order to increase its 

i 
price, and they were willing OnliOT) to weigh out into (*?])) his 

hands ten thousand gold shekels as its price. But the man Damah 

said, u If you give me my house full of silver and gold, I shall not 

show disrespect to my father (the honor of my father shall not be 

lightly esteemed pp^ Niph. of 7/p m m y e y es ) to wake him 

from his sleep." And when his father awoke from his sleep, Damah 

took the stone and gave it to the elders, and the elders weighed out 

to him ten thousand gold shekels as they had offered (IJOfcO- But 

the man Damah, refused to accept them, and said, "I shall not sell 

for the gain of money the respect due to (the respect of) my father.*' 

And he took one thousand gold shekels, and the rest of the gold he 

returned to the elders. 



153 

head of the people; and seat two men, worthless fellows, opposite to 
him, and let them bear witness against him, saying, "Thou hast 
blasphemed (THS) God and the king; and then lead him forth and 
stone him that he may die." And the men of his city, the elders 
and the nobles, did as Jezebel had sent unto them ; and they led 
him forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones, that he died. 
And it came to pass, when Jezebel heard that Naboth had been 
stoned and was dead, she said to Ahab, "Arise, take possession of the 
vineyard of Naboth, for he is dead." And Ahab arose and went 
down into the vineyard of Naboth to take possession of it. And 
the word of the Lord came (was) to Elijah the prophet, saying, 
"Arise, go down to meet Ahab, and speak unto him, saying, ' Hast 
thou murdered, and also taken possession?' Thus says the Lord, 
'In the place where the dogs licked the blood of Naboth, the dogs 
shall also lick thy blood.' " And it came to pass, when Ahab heard 
these words, he rent his clothes and put sack-cloth upon his flesh, 
and fasted. 

83. Every Man is the Founder of His Own Fortune. 

When the days of Akabiah the son of Mahalalel drew near that 
he should die (Inf.), his son said to him, " Recommend me to thy 
colleagues." But his father answered, " I do not recommend thee." 
And his son said, " Why dost thou refuse to grant me this favor (to 
do according to my will): Hast thou found in me any wrong?" 
And Akabiah replied to his son, " No ; thy actions will bring thee 
near and thy actions will keep thee away." 

84. Filial Respect. 

There lived in Ashkelon a heathen (a man who was not one of 
the Israelites), whose name was Damah ben Nethina. One day the 
elders of Israel came to him to buy of him a stone for the ephod 
of the high-priest at the price of one thousand gold shekels. Damah 



- 152 

no rain, and the land will not yield its produce ; and ye shall perish 
quickty from off the good land which the Lord gives unto you. 
Therefore (*) shall ye lay up these my words in (?J?) your heart 
and in your soul, and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your 
hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. And ye 
shall teach them to your children, to speak of them when thou 
sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when 
thou liest down, and when thou risest. And thou shalt write them 
upon the door-posts of thy house and upon thy gates. 

82. The Crime of Jezebel and Ahab. 

Naboth had a vineyard in Jesreel near the palace of Ahab the 
king of Samaria. And Ahab spoke unto Naboth, saying, " Give me 
thy vineyard, that it may serve (be) me for an herb-garden, because 
it is near by my house ; and I will give thee in its stead a vine- 
yard better than it ; or if it please thee (be good in thy eyes) I will 
give thee money, the price of this one." And Naboth said unto 
Ahab, "Far be it from me before the Lord (n1i"PD) tna ^ I should 
give ( with Inf.) the inheritance of my fathers unto thee." And 
Ahab came into his house, sad and angry because of the word which 
Naboth the Jezreelite had spoken to him ; and he lay down upon 
his bed and turned away his face, and would not eat. And Jezebel 
his wife came to him and spoke unto him, "Why then is thy spirit 
sad and eatest thou no food?" And he said unto her, "Because I 
spoke unto Naboth and said unto him, ' Give me thy vineyard for 
money, or, if it please thee, I will give thee a vineyard in its stead,' 
but he refused to do so." Then said Jezebel unto him, "Arise, eat 
bread and let thy heart be cheerful; I myself will give thee the 
vineyard of Naboth." So she wrote letters in Ahab's name, and 
sealed them with his seal; and she sent the letters unto the elders 
and the nobles that dwelt in the city of Naboth. And she wrote in 
the letters, saying, " Proclaim a fast and cause Naboth to sit at the 



151 
80. Moses Appoints His Successor. 

And Moses spoke unto the Lord, saying, li Let the Lord, the God 
of the spirits of all flesh, appoint a man over the congregation, who 
may go out before them and who may come in before them, and 
who may lead them out and who may bring them in ; that the 
congregation be not as a flock which has no shepherd." And the 
Lord said unto Moses, "Take (to thyself) Joshua, the son of Nun, 
a man in whom there is spirit, and lay thy hand upon him; and 
cause him to stand before Eleazar, the priest, and before all the 
congregation ; and give him a charge (fflU) before their eyes. And 
put some of thy majesty upon him, in order that all the congregation 
be obedient. And before Eleazar, the priest, shall he stand, and he 
[Eleazar] shall inquire for him after (3) the judgment of the Trim 
before the Lord: at (^^) his word (mouth) shall they go out, and 
at his word shall they come in, he and all the children of Israel 
with him, and all the congregation." And Moses did as the Lord 
had commanded him ; and he took Joshua and caused him to stand 
before Eleazar, the priest, and before the whole congregation. And 
he laid his hands upon him and gave him a charge, as the Lord 
had spoken through (by the hand of) Moses. 

81. Divine Promises and Admonition. 

And it shall come to pass, if ye will harken diligently unto my 
commandments which I command you this day, to love the Lord 
your God, and to worship him with all your heart and with ail your 
soul, that I will send you the rain of your land in its season, the 
first rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather thy grain, and 
thy wine, and thy oil. And 1 will give grass in thy field for thy 
cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied. Take heed to yourselves, 
that your heart be not enticed, and ye turn aside and worship other 
gods, and bow down to them. Then (]) the Lord's anger will be 
kindled against you, and he will shut up the heavens that there be 



150 
79. Joseph Makes Himself Known Unto His Brothers. 

And Joseph could not restrain himself before (7) all those who 
stood by him, and he cried, "Cause every man to go out from me.'' 
And there remained no man with him when Joseph made himself 
known unto his brothers. And Joseph said unto his brothers, " I 
am Joseph ; is my father yet alive." And his brothers could not 
answer him, for they were terrified at his presence (V^BD)- And 

TT * 

Joseph said unto his brothers, "Come near to me, I pray you," and 
they came near ; and he said, " I am Joseph, your brother, whom ye 
sold into Egypt. But now be not grieved that you sold me hither ; 
for in order to preserve life (for preservation of life) did God send 
me before you. For these two years [has] the famine [been] in the 
land ; and [there are] yet five years in which there will not be 
ploughing or (1) harvesting. And now not you sent me hither, but 
God; and he made me a father to Pharaoh, and a lord of all his 
house, and a ruler over all the land of Egypt. Haste ye and go up 
to my father and say unto him, 'Thus has said thy son Joseph, 
God has made me a lord of all Egypt ; please come down unto me, 
tarry not. And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou 
shalt be near unto me, thou and thy children, and thy children's 
children, and thy flock, and thy cattle, and all that is thine. And 
I will sustain thee there ; for there are yet five years [of] famine.' 
And behold, your [own] eyes see, and the eyes of my brother 
Benjamin, that [it is] my mouth that speaks unto you. And ye 
shall tell my father [of] all my honor in Egypt and [of] all that 
ye have seen ; and ye shall hasten and bring down my father hither." 
And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck and wept, and Benja- 
min wept upon his neck. And he kissed all his brothers and wept 
upon them ; and after that his brothers spoke with him. 



149 

Pharaoh." My lord asked his servants, saying, " Have ye a father 
or a brother?" And we said unto my lord, "We have an old 
father, and a little boy of [his] old age ; and his brother is dead, 
and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loves him. And 
thou saidst unto thy servants, "Bring him down unto me, that I 
may set my eye upon him." And we said unto my lord, "The 
lad can not leave his father, for if (1) he should leave -his father, 
he would die." And thou saidst unto thy servants, "If your 
youngest brother will not come down with you, you shall not see 
my face any more (continue to see)." And it came to pass, when 
we came up unto thy servant, my father, we told him the words of 
thy lord. And our father said, " Go back, buy us a little food." 
And we said, "We can not go down: if our youngest brother be 
with us, then will we go down ; for we can not see the man's face 
if (1) our youngest brother be not with us." And thy servant, my 
father, said unto us,. "Ye know that my wife bore me two sons; 
and the one went away from me, and I said, " Surely he has been 
torn in pieces, and I have not seen him up to this time (until now)." 
And if (}) ye take this one also from me, and harm befall him, ye 
will bring down my gray hair with sorrow to the grave. And now, 
when I come to thy servant, my father, and the lad be not with us 
since (1) his soul is bound to (in) his [the lad's] soul and it 
will come to pass, when he sees that the lad is not there, he will 
die, and thy servants will bring down the gray hair of thy servant, 
our father, with sorrow, to the grave. For thy servant became 
surety for (HfcO.the l aa " unto (QJJO) my father, saying, " If I bring 
him not unto thee, I shall have sinned against (7) my father all 
the days. Now therefore (1) please let thy servant stay instead of 
the lad as a bondman to my lord, and let the lad go up with his 
brothers for how shall I go up to my father if (}) the lad be not 
with me? lest I see the evil that would befall my father." 



148 

Exercises for Syntax. 

77. Joseph's Brothers in Egypt. 

When Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, he said unto 
his sons, "Why do you look at one another?" (Hithp.) And he 
said, " Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt ; go down 
thither and buy for us from there, that we may live and not die." 
And ten brothers of Joseph went down to buy grain in Egypt. 
But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob did not send with his brothers, 
for he said, "Lest harm befall him." . And Joseph was (Jfln) the 
ruler over the land, it was he that sold grain to all the people of 
the land ; and Joseph's brothers came and bowed down before him 
with the face to the earth. And Joseph recognized his brethren, 
but they did not recognize him. And Joseph remembered the 
dreams which he had dreamed concerning them (QH^), and he said 

V T 

unto them. "You are spies; to see the nakedness of the land have 
ye come." And they said unto him, " No, my lord, but thy serv- 
ants have come to buy food. We are all sons of one man ; we are 
honest, thy servants are no spies." And Joseph said unto them, 
"It is what I have spoken unto you, saying, you are spies. 
Hereby (by this) shall ye be proved : [By] the life of Pharaoh, ye 
shall not (Qfc<) go forth hence, except (QJ$ 13) your youngest 
brother come hither. Send one of you and let him fetch his 
brother, and ye shall be kept in prison (Imp.), that your words 
may be verified, whether truth be with you ; and if not, f by] the 
life of Pharaoh, ye are surely p3) spies." And he put them together 
into ward three days. 

78. Judah Pleads With Joseph for the Liberty of Benjamin. 

And Judah came near unto him and said, "Pardon, my lord, 
let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word in my lord's ears, 
and let not thy anger burn against thy servant ; for thou art as 



147 

76. -)&*N followed by a Noun or Preposition with Suffixes or 
with Adverbs of Place. 

Abraham said unto Eliezer, " Thou shalt not take a wife for my 
son from the daughters of the Canaanite in whose land I dwell. 
The Lord before whom I have walked (Hithp.), will send his angel 
with thee and prosper thy way, that thou mayest take a wife for 
my son from my family and from my father's house." And I came 
to-day unto the well and said, " Lord, God of my master Abraham, 
if thou wouldst but (fcO~ 70**) prosper my way on which I am 
going." Jacob heard in his dream the voice of God saying, "I am 
the Lord, the God of thy father Abraham and the God of Isaac ; the 
land whereon thou liest, to thee I will give it and to thy seed." 
Phafaoh said unto his servants, iX Can we find like this a man in 
whom there is the spirit of God?" The man in whose hand the cup 
was found, he shall be my servant (to me a servant). I am Joseph, 
your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt. The land whither thou 
goest to possess it, is not like the land of Egypt from where ye 
came out. Fear ye not the nations whose land the Lord thy God 
giveth thee. As the Lord did unto Pharaoh and unto all Egypt, 
thus will he do unto all the nations of PJSD) whom thou art 
afraid. Thou shalt not return to go by the way by which thou 
earnest. 



146 
74. Piel, Pual and Hithpael of the Verbs V']J and y '#. 

(See pages 106 and LOS.; 

Thou hast established the earth and it stands. Solomon shall 
build me a house and T will establish his throne. Exalt the Lord 
our God and prostrate yourselves at his holy mountain, for the 
1 ord our God is holy. Righteousness will exalt a nation. Thy 
name, Lord, is exalted above all blessing and praise. Israel 

does not know, my people does not consider (PJ). Consider well 
and see if such a thing has happened. And Eli said to Hannah, 
"How long wilt thou intoxicate thyself (^5-E^J ? ^ ut ' {lwav tn y 

- T 

wine from thee ! " Hannah brought Samuel to Eli and said, ' ; For 
this boy have I prayed (7^nn). ?? When I heard these things 
I sat down and wept, and was fasting and praying before the Lord. 
Joseph said to his brothers, " Fear not, I shall sustain you and your 
children," and he sustained them all the days of his life. Trust 
in the Lord and he will sustain thee. 

75. Doubly Irregular Verbs. 

(See page 109.; 

Incline thine ear and hear the words of the wise. If thou 
inclinest thy ear unto wisdom, then wilt thou understand the fear of 
the Lord and find the knowledge of God. I am the Lord thy God 
who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of 
bondmen. Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good ; for his kind- 
ness [endures] forever. Let the people thank thee, O God : let all 

the people thank thee. And now, our God, we thank thee and 

i 
praise thy glorious name (n*WH)- Teach me thy way, Lord, 

I will walk in thy truth. I did not want to listen to him. They 

did not want to walk in his ways. My son, if sinners entice thee 

(nnD)' consent thee not. A man's wisdom causes his face to 

shine. By wisdom is a house built and by understanding it is 

established. 



145 
David had escaped. And Laban was told on the third day that 
Jacob had tied. Thy hands were not bound ("1DN) an< * tn y ^ eet 
were not brought into fetters (D^H^nj)- The man was brought 
before the judge. The money shall "be brought into the house of 
the king. The vessels that remain in the house of the Lord shall 
be brought, and there they shall be until the day that I visit them ; 
then ()) will I bring them up and bring them back to this place. 
My money has been returned into my sack. I am one hundred 
and twenty years old to-day ; I can no more go out and come in. 
Thou canst not see my face. Who is able to do this ? We can 
not go up against the people, for they are stronger than we. 



73. Hithpael. 

(See pages 100-104.) 

And David said to the priests and the Levites, " Sanctify your- 
selves to bring up the ark of the Lord." The wicked king shall 
do according to his will and magnify himself above the God of 
heaven ; but he shall come to his end and the justice of the Lord 
shall be revealed on him. I have walked before you from my 

childhood to this day. God before whom my fathers walked may 
bless these boys, and may ray name and the name of my fathers 
be called on them. I will walk before the Lord in the land of 

the living. A just man walks in his integrity (QO). Favor is 
deceptive (a lie) and beauty is vain; a woman fearing the Lord, 
she shows herself praise-worthy. By three things a man reveals 
himself: by his purse, by his cup and by his anger (QJQ)- No 
Egyptian remained with Joseph when he made himself known unto 
his brothers. What shall we say ? What shall we speak ? or 
how shall we justify ourselves ? Thou shalt not prostrate thyself 
before (to) another god. Come, let us prostrate ourselves before 
the Lord our maker. 



144 - 

lips, and my mouth shall tell thy praise (H/Hp)- Ask thy 

father that he may show thee, thy elders that they may tell thee. 
Wealth (fin) ;lc M s many friends, but a poor man is separated from 
his friend. Tell my father all my glory in Egypt and all that 
you have seen, and ye shall hasten and bring down ray father 
hither. 

71. Hiphil of the Verbs 1"J? and JT]J. 

(See pages 93-96. 

The prophets turned many away from sin. We brought back 
the money which we found in our sacks. Eliezer said to Abraham, 
" Perhaps the woman will not be willing to follow me into this land ; 
shall I [then] bring back thy son into the land whence thou earnest ?" 
And Abraham said unto him, " Beware that thou bring not back 
my son thither." David said, " Surely in vain have I guarded all 
that this one has in the wilderness, so that (1) nothing was missed 
of all that belonged to him, and he has requited me evil for good.' 1 
Bring these men into the house, for they shall eat with me. Why 
didst thou not bring me the book which thou hast promised (li^fcO 
to me ? I shall bring it to you to-morrow, for my sister has not 
yet finished reading it. And the king turned his face and blessed 
all the congregation of Israel. Abner went to Hebron to bring 
about all Israel to David. I turned my face from them. God 
may make thee like Kphraim and Manasseh. 

72. Hophal. 

(See pages 96-100.) 

They are ashamed and confounded, for they found no water. 

These men [were] very good to us ; we were not put to shame, nor 

missed we (^H^) anything. This land shall be destroyed and its 

1-t 
cities shall be among the destroved cities. Saul was told that 



143 - 
69. Hiphil of the Verbs With Gutturals and N"B- 

i See page 87.) 
I believed not the words, until 1 came and my eyes saw [it]. 
The kings of the earth did not believe that an enemy would enter 
into the gates of Jerusalem. A simpleton PPS) wi ^ believe 

everything. Who will give us flesh to eat? Jeroboam established 
in Beth-el the priests of the heights which he had made. We 
have set watchmen over the city. Moses took Joshua and set 

him before Eleazar the priest, and before the whole congregation. 
Would that ()pp i) you were quite silent, and it would be wisdom 
for you. The hand of the diligent will make rich. Their houses 
are full of deceit (HDID)* therefore they have become great and 
waxen rich. He put forth his hand and seized him and kissed 
him. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her. 

Hear, ye children, the instruction of a father, and listen to know 
understanding. [If J a ruler listens to 'the word of falsehood, all 
his servants are wicked. 

70. Hiphil of the Verbs JT^, 3"B and V'B. 

(See pages 89-92.) 

It is the thing which I have spoken to Pharaoh : what God is 
about to do (doing), he has shown unto Phoraoh. There was 

nothing that I did not show them. The watchmen saw a man 
come forth out of the city and they said to him, " Show us, we pray, 
the entrance (frODD) i nto tne city." Come and I will show thee 

T 

the man whom thou seekest. Woe to him who increases what 

is not his ! Give the sheep to drink and go [and] feed. The 
seven daughters of Jethro came to water the flock of their father. 
A rich man rules over [the] poor, and a borrower is a slave to [the] 
lender. Tell Jacob his transgression and Israel his sin. Esther 
did not tell her kindred nor her people. Lord, open thou my 



142 

will be praised according to his understanding (^3^)- ^ have 
been sent to you to speak to you the words of your father. The 
men were sent out of the city. Cast (send) thy bread upon the 
waters, for after (in) many days thou wilt find it. 

67. Pual of Irregular Verbs. 

(See pages 83 and 84.) 

Praise ye the Lord who is praiseworthy. The generation of 
the upright shall be blessed. Blessed of the Lord [be] his land. 
Jephthah was driven out of his father's house. The men, the 

women and the children will be driven out of the land ; but the 
wicked king will eat the fruit of his own wickedness ; his name 
shall be covered with darkness, for God is a righteous judge. I 
did as I was commanded. He will speak unto them all that he 
will be commanded. Why did this madman (JJilEto) come to thee ? 

68. Hiphil of the Regular Verb. 

(See pages 85-87.) 

We have consecrated this house to the name of our God. The 

sons of Jacob threw Joseph into the pit ("113). There is a time 

to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together (QJ3). 

Thou hatest instruction and hast cast my words behind thee. And 

the Lord said to Samuel, " Hearken unto their voice and make them 

a king." All Israel came to Hebron to make David king. And 

it was before his death that he made his son Solomon king. Moses 

said to the judges, "Bring to me the cause that is too hard (Plk^D) 

t It 
for you." Is it two little for you that the God of Israel has 

separated you from the congregation of Israel to bring you near to 

him ? I have withheld the rain from you, and I shall cause to rain 

upon one city, and upon another (one) city I shall not cause to rain. 

Thou hast removed from me lover and friend. And Pharaoh said, 

" I shall let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the Lord your God in 

the wilderness; only (p"l) you shall not go very far away." 



141 

Wine gladdens (Fut.) the heart of man (fl^ljfcO- Pharaoh refused 
(JfcSD) to sen d the people. They refused to walk in his law. 

And the queen refused to come at the king's word. 

65. Piel of the Verbs H"^. 

(See pages 80 aud 81.) 

Thou shalt not reveal the secret of thy friend. The cloud has 
covered (HDD) tue sun - The darkness will cover the earth. 

T ' 

Blessings [are] upon the head of a just man, but the mouth of the 

wicked covers violence (DD)"!)- The earth opened its mouth and 

L T T 

covered them (?JJ). Love covers all faults (JJ?B). Why did 

you (f.) come so soon to-day ("1HD)? -His ^ ee ^ hasten to run to 

evil. Make haste now, for the sun has set. Haste ye and go up 

to my father. The wicked hasten (Fut.) to shed blood. Moses 

commanded (Hly) us a l aw > an inheritance (n^")to) f r the con- 

T T T "" 

gregation of Jacob. We have done according to all that our father 
commanded us. And Noah did according to all that the Lord 

commanded him. They have transgressed my covenant which I 
commanded their fathers. Thy servants will do as my lord com- 
mands. You have finished (J"|?3) your work. And it came to 

T 

pass, when he had ceased speaking, that behold, the king's sons 
came. 

66. Pual. 

(See page 82.) 

When a man gives to his neighbor money or vessels to keep 
and it be stolen out of the man's house ; if the thief be found, he 
shall pay double. The gates of the city were consumed (73&O 

- T 

by fire. The thing was searched (Jp3) and was found out, and 
they were both hanged (H/O) on a tree - ' was horn on the 

T T 

eighteenth day of the ninth month. The feasts of the Lord are 
hallowed. Whoso keeps a fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof, and 
he that attends to (^DEO n ^ s master shall be honored. A man 



140 
63. Future, Infinitive, Imperative and Participle Piel of the 

Regular Verb. 

(See pages 76 and 77.) 

I do not know [how] to speak, for I am young (a youth). 
Speak, for thy servant hears. My mouth shall speak truth, and 
my tongue shall speak justice. They have a mouth, but they 

speak not (Fut.) Hear advice and accept instruction C^Q^), 

T 

that thou mayest be wise in thy latter end. I said I would 

greatly honor thee, but lo, the Lord has kept thee back from honor. 
A son shall honor his father and his mother. Celebrate, O Judah, 
thy feasts and pay thy vows. Absalom said to his father. " I pray 
thee, let me go and pay my vow which I have vowed unto the 
Lord." All her people are sighing, seeking bread. Thou wilt 
seek them, but wilt not find them. Please stay with me, fear not ; 
for he that will seek my life will seek thy life. The lips of a 
priest shall keep knowledge and they shall seek instruction from his 
mouth, for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts. 

64. Piel of the Verbs Ayin Guttural. 

(See pages 79 and 80.) 

The Lord blessed the Sabbath-day and hallowed it. house 

of Israel, praise ye the Lord. And I will make of thee a great 

nation, and I will bless thee and make thy name great. And they 

shall put my name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them. 

And Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron by night and said, " Rise 

up and go and serve the Lord as you have said, and bless me also." 

Divide this bread among (to) the four children. Whoso mocks 

(3J?^) the poor, scorns his Maker. The whole day my enemies 

scorned me. This man has come to scorn us. I have brought 

near (2^D) m y righteousness, it is not far off (Fut.) Thou hast 

-It 
gladdened my heart. Be wise, my son, and gladden my heart. 



139 
61. Ordinal and Fractional Numbers; Patronymics. 

(See page 7o.) 

Who is among you that saw this house in its first glory ? Say 
not, " What is it that the former days were better than these ? " We 
came to thy brothers on the first day of the second month. The 
sons of Naomi took Moabitish wives : the name of the one was Orpah 
and the name of the second Ruth. Come to me again the third 

day. The fast of the fourth, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast 
of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth shall be to the house of 
Judah gladness and joy and cheerful (good) feasts. They read in 
the book of law a fourth part of the day. Give me the fifth part 
of the money. See that the Lord has given you the Sabbath, there- 
fore he gives you on the sixth day the bread of two days. In 
the ninth year of Hoshea (JJEfVj) tne king f Assyria took Samaria 
OYHJjEf). Joshua gave the land to the nine and a half tribes 
(nCQD)- n tne seventn day they compassed the city seven times. 
I am a Hebrew, and I fear the Lord, the God of heaven. 



62. Preterite Piel of the Regular Verb. 

(See page 75.) 

Who has required this at (of) your hand? I sought to return 
into the land of my birth. I have heard the words of this people 
which they have spoken unto thee. I have done as thou hast 
spoken unto me. I called, but you did not answer; I spoke, but 
you did not hear. This thou (/".) hast spoken and done. You 
have not sanctified the Lord before the children of Israel. A storm 
broke all the trees of the field. They brought up (piel of 7 "1 3) 
their children in the fear of the Lord. God, thou hast taught 
me from my youth. They went in their bad ways which their 

fathers had taught them. See, I have taught you statutes and 

laws, and you shall teach them your children. 



138 

and intelligent in their own sight (before their faces). Solomon 
sat upon the throne of David and his kingdom was firmly ("1^0) 
established. Be ye all ready. All the inhabitants will hear [it] 

and surround us. Their houses have been turned over (transferred) 
to others. If the heavens Avill be measured, I will also cast off all 
the seed (JJ*y|) of Israel. Who is the man that is afraid and 

faint-hearted (TjD ? Let him go and return into his house, that 
his brethern's heart faint (melt) not as his heart. The desolate 
land has become like the garden of Eden QlJ?)- 

60. The Cardinal Numbers. The Dual. 

(See pages 71 and 72.) 

Ten men dwell in one house. Jacob took his two wives and 
his two maid-servants and his eleven children and passed over 
(1217) the river. The numbered (IHS) of Manasseh (HEttP) 

-*t i-t v -r 

were fifty-two thousand and seven hundred. Jacob had twelve 

sons. And to Absalom were born three sons and one daughter. 

Three thousand men were with him. Moses was fourscore years 

old and Aron was fourscore and three years old when they went out 

of Egypt. The children of that family (clan) were three hundred 

and twenty-four. The children of Israel lived (dwelled) in Egypt 

four hundred and thirty years. One hundred and eighty-five 

thousand men died in the camp of Assyria in one night. Abram 

was seventy-five years old when he went out of Haran Q^n)- The 

children of Zebulun O^^T) were sixty thousand and five hundred. 

The woman sojourned in 'our land seven years and seven months. 

Ishmael who had killed Gedaliah, escaped with eight men. Josiah 

i 
0rV&^\) [was] eight years old when he became king, and he reigned 

T 

thirty-one years in Jerusalem. Hezekiah reigned twenty-nine years. 
Abram took three hundred and eighteen men and pursued the kings. 
The light is sweet and it is pleasant (good) for the eyes to see the sun. 
The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau. 



137 

king. When shall I come and appear before God ? His glory 
shall be seen upon thee (f.) And his land was filled with silver 
and gold. Should not a man of words be answered ? No tool 

of iron (^**D ^3) was heard in the house while it was in building 
(Inf. Niph.) The cities of Judah shall be built. 

58. Future, Imperative and Infinitive Niphal of the Verbs 

v 'r and J">. 

(See page 67.) 

To-day it will be known that thou art God in Israel. Abraham 
was an old man when his son Isaac was born unto him. The 
friends love at all times (Sing.) and a brother is born (Fut.) for 
adversitv. Be ye admonished (1Q'), O judges of the earth The 
man will be left alone. Come, let us meet together in the house 
of God and let us take there counsel together ("in 1 )- ^- n( ^ ft 

came to pass, when the kings heard this, they met together to fight 
with Israel. And the Philistines fought and Israel was smitten, 
and they fled every man into his tent. We fled to escape from 
the pursuers. Do this, my son, and deliver thyself. Say ye not, 
"Jerusalem will not be given unto the hand of the king of Assyria/' 

Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all 

i 

the lands; and shalt thou be delivered ? Zedekiah (V"PD""i^)j the 

ti- : 

king of Judah, shall not escape out of the hands of the Chaldeans, 

but shall surely be given into the hand of the king of Babylon. 

59. Niphal of the Verbs V'J> and yy. 

(See pages 68-70.) 

And it shall come to pass in the future (in the end of the days) 
the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be established on the 
top of the mountains. The throne of a king will be established 
by righteousness. On the lips of an intelligent man wisdom is 

found (Fut.) Woe [unto those who are] wise in their own eves 



136 

56. Future, Imperative and Infinitive Niphal of the Verbs 
Guttural and 8"B- 

(See pages 64 and 65.) 

The meat shall not be eaten. Thou (/.) shalt no more be 

named "forsaken." The day is yet long (great), it is not time that 
the cattle (HJpQ) should be gathered together (Inf.) He will be 
turned to be their enemy (to them to an enemy). Unto these the 
land shall be divided. Micah said, " Zion shall be ploughed [like] 
a field." For nothing (Qjn) have you been sold (*1^Q), an d 

T - T 

without money shall you be redeemed. Why did you come near 
the city to fight ? Fight for your brethren, your sons and your 
daughters, your wives and your houses. The Lord your God who 
goes before you, he will fight for you. And it came to pass that, 
when the children of Ammon made war against Israel, the elders 
of Gilead went to take Jephthah out of the land of Tob ; and they 
said unto him, "Pray come and be our leader Q^p), that we may 
fight with the children of Ammon." You shall not go up and 
shall not fight with your brethren. There shall yet be heard in 
this place the voice of gladness ())&&) and the voice of joy, the 
voice of a bridegroom (7^11) an ^ the voice of a bride. 

57. Future, Imperative and Infinitive Niphal of the Verbs 

K"b and p}"*?. 

(See page 66.) 

Falsehood shall not be found in your mouth, and evil shall not 
be found in you. My house shall be called a house of prayer for 
all nations, and you shall be called the priests of the Lord. 
wicked king, the day of the Lord is near upon thee ; as thou hast 
done, it shall be done unto thee; thy act (7^^) shall return upon 
thy head. Deeds that ought not to be done (Fut. Niph.) were 

done in that land. They could not show themselves unto the 



135 

Her husband (7JQ) is known in the gates, when he sits among (with) 
the elders of the land. His ways were not known. Six (n&^) 
sons were born unto David in Hebron Ql^^n); Solomon was born 
unto him in Jerusalem. Thy two sons that were born (Part.) unto 
thee in the land of Egypt, are mine. I saw the city in which you 
were born. The kingdom of Assyria was founded (1D* ) ) m those 
days. The kings -were assembled ("ljp) against the city. All 
bad men are gathered together against him. Not one of them was 
left. There was no breath (HDt^JJ) ^ e ^ i n hi m - Their children 

T T : 

were left after them in the land. What shall we do to those 

who are left? Jacob was pasturing the rest (Part.) of Laban's 

flocks. 



55. Future, Imperative and Infinitive Niphal of the Regular Verb. 

(See page 63.) 

Take heed to thyself that thou forsake not the Levite. Beware, 
I pray thee (/".), and drink not wine nor strong drink, and eat not 
anything unclean. Of all that I said unto the woman she shall 
beware. The water shall be poured out upon the earth. Babylon 
fell and was broken. The wicked will be judged before the Lord, 
and their strength will be broken. Escape to the mountain. 

Escape, daughter of Zion. Escape ye, children of Judah, 

that sigh (njfc$ Niph.) under the hand of the wicked king; surelv, 
he shall not escape from the avenging hand of the Lord. If I 
have found favor in thine eyes, let me get away (escape) and see 
my brothers. He that trusts in his own heart is a fool ; but 

whoso walks wisely, he shall be delivered. All these words will 
be written in the book of records. When thou runnest, thou wilt 
not stumble. Gather yourselves together (V^p) and hear, ye sons 
of Jacob. They sent messengers to all men to gather themselves 
together unto the city. 



134 

the people; and therein was found written that an Ammonite Pjftj?) 

and a Moabite should never come into the congregation (SlD) f 

tIt 
the Lord. If you seek me (fcH" 7 }) with all your heart, I shall be 

found by (7) you. Good boya were found among these children. 

I was not called to the king. Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, who 

are called by the name of Israel. This house was built seven years 

before our house. A word was revealed unto me. His counsel 

was not done. The bow was seen in the cloud. The tops (JfcO) 

of the mountains were seen. Has there been (Niph.) [anything] 

like this great thing, or has [anything] been heard like it ? 

53. Preterite and Participle Niphal of the Verbs J"D. Local He. 

(See page 61.) 

The Philistines were smitten before Israel. You were smitten 
before your enemies. And the children of Benjamin said, " They 
are smitten before us." Why did you approach the city ? The 
children of Israel came near unto Moses. We have been delivered 
( 7^J) from a great distress. And Isaiah said to Hezekiah, " Behold, 
days come that all that is in thy house, and that which thy fathers 
have laid up, shall be carried to Babylon." A book was given 

unto us. Walk in God's law which was given by the hand of 

Moses. If thou wilt not go out to the king of Babylon, this city 
shall be given into the hands of the Chaldeans (0*H|O). All the 
animals of the land, all the birds of heaven, and all the fishes of 
the sea have been given into your hand. His bread is given. 

Go, enter the land of Canaan. And they returned to the city and 
entered Joseph's house. 

54. Preterite and Participle Niphal of the Verbs V 'B. 

(See page 62.) 

The thing was known in the whole city. The hand of the 

Lord was known among the nations. I was not known to them. 



133 

know). I escaped from the camp (HJnD) f the enemies. The 
great horn Q^p /) was broken. Jehoshaphat made ships to go 
to Ophir (*1^1K) for gold; but they went not, for the ships were 
broken in Ezion-geber ("O-j JV^J?)- The Lord is nigh to the 

broken-hearted. You were shut up in your house and could not 
go out [for J three days. We were pursued, but we escaped. 

51. Preterite and Participle Niphal of the Verbs Pe and Ayin 

Guttural and N"B 

(See page 58.) 

I have been young (*1JJJ) and have also become old, yet ()) have 
I not seen a righteous man forsaken. The land was deserted by 
(Q) them. The city is not deserted. Our mourning has been 
turned into joy. And it shall come to pass [that] when thou wilt 
come thither, thou wilt be turned into another man. And Jonah 
entered the city and called out, "Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall 
be overthrown (Part.)" Kings came and fought, then fought the 
kings of Canaan. The enemies will return and fight against this 
city Be men and fight. We will go up and fight. The 

Egyptians said, " Let us flee from the face of Israel, for the Lord 
fights for them against Egypt." And Joshua said to the children 

of Israel, " Thus will the Lord do to all your enemies against whom 
ye fight." All that generation were gathered unto their fathers. 

A [good] name is [rather to be] chosen (Part, of ^n3) than great 
riches. 

52. Preterite and Participle Niphal of the Verbs fc"b and H"^- 

(See pages 59 and 60.) 

I will judge thee (f.) ill the place where thou wast created. 
The man in whose hand the cup (JP33) was found, he shall be my 
servant; but [as for] you, go up in peace to your father. On that 
day there was read in the book of Moses, in the audience (ears) of 



132 - 

not." And Jacob went near unto Isaac, his father, and he felt 

him and said, " The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are Esau's 
hands." In that night the king's sleep tied (T1J)- 

49. Kal of the Verbs Middle Tsere and Middle Cholem. 

(See page 55 ) 

A heavy cloud [is] upon the mountain. The thing is too 

heavy for thee. As a heavy burden (fc^D) they are two heavy 

for me. I am not a man of words, for I am slow (heavy) of 

speech (mouth), and slow of tongue. His ear is not too heavy to 
hear. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened. Day and night 
thy hand is heavy upon me. Eli was a very old and heavy man. 
And it came to pass, when Isaac was old, he called Esau, his eldest 
son, and said unto him, " Behold, I am old, I know not the day of 
my death." And Jehoiada (TJTirr) waxed old and was sated 

TT : 

with days. Who is the man that desires life and loves days to 
see good ? Thou hast done as it pleased thee. I delight to do 
thy will Qi^l), my God. He could not build a house. What 
was I able to do like you ? They could not stand before their 
enemies. I hate the way of the wicked. Why do you come to 
me, seeing ()) ye hate me? 

50. Preterite and Participle Niphal of the Regular Verb. 

(See }>ages 50 and 57.) 

Not one of them was missed. I took great heed to do my 
father's command. The words were written in the book of records 
(ni3l"^T*)- His voice was heard when he entered. The voice 
of the turtle-dove (^1^) was near( l m our land. Fear not, Daniel, 
for thy words were heard. The words of wise men are heard 

in quiet (nHJ)- When the Philistines heard that David was 

anointed king over all Israel, they went up to make war with him. 
Thou wast caught, Babylon, and thou wast not aware (didst not 



131 

the hand of Saul, my father, shall not find thee, and thou shalt 
reign over Israel." Go and see where they are, and I shall send 
and get (take) them. Take him and set thine eyes upon him. 

Behold, the book is before thee on the table, give it to me. Keep 
my words, write them upon the tablet (TVD) f tn y heart. In all 
thy ways know him. 

47. Infinitive with Suffixes. 

(See page 51.) 

Behold, I send an angel (TjN/D) before thee to keep thee on 
the way. Keep the commandments of the Lord, to serve him with 
all your heart and with all your soul. When I heard (Inf.) this 
thing, I rejoiced in my heart. All the people [were] weeping when 
they heard the words of the law. Lord, thou knowest my sitting 
down and my rising up. Thy father will come to see thee. 

When thou seest him, go to meet him and bring him into my 
house. Blessed be thou in thy coming in, and blessed be thou in 
thy going out. My son, remember thy creator, when thou sittest 
in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou 
liest down and when thou risest up. By the rivers of Babylon, 

there we sat down, yea (Q3) we wept, when we remembered Zion. 

48. Kal of the Verbs yy. 

(See page 53.) 

They encompassed me like water the whole day. All nations 
encompassed me. The watchmen that go about the city found me. 
This day have I rolled away the reproach (HBin) * Egypt from 

T : V 

you. Roll ye unto me a hirge stone. Commit (roll) thy way 

unto (upon) the Lord and trust in him, and he will do [it]. Whoso 
diggeth a pit shall fall therein, and he that rolleth a stone, upon 
him it shall return. And Isaac said unto Jacob, u Come near that 
I may feel thee (&^0)> m y son > whether thou be my son Esau or 



130 

What shall we say unto my Lord ? I know not who has done 

this thing What is thy business, and what is thy land ? What 
is this thou hast done unto us ? Eternal our Lord, how glorious 
CnfcO is thy name on the whole earth! 

45. Suffixes of the Verb in the Preterite. 

(See page 49.) 

The God of your fathers sent me to you. David sent us to 

thee (/*.) I called thee, but thou didst not hear me. Hast thou 
seen the man who sent him ? Behold, he comes out to meet thee, 
and when he sees thee, he will rejoice in his heart. And Zion 
said, " The Lord has forsaken me, and my Lord has forgotten me." 
All this has come upon us, yet have we not forgotten thee. Who 
made thee a judge over us? A wild beast has devoured him. 

And it shall belong (be) to Aaron and his sons, and they shall eat it 
in a holy place. Fear not, for I have redeemed thee. The spirit 
will return unto God who gave it. Fear them not, for I have 
given them into thy hand. Who has seen him there ? I have 
not seen him since (njin""IJ?)- Jacob knew not that Rachel had 
stolen them. 

46. The Future and Imperative with Suffixes. 

(See page 50.) 

Please go and I will send thee to them. And a man found 
him, and behold, [he was] wandering (njjfi) m tne field. Behold, 

f T 

the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me, and how shall 
Pharaoh hear me? I will go and see him before (Q*")[03) I die. 
Go, I pray thee, I will take thee to another place from whence thou 
mayest see him. And Jacob loved Rachel, and said, " I will serve 
thee seven years for Rachel, thy younger daughter." All nations 
will serve him. And Jonathan said unto David, li Fear not, for 



129 

one to another, " Let us appoint QH3) a chief and return into Egypt.'' 
On one way shall they come out against thee, and on seven ways 
shall they flee before thee. Lord, who shall abide in thy 

tabernacle ? 

43. Comparison. 

It is better to trust in the Lord than to confide (HDH) m man. 

T T 

Art thou better than thy brother ? Wisdom is better than strength 
(rrVQil)- Greater shall be the glory of this latter QVinN) house 
than [that] of the former. Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel 
wfcW^l)- There was not in all Israel a man more handsome than 
Absalom. They are older in (7) days than he. And Pharaoh 

said unto his people, " Behold, the people of the children of Israel 
[are] more and mightier (Q^J7) than we." His younger brother 
will be greater than he. And Abimelech said unto Isaac, " Go away 
from us, for thou art much ("){$D) mightier than we." Saul was 
higher (fl23) than all the people. Pharaoh said unto Joseph, 

T 

"There is none so intelligent (JQJ) and wise as thou." Jacob 
loved Joseph more than all his sons. 

44. Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns. 

(See page 46.) 

And they called Rebecca, and said unto her, " Wilt thou go 
with this man ? " And she said, " I will go." This is the man 
whom I saw in my brother's house. What did these men say ? 
There is none like him in all this land. This is the land in which 
your fathers dwelled. These women dwell in this city. And 

Moses wrote this song (rVVEO on that day. This is the day the 
Lord has made; we will exult (7P3) ant ^ rejoice on it. It is the 

man whom I met on the way. At that time he sent his servants 
to greet him. A long time did Joshua make war with all these kings. 
These are the kings that reigned over the land in those days. 



128 

pursuers had returned ; and they descended from the mountain and 
said unto Joshua, " The Lord has given all the land into our hands." 
I will go down and see what they are doing. My son shall not go 
down with you. Come, my uncle, let us go out into the field, and 
let us see if the vine QD3) flourish. Do thou (/.) not go out into 
the field, and walk not hy the way. Go not after other gods. 
O house of Jacob, come ye and let us walk in the light of the Lord. 

41. Future Kal of Another Class of the Verbs v . 

And the Lord gave Sihon QlrPD) mto tne hand of Israel, and 
Israel possessed all the land of the Amorites p**)^^)- Keep the 
commandments of your God, that (JJJD7) ye may possess the good 
land. I will lay down in peace and sleep. And Pharaoh awoke, 
and he slept and dreamed a second time (JV3E0- How long 

wilt thou sleep, O sluggard ; when wilt thou awake from thy sleep ? 
The Lord is for me, I shall not fear ; what can man do unto me ? 
Stay with me, I pray thee, fear not. Fear not, Hagar, for God 

has heard the voice of the lad. A lion has roared, who will not 
fear ? Fear ye not the people of the land. Peace [be] to you, 
fear not. Many shall see and fear, and shall trust in the Lord. 

42. Future Kal of the Verbs l"]; and v'j. 

And I have risen up in the place of (nHO) David, my father, 
and I sat upon the throne of Israel, and have built a house for the 
name of the Lord, the God of Israel. The word of our God will 
stand forever. And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that 
(fctfinn) generation; and there arose a new king ovor Egypt, who 
knew not Joseph. And Esther arose, and stood before the king. 
And Judah said unto his father, " Please send the lad with me, and 
we will arise and go, that we may live (H^H) an< ^ not die." And 

TT 

the men arose, and went down to Egypt, and stood before Joseph. 
Return ye unto me, and I shall return unto you. And they said 



- 127 - 
Barak (p*0) ail( l said unto him, "(jo and take with thee ten 
thousand men (^N D^DT'N IT)??^ of tne children of Naphtali 
and of the children of Zebulun." And God said, "Let there be 

light ("li&O," and there was light. And Moses went up on the 

mountain and lie was there forty days and forty nights. Lav not 
(rPEO tnv nan{ l upon the lad, neither do thou anything (PlD%tt3) 

- T T 7 

unto him. 

39. Future Kal of the Verbs J"B. 

They shall not come near and shall not go up with him. And 
his father Isaac said unto him, " Come near now, I pray thee, and 
kiss me, my son," and he came near and kissed him. And Joseph 
said to his brothers, " Come near to me, I pray you," and they 
came near. Unto thee, Lord, I lift up my soul. I will lift 

up the cup of salvation (Hly^* 1 ) an( ^ ca ^ upon the name of the 
Lord. Nation shall not lift up sword (2^n) a g am st nation, and 
they shall not learn war (HDri/D) an y more - And Rebecca 

lifted up her eves and [when] she saw Isaac, she lighted (7SJ) off 
the camel. Ahab said to Naboth (nl3J)> 'Please give me thy 

T 

vineyard for money, or, if it seem good to thee (be good in thine 
eyes), I will give thee another vineyard for it (nnP)>" anc ^ Naboth 
said, "I shall not give thee my vineyard." When the woman saw 
that the tree was good, she took of its fruit and ate ; and gave also 
to her husband with her, and he ate. 

40. Future Kal of the Verbs V 'D. 

I shall stay with thee until thy father w T ill come back. David 
said unto Bathsheba, " Thy son Solomon shall reign after me, and 
he shall sit upon my throne.'' And Moses said to the children of 
Gad and to the children of Reuben, " Shall your brethren go Ofc^) 

T 

to war, and you will stay here?" And the spies went to the 

mountain (rnPin) an ^ stayed there three (HE^EO days, until the 



TT T 



126 

Come ye and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the 
house of the God of Jacob. Man looks upon the outward appear- 
ance (eyes), but God looks on the heart. The human eye will not 
see all the glory of the Lord. We shall see what will become [of] 
his dreams. The righteous will see and rejoice. They have eyes 
and see not, they have ears and hear not. I shall be a father 

unto him, and he shall be a son unto me. And ye shall be unto 
me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. 

37. The Preterite with Vav Conversive. 

If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I 
go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, so that I 
return to my father's house in peace ; then shall the Lord be my 
God (be to me God). Go and stand in the gate of the children 

of the people, and say unto them, " Hear ye the words of the Lord, 
ye kings of Judah, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem." This 
day the Lord thy God commands thee (Tfi^O) to do these statutes 
and the laws (0D^C)> and thou shalt keep and do them with all 
thy heart and with all thy soul (/,3), and thou shalt remember 
that thou wast a bondman in Egypt. Take thee Joshua, the son 

of Nun (ftj), a man in whom there is spirit (n^H)* an ^ ^ly thine 
hand upon him. 

38. The Future with Vav Conversive. 

And Saul said unto Samuel, " I have sinned, for I have trans- 
gressed the commandment of the Lord (nD"H^ *"DJ?) '> because (vj) 
I feared the people and obeyed their voice." Moses hearkened to 
the voice of his father-in-law and did all that he had said. And 
Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and Aaron and said unto them, 
"I have sinned this time (Q}?Bn); the Lord [is] righteous, and I 
and my people [are] wicked." And Deborah sent and called for 



125 

water for us, if we ask you? We shall draw water for you, that (^) 
you may wash your hands. We shall not have hunger of bread. 
Behold, my servants shall be satisfied (JJ2?) with bread, but ye 
shall be hungry. In the morning you shall be satsified with bread. 
Pharaoh said, " Who is the Lord, that (*^R) I should obey his 
voice ? " David said to Saul, " Wherefore hearest thou men's words, 
saying, Behold, David seeks (fcfMD) thv hurt (HIP)?" A g od 
boy will obey his father and his mother. The sons of Eli (vj?) 
would not hearken unto the voice of their father. Thy ears will 
hear a word. Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years 
thou shalt prune (1^1) thy vineyard. 

35. Future Kal of the Verbs N"D and R"^, 

I shall not eat bread in this place. Of every tree of the garden 

thou mayest freely eat. The children of Israel shall not eat any 

blood. What shall I say to them ? How (rCfcO can y u sa y> 

t 
" We are wise, and the law of the Lord is with us ? " I shall not 

find a wise one among you. Do as occasion will serve thee (what 

thy hand will find). Let us find (we will find) grace in the eyes 

of my lord (|i^^)- Naomi said to the women of Bethlehem 

(Dn^ IV3)> "Call me not Naomi, call me Marah (fnO)-" As 

V V TT 

I called and they heard not, so will they call and I shall not hear. 
A righteous man hates (Fut.) the word of falsehood. 

36. Future Kal of the Verbs Pi'6- 

If the Lord will not build a house, its builders labor (7QJ7) in 
vain upon it. We will drink no wine, for our father said to us, 
"Ye shall drink no wine, nor shall you build a house." Say not, 
"As he has done to me, so will I do to him." Whatever they 
will say to thee shalt thou do. Know (f.) and see what thou 

wilt do. You shall not do any work on the Day of Atonement. 



124 

"By me kings will reign." All that I said unto the woman she 
shall observe. What thing soever (all the thing which) I command 
(ffl^p) you, (it) you shall observe to do. We shall write a letter 
(*1D) to our father. I will judge you, house of Israel, every 

one according to his ways. I said in my heart, " God will judge 

the righteous and the wicked" (Tfttf*)). The king said to the 

r T 

judges, "Ye judge not for man (Q1N) Dut f r tne Lord." The 

TT 

children will learn the way of their father and mother. I shall 

always remember the land of my birth. Thou wilt surely remember 
all that thy teachers have done for thee. My sister will put on a 
new dress. The men will shut the gates of our city. You shall 
not steal. Stolen waters are sweet (fut. of pHD)- 



T 



33. Future Kal of the Verbs Pe Guttural. 

Laban said unto Eliezer, " Come in, [thou] blessed of the Lord, 
wherefore standest thou without (VIPIS)?" Saul sen ^ to Jesse, 
saying (*1E$0)> "Let David, I pray thee, stand before me, for he 
has found favor in my eyes." Behold, the two kings stood not 

before him, how then (TPfcO) shall we stand? But you stay ye 

not (pause), pursue after your enemies. . Many will stand up 
against the king of the South. I shall not forsake my people 

Israel. Leave us not, I pray thee. Will the Jews (Q'HVP) 

forsake the house of their God? Hushai (^in) 8ft id unto 

Absalom, "Whom p7) should I serve, [is it] not before his son?" 
I and my house, we will serve the Lord. You shall not serve 

other gods. Devise not (^n) ev ^ against thy neighbor. 

34. Future Kal of the Verbs Ayin and Lamed Guttural. 

I shall ask the girl whose daughter she is. We shall ask her, 
"Is there room (a place) in thy father's house for us to lodge 
in Q v)?" The lions will roar in the forest. Will you draw 



123 

heads, ye gates, and lift up, ye everlasting doors. Not unto us, 
O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name give glory, for the sake of 
(by) tn y kindness ("ID?!) anc * f r tne sake of thy truth. Elijah 
said to the woman, "Give me thy son." Give (pi.) her of the 

fruit of her hands. Gedaliah (W/^) sa id to the men, "Dwell 

T : _ : 

in the land and serve the king of Babylon." Come down and sit 
upon the dust (*}V), daughter of Babylon. Go out and do 

so (s.) Go forth, ye daughters of Zion, and behold king Solomon. 
Laban and Bethuel said to Eliezer, " Behold, Rebecca [is] before 
thee, take [her] and go." Elijah said to the people, " If the Lord 
[be] God, follow him (go after him); but if Baal, follow him." 
Know thou and see that there is no evil in my hand. Know (f.) 
what thou hast done. 

31. Imperative Kal of the Verbs yy and vjf; Paragogic fl T . 

God said unto Balaam (QJ?73), u If the men have come to call 
thee, arise and go with them." Arise, my daughter, go into thy 
house. Arise ye, go out of this place. Arise, my daughters, 

hear my voice. Return (pafag.) into the city of peace. Jeremiah 
said to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, "Return ye now (J$J) every 

T 

one from his evil way." The sons of Dan Q^) said unto the 
Levite, "Lay thine hand upon thy mouth and go with us and be 
to us a father and a priest (JH3)-" Set your heart on (consider) 
your ways. Sing ye unto the Lord a new song; sing unto the 

Lord, all the earth. Judah said unto his father, "Send (parag.) 
the lad with me." Hear this, I pray you, ye heads of the house 
of Jacob. 

32. Future Kal of the Regular Verb. 

Adonijah said, " I will be king." Saul said unto David, " Behold, 
I know that thou shalt surely be king." The children of Israel 
said unto Samuel, "A king shall reign over us." Wisdom says, 



122 
ye people, pour out your hearts (3D 7) before him. My son, shut 
the gate and stand here with me. The men of Israel said unto 

Gideon, "Rule thou over us, both (QJJ) thou and (QJ) thy son, and 
thy son's son." My daughters, gather up the apples which [are] 

under the tree. My sons, gather the stones which [are] upon 

the field. Rejoice, my sister, for our father has returned to 

our house in peace. Leave [the] cities, ye inhabitants of Moab 

(Part, of 2^)- Send (s.) to me a man cunning (wise) to work 

in gold and in silver. Open ye to me the gates of righteousness. 

29. Imperative Kal of the Verbs N"B fc" 1 ? and ?T'^. 
Open (HlJS) thy mouth and eat what I give thee. The prophet 

T T 

Jeremiah wrote to the men of Judah that [were] in Babylon, "Build 
ye houses and dwell [in them]; and plant (J?QJ) gardens, and eat 
their fruit." Say unto thy brothers, " This do ye." Say ye to 
the daughter of Zion (ft>2), "Behold, thy salvation (TUJE^) comes." 
Say (/*.) to the cities of Judah, "Behold your God." Call his name 
Isaac. Elijah said unto the prophets of Baal OJQ), "Cry aloud 
(with a great voice), for he is a god." Jonathan QpjVP) said 

unto the lad, "Go, find out the arrows." My sisters, find ye rest 
(niTIJC) m m y bouse. The son of my uncle said unto me, " Buy 

T 

(to thee) my field which [is] in the land of Benjamin." Jacob 
said unto his son Joseph, " See the welfare of thy brothers, and the 
welfare of the flock " [whether thy br. and fl. are well]. David 

said to Abigail (b\!PD&$) " Go up in peace to thy house; see, I 
have hearkened to thy voice." Jehoshapath (tD{JfV"P) king of 

T T 

Judah, said to the judges, " See what you are doing." 

30. Imperative Kal of the Verbs J"B and v '. 

Come hither, my sons, and hear my words. Carry (s.) the child 
to his mother. Pour out (f.) thy heart like water before the face 
of the Lord; lift up thy hands (Fp) toward him. Lift up your 



121 

the evil (HIPO cam upon us, as it is written in the law of Moses. 

*T T 

The acts (* - O r l) of the kings of Judah are written in the book of 

Chronicles (D">M "H3"!). Sanballat (CO^JD) sent his servant 

T" ":'. 

unto me with (1) an open letter in his hand. Thou art sent to 

the house of Israel. Moses took men, wise and known, and set 

them over the people. Haman Qj"i) said unto his wife, "Also 

for to-morrow dPID?) I am invited (&Op) unto her with the 

king." He was beloved of (/) his brothers. 

27. Infinitive Kai. 

Thou hast not hearkened unto the voice of the Lord thy God, to 
keep his commandments and his statutes. They could (V?^) not 
any longer stand before their enemies. The men would not (Q^ Si/) 

T 

hearken unto him. The sons of Job (31^) sen ^ aR d called for 

their three sisters (QrPfVnX HE'?^/) to ea ^ anc ^ to drink with 
them. The Lord has given you a heart to know, and eyes to see, 
and ears to hear. Isaac sent Jacob to the house of Laban, his 

mother's brother, to take for himself a wife from thence. We saw 
certainly that the Lord was with thee. When Saul saw David go 
forth against (HfcOp"?) the Philistine, he said unto Abner (*)J2iO> 
"Whose son [is] this youth?" [It is] joy to the just to do right 
(QW). Why didst thou not call us to go with thee? The 
trees went forth to anoint (JIH^D) a king over themselves. Naomi 

- T 

went forth out of the field of Moab to return unto the land of 
Judah. 



28. Imperative Kal of the Regular Verb and the Gutturals. 

Hear, earth, the word of the Lord. Hear, ye children, the 
advice of your father. Write this in the book. Write ye this 

song (n*Pt0 f r yourselves. Stand upon thv feet. Open thy 

T ' 

mouth. Judge righteously (p*JJJ). Trust in him at all times; 



120 

24. Suffixes Appended to Feminine Nouns in the Plural. 

Her servants (kids) and her maids went with her. Esau ()&]]) 
saw that the daughters of Canaan were displeasing unto (evil in the 
eyes of) Isaac, his father. Laban said unto Jacob, " The daughters 
[are] my daughters, and the children fare] my children, and the 
flock [is] my flock, and all that thou seest is mine." Our sons 
and our daughters have become servants, and our fields (Hl"!^) 

T 

and our vineyards [belong] to others. Thus says Sennacherib 

(3*HnJD)> k m f Assyria (*V)^), "Know ye not what I and 
my fathers have done unto all the nations of the lands?" The 
Lord, our God, be (Vp) with us, as he was with our fathers. 

25. Particles with Plural Suffixes. 

Isaac said unto them, " Why have ye come to me ? " Keep 
CnDEO m y commandments and my statutes which I gave you by 
(T3") m y servant Moses. I send thee to them. I sent to you 
all my servants, the prophets, but } r ou did not hearken unto me. 
The men of Judah said unto Jeremiah, "We do not (UJ* 1 ^) hearken 
unto thee." Adonijah said unto Bathsheba, " Thou knowest that 
the kingdom (rOV?D) was mme > an ^ [that] all Israel set their 

T 

faces on me." He laid his hands upon him. Absalom acquired 
(HEW) for himself chariots (J"Q3*1D) and horses, and fifty (D^DCl) 
men to run (running) before him. Gehazi plPPi!) ran after him 
and took from his hand silver and garments. Samuel said 

unto the children of Israel, "Behold, the Lord has set (JHj) a king 
over you." 

26. The Passive Participle Kal. 

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who made the heaven and 
the earth. Blessed be he that comes (X3H) m the name of the 

T ~ 

Lord. I have seen what is done P^Jjn) to you in Egypt. All 



119 

from the house of her aunt. Samuel said unto the whole house 

of Israel, "God will be (rVJT) with you, if (Q^) you return unto 
him (V^N) with all your heart." The spies (Q^/ZnD) said unto 

T " : - : 

Moses, " We came unto the land whither thou didst send us 
(Unnb^' *1I#N)> and surely (QJ)), it floweth with milk and honey, 
and this is its fruit." 

22. Suffixes Appended to Masculine Nouns in the Plural. 

All the nations (QJ?) of the earth have seen the glory of the 
Lord. Joseph had two sons. . They are my brothers, the sons 
of my mother. My sons went out of my house, and behold, they 
are (Qjni) m tne l an d of Egypt. I have seen thy children and 

T : 

thy children's children. Thy (/".) children have forsaken me. 
Jacob loved Joseph more than all ("73Q) his sons. Jethro (i*irV) 
said unto Moses, " I, thy father-in-law (TJjnil) Jethro, am coming 
unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her." The children 
of Israel laid their hands upon the Levites PI7, D S V?). 

23. Continuation. 

Our children wrote the words which we said unto them. The 
words of a wise man's mouth are grace (jn)- I P u ^ m y words 
into thy mouth. The queen of Sheba ($Ot# rO^Q) sa id unto 

Solomon, "True is the report (131) which I heard in my land 
about (7 J?) thy sayings (words), and about thy wisdom." I heard 
the voice of your words. Servants have ruled over us. The 

servants of Isaac told him that they had found water. My servants 
went with thy servants. The inhabitants (3tpi) f Gibeon QlJJDJl) 
said to Joshua and to the children of Israel, " From a very far 
country your servants have come." King Ahab (^HX) sa ^ unto 
his servants, "Do you know that Ramoth-Gilead (lybz fiuH) is 
ours?" We have heard with our [own] ears the words of the 
king. 



118 

loved husbandry (was loving ground HDIX)- Thou, Lord, art 
our father, our redeemer is of old (Q^lJJO) thy name. Why dost 
thou not (TJJ^JO eat bread? They set for him alone, and for them 
alone, and for the Egyptians (Q^^D) ^ na ^ [were] eating with him, 
alone. The land in which we dwell is very good. The woman 
[was] sitting in the field, but Manoah (n1JCl)> her husband, [was] 

- T 

not with her. They found- Saul and his sons fallen (falling) on 
the mount of Gilboa (J?2PJ). I am a tiller ("QJ?) f tne ground. 
Joshua (JJ^'IrP) sa id unto the children of Israel, "Behold, I am 
going to-day the way of all the earth." 

20. Active Participle Kal of the Verbs N "b and n"b-- 

The Lord knows the way of the righteous. We know that lie 

is a good man. I send thee unto my father's house. He does 

not (UJ^JO obey the voice of his father and the voice of his mother. 

The girl obeys the voice of her father. Hagar ("Un) said, "I ilee 

T T 

from the face of Sarah." The watchmen (part, of "")?) saw a 

- T 

man coming out of the city. Behold, the girl is coming out 

unto the well. Moses said unto the children of Israel, "To-day 
ye come out of the land of Egypt." The daughters of (JYiJ2) 
the city come out to draw water. I have seen all that Laban does 
unto thee. The men came from their work which they [were] 

doing. The house which I am building is large. 

21. Active Participle Kal of the Verbs )"]} and V 'J?. 

Behold, thy son Joseph is coming out unto thee (t|vK) 
There is no peace to him that goes out and to him that comes in. 
They are coming from a distant land. The woman is coming into 
thy house. Many enemies rise up against (7J?) our people. 

You do not lay to fy]}) heart the word of the Lord. The boy 

is returning from his work in the field, and the girl is returning 



117 - 
17. Preterite Kal of the Verbs )"]} and *'JJ. 

The king arose from (7JJD) the chair. All the men (sing.) 
of Israel arose from their place. You have risen up against fy%) 
my father's house this day. Jeroboam (DJ?D*V) returned not 

from his evil way. The woman returned unto her father's house. 
I returned in peace unto my land and my family. Moses set the 
law before the children of Israel. I laid my hand upon my mouth. 
The girl ran into her mother's house. I ran after the man who 

fled into the field. All the men (sing.) of Israel saw that Saul 

and his sons 0\UI) na cl fled and that they had died. Where- 

T T 

fore have we fasted, and thou hast not seen [it] ? 

18. Particles. 

The sons of Jacob said one to another (a man to his brother), 
" What is this [that] God has done unto us ? " What is this thou 
hast done unto me ? They returned unto the man who had sent 
them. Pharao's daughter came up out of the city of David unto 
her house which Solomon had built for her. You have forsaken 
me, and I have forsaken you. Why didst thou not go with us ? 

Give bread and wine to the men (Q^JfcO who went with me. The 
Lord guarded us in all the way wherein we went. Hast thou a 
brother or a sister ? I have a little sister whose name is Huldah 
(rn^n)- They have a large house. She has neither father nor 

T : '. 

mother. 

19. Active Participle Kal of the Regular Verb, 
K"Bi J"D and v^. 

He that keepeth a commandment keepeth his soul (&JJ). 

He who keepeth his mouth and his tongue, keepeth his soul from 

troubles (fny). Cain (Pp) said, "Am I my brother's keeper?" 

We keep the commandment of our God OJVi^N)- Uzziah OH^t?) 

t -: 



116 
15. Preterite Kal of the Verbs K'6- 

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 
Rebecca found favor before Eliezer. Jacob said unto Laban, 

"What hast thou found of all the vessels of p*?3) thy house?" 
Hilkiah (^H^n)* the high-priest (^H} JH3), said unto Shaphan, 

Tl- : T.I" 

the scribe (^CBH JB0i "J h ave found the book of the law in the 
house of the Lord." The children of Israel went three days in 
the wilderness (^3"i?33 D^D" 1 PE^EOi an ^ found no water. 

T : - T 

You have not found anything (^3^]) in my hand. The word 

T # T 

went out of the king's mouth. Little boys came out of the city. 
You remember the day [on] which you came out from Egypt, 
out of the house of bondmen. Adonijah did not invite (call) his 
brother Solomon. Thou hast called his name Isaac. 



16. Preterite Kal of the Verbs H"*?. 

Who is the man that has built a new house? I have seen 
the house which thou hast built. Judah (rnW) emigrated from 
her land. Why didst thou not tell me (JJjK""^ H^3) that m Y 
sister was in thy house ? They did not tell me that you were in 
the field. He had (to him was) a son whose name [was] Saul. 

Nineveh (m^J) was II 8 rea ^ c ^y- fh e l aw of truth was in 

his mouth. Thou hast not been like my servant David. They 

had no children. Samson (}i?ft^*) sa *d unto the men ( sm S-) f 
Judah, "As they did unto me, so have I done unto them." He 
did not tell his father and his mother what he had done. Ruth 
told Naomi what she had been doing the whole day. You have done 
what I told you. Why have ye (/.) done this (n?H) thing? 
What have they seen in thy house ? We have seen the land, and 
behold, it is very good. 



115 

My servant tilled my vineyard. I served before thy father. 

You served the Lord with all your heart (33 7). The boy did 
not leave his father. The girl did not leave her mother. I have 
forsaken my house. Moses stood on the mountain forty days 

and fortv nights; he did not eat bread and did not drink (HH^) 

T T 

water. Thou hast eaten of the fruit of the garden. Thou (/".) 
hast eaten of the bread upon the table. The boys have eaten their 
bread with honey. 



13. Preterite Kal of the Verbs Ayin Guttural. 

The man asked about (7) our kindred. They saluted thee. 
The girl drew water from the well. I washed my hands PT) 

in the water which my daughter gave unto me. He cried unto the 
king. The wife cried unto the prophet Elisha (J7E^7#). The 
whole day they cried unto the Lord. Elkanah (fUD^X) an d his 

TlT : V 

wife Hannah (njlH) went unto their place. The Lord was with 

T - 

me on the way which I went. Why hast thou despised the 

word of his mouth ? The daughters have rejected the word of 

their father. 

14. Preterite Kal of the Verbs Lamed Guttural. 

A new king was over Egypt who did not know Joseph. He 
knows no book. What knowest thou that (fcOl) we know not? 
I know that thou art great and thy name is great. They know 

that we are hungry. The children of Israel did not know what 
it I was]. I have heard what the prophets said. The children 
of Israel hearkened not unto Moses. My daughter, hast thou 

not heard the voice of thy mother in the house ? Behold, I 
have sent thee silver and gold. Why did you not obey (hearken 
to the voice of) your father ? 



114 

10. 

Better OlB) is the end of a thing than () its beginning. 
Isaac said unto Jacob, " May the Lord give thee the blessing of 
Abraham." Take my blessing. My sleep is pleasant unto me. 

I saw in my sleep the house of a king. Our year is a year of 
plenty. The work is great upon the man. I am doing (HEty) 
a great work. The man has done the housework. His son 

returned to his work. What is thy work and what is thy land ? 

Hezekiah (V"i ! fn) was u P on the tnrone of David and u P n his 

kingdom. Simei PJOtf) was from the family of the house 

of Saul. The man returned unto his birthplace and unto his 



family. 



THE VERB. 



II. Preterite Kal of the Regular Verb. 

My servant David kept my commandment. The woman kept 
the word of the Lord. Why hast thou not kept his command- 

ment ? I kept the commandment of my father. I have written 
a book. We wrote a letter to our father. Jerusalem (DvtjfTT) 
did not remember her end. The children of Israel ("JfcHfeP M?) 
did not remember the law of Moses. You (/.) have not learned 
wisdom. They have gathered up the fruit of the tree which [is] 
in the field. Solomon reigned after his father David. The 

throne of the Lord [is] in the heavens, and his kingdom ruleth 
over all 62Q). 

12. Preterite Kal of the Verbs Pe Guttural and tf"B- 

The King of Babylon &33) stood on the way. My foot 

stood in the house of the king". You stood on the mountain and 
thev stood in the field. Thou hast not served the Lord with joy. 



113 

7. Segholates. 

A new king was over the land. Balak (p^3) was the king 
of Moab (3XlD)- The Lorcl is our re( ieemer and our king. 

Their king went into his land. He was not like my servant 

David. Abraham said to his servant Eliezer, "Take a wife for (to) 
my son." The prophet Jeremiah (JTD*V) went on ( to ) nis wa 3 T - 
Thy (/.) book is very nice. His ear is very large. Your 

king is a good and wise man. Her husband went on his way 
and his boy went with him. Little foxes in our forest. He 

was a stranger in their land. 

8. 

Where is my father? He is in thy brother's house. The 
daughters returned to their father. The sons returned to their 

father Jacob. Laban was the brother of Rebecca. Jacob said 

to Rachel that p3) he was her father's brother. Great wisdom 

in his mouth. The tree of the land will give its fruit. Their 

wine is very sweet. The father of the girl went in peace to his 

house. The tongue of truth in the mouth of the wise. Who is 
the stranger in thy (f.) house? He is my brother's son. Where 
are thy father and thy brother ? They are in our vineyard. 

9. Feminine Nouns. 

The law of truth in his mouth. The law of thy mouth is 

good unto me. My law is in their heart. It is the animal 

which I saw by the river of Chebar (133)- My aunt is a good 

T : 

woman. Our aunt is our father's sister. I saw thy (f.) maid- 

servant in the house of her aunt. The name of her maid-servant 
is Sarah. The fear of the Lord, that is (NVl) wisdom. Your 
advice is a good advice. Keep, my son, the command of thy 

father. Thy command, my mother, is very pleasant to me. 



- 112 - 
SUFFIXES APPENDED TO NOUNS IN THE SINGULAR. 



The voice of my uncle in the garden. My cup upon my hand. 
Our city is very small. Thy (/*.) fine dress upon the chair. 

Where is thy uncle ? He and my brother are in the house. 

Your uncle is a good man. Your (/.) voice is very pleasant. 

Give water to their white horse. Sweet wine in their (/.) cup. 

I saw in my dream the uncle of my father. A fruit-tree in my 

brother's garden. 



King David was the son of Jesse pP)- Whose son art 

thou ? I am the son of thy uncle. I saw his .tall [elder] son. 

Thy son Solomon (Ji^EO is very good. Thou and thy son and 

thy daughter. Jacob, her little son, is in the field. Rachel (^ni) 

thy little daughter. He is my brother, the son of my mother. 

The name of his mother is Rebecca (ilDDI)- Great joy in our 

It : 
heart. Truth and wisdom in her heart. What is his name? 

His name is Reuben Q21JO)- What is the name of thy (/".) mother ? 

My mother's name is Sarah (rH^*)- Rebecca had (to Rebecca) 

TT , 

a brother and his name [was] Laban (727 ). 

6. 

Blessed be thou, my son David (11^). Blessed be you of (to) 

T 

the Lord. Solomon became (was) king in the place of David. 

Abraham returned (2E0 to his place. The word of truth is upon 

T 

my tongue. Upon the whole earth is thy glory. Their neighbor 
is a good man. Where is the little girl ? The little girl is in 
the house (J"V2) f ner mother. A word of falsehood was not 
($$*?) on his tongue. Give bread to thy hungry neighbor. 



EXERCISES 

FOR TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO HEBREW 

CORRESPONDING WITH THE EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION FROM 
HEBREW INTO ENGLISH PAGES I - 110. 



I. The Personal Pronoun, the Article and Prefixes. 

The wolf in a forest. A wolf in the forest. I am a man. 
A child on a horse. The child on the horse. We are in the 
house. She is on the throne. Thou art a child and he is a man. 
The father and the mother are in the field. Grass to the ox and 
meat to the lion. It is the stone (f.) You are in the ship and 
they (/".) are in the field. 

2. The Adjective. 

A good man. The good man. The man is good. A large 
ox. The large ox. The ox is large. Give me a fine garment. 
Take the water out of the pot. We are tall and you are small. 
The black ink in the cup. Give me a precious (good) stone. 

Take (to thee) the black kid. The honey is very sweet. The 

mother and daughter are very good. The milk is white. White 
milk from the fire. 

3. The Noun. 

A red fox. Red foxes. The large wolf. The large wolves. 
The small fishes in the river. The strangers are in the garden. 
To the bird and to the beast. The cups (HlDlS) with honey and 
with wine. Good servants. Upon the wood (* ) ^y) upon the 
fire. Wood from the field. The way of a ship in the water. 
The small ships. The wolves and the lions are wild beasts. 

Precious stones to the woman. Thou art a good son and she is 
a good daughter. The rod for the back of fools. 



to favor 
iniquity 



T T T 



a forensic cause, 2*1 < 

a contest 
a subterranean i?i&*t? c - 

place, the grave : 
to give peace Di^t? D*b' 



110 

I to oppress 
to press, to afflict 
to mock 



[n]m* II to lighten, [r] -riK 

TT I; to cause to shine 



(Tl 1 ? calamity 
jy? a man 

to respect 






to stretch out, to incline, HL23 
to turn aside T T 

to be unpunished [J] ng | t0 ^ c th ^^ ais ^ ] "2 



,ya : n D toko con bw na^n !? j'nja njp ,nDan rup 

pan cod^o neon *6 : -pa con TiJiarfe , na'wpn Tioan 1 ? 
pso nvn lT"u *3 ,uyr6n *6i ruin *6 n;i inna 
mn *6i ,*n w ket\ vb ;wvm bw wvd vb ronso 
intra ^y net ^d -aA died :-pny been piM ;^ru ix 
nyaa won *? :npr *6 t*6 n?o^ nnfcty ^ti trb ssh 
ws:i ^rnB^D nn ;rray *6 oded uon ^ '"od 
ahDTO mm na kt j-pya c^n nn ^ :Wi bisEw 
oak tea ^na "jtik rmn "6 niznr no ;NTk *6 ,^> mn -1 
:ofojj iv) nnyn -jaiai -jrow tdbp * iD^iyb "jedb maaKi 
"l^x tos " wet : "prm ")^k tjd * "w : "poEn * "pnzr 



109 

1) The first class comprises those verbs which have two radical : 
subject to the anomalies of the various irregular verbs : 
nSN "to bake" belongs to ^"2 and H"7 , HCM "to incline ' 

TT , TT 

to J"B and |-|'9 . 

Verbs of this hind are : 

a) N" and H'6 : ."DN "to be willing," pret. Kal Tvi** , 

fut. Kai naif 

b) y% and rrh - HCM "to incline," fut. Kal fig)}, with Vav 
conv. Epl, fut. Hiph. nD\ with Vav conv. ggj; HDJ "to 
strike," pret. Hiph. HZH , fat. m2\ with Yav conv. TH* 

mf. rfcn. 

c) J"B and fc"^ : fcE?J "to carry," fut. Kal KJP , imp. N? 
inf. riXE^ and H^ 

d) T'B ancl N"^? : N^ 1 "to go out," pret. Kal ">flfc&* , fut. Kal 
KJtN , imp. ^y , inf. OKI? , pret. Hiph. ^SflPI , part. 

e) V'B and JT^ : ITT . Hiph. "to confess," "to give thanks," 

fut. rrfr r part, niio 

f ) yj and K'6 : Nfa "to come," part. Kal. T^3 , fut. Kfip , 
pret. Hiph. TtJQTl r fat. RTF 

2. The second class comprises such verbs as have two different roots: 
-VL3 and tP "to fear," #Q and ^IT "to be ashamed," TlS"! and 
TIT "to go," yfc and y& "to be good." 

3. To the third class belong those verbs whose flexion is composed 
of different forms of conjugations, tenses and genders : n"?pp 
(Psalm 7, 6), composed of Kal Pp-p and Piel F)TT ; 
PPinnitf p (Ezekiel 8, 16), composed of part, and pret. ; H JiOS? 1} 
and H JOrPl with a masc. Preform ative and a fern. Afformative ; 

t : 

but these forms are of a very rare occurrence. 



108 



bjrten ]T) ?nwD nyb rON *6 nob ?ppa wot noi 
naiyi unoa tytsd psotbti crcncpi nneo Totenn 
otdi" ,fps m ck weRm [rtejn rupn^ni :yn 

jtikd "pab na pan *6 tea ;ntea -piya tin ^a 
:teten hotod hot *in 



99. 
Z!ffE .FOX .4iV 7 i> rarff iL4 rJEZK 

splendor, 2V I] delicacies D*ayOE . smoothness, np^n / ! to desire [nn]rflN 
glory ' : flattery T:v ' l" 

to be wide, * 3m desirable, "IDHJ to be beautiful nST i an oak ji^X w. 

to dilate " T delicious J" IV TT 

to be [nxnir-] nNIT to take away [n] ?S3 awing Cp3 /. cheese POT*/. 

astonish-'-' 1 " : ' TT Tr T ' J 

&d , suddenly DXH3 food ^2ND w. splendor nin m. 

a desire "INFl/- : ' T **'~ 

T : ; a simpleton M2 /. to delav[rin]nnD i! to smooth, [n] pin 
to fool, SHOT '' : - = " [I to flatter " T 

to, mock 

18m tew? "asm : niDPij ruaj real naj jito by aer 3"w 
ynyr6 team ?r6*ci dtdbodti jn M^a*r ts .tank nwri 
rcn iirwn teo too ten jyab ,ropte nspa anyn pk 
i rp ^a te ^aa ntej rich rvs 1 no . nwuraD fcnp^i t6k 
^rowm tds -pon so mn nnyi ; "j-iin TYi*na ^b 2m 
*6i rDte Tn rrxn :"]rroa BOTnera jysb ,-jbip rw 
nbs team irwan na tod tei ,fap unrb nnnvnn 
: iiyi ynym nte*n dkhb teicwi 
: pefc p^nob ttdkti te 

o 

100. 

ANOMALOUS VERBS. 

Anomalous verbs are those whose flexion differs in a twofold 
manner from that of the regular verbs : 



107 






98. 
PILPEL AND HITHPALPEL. 

Inf. const. : 7373 ; "to sustain" (713) 73^3 



Imperative. 

sustain 7373 



Participle. 

sustaining 73730 



Future. 

I shall sustain 73^3 X 

^3^ri r 73^31*1 

etc. 7373fl 7373* 



Preterite. 

I have sustained ^^373 

etc. H73^3 , 7373 



1. The Piel and Hithpael (rarely Pual) of some verbs Y'JJ and JJ"JJ 
are formed by doubling the two principal radicals, so that these 
verbs consist of four letters (quadriliteral); Piel is then designated 
by the name of Pilpel (;B7B)> an d Hithpael by that of Hithpalpel 

6ebgnn) 

2. There are a few quadriliteral verbs in which the third radical is 

doubled: ^QN, nyi, \2Wtf; in TQHan and TITD the 
- : It - : - I :r - : - t: - : - : 

second and third radical are doubled ; in DSDnD the second 

t : . : 

radical is added. 

3. There occur only four truly quadriliteral verbs in the Bible: 
r^hsTQ] (Psalm 80, 14), ^BETl (Job 33, 25), ]h) (Job 26, 9), 

CD (I Chron. 15, 27). 



THE ANT AND THE CRICKET. 



summer pp m. 

harvest Yp m. 

T 

to delight JJBW 



winter cpn m. pray ! "3 

v 
to dance "13*13 corn pim. 

..... 

a cricket 7Y7X . : ; singing mDT / 



to gather in "OX 

a hushand- 13 X mi 
man T ' 



to harden 



i*fcX 



wih TpD ton tw pn hk cr^jn njNsim rpro mi 
^ ns*6 pta im asn bybx *n irtriKn ^:d by 

.-06 D ,l ?Djn ni?Km :bc*6 noua be p v r. ,*p6 



106 

b'Bpn ."vtfjwi tfntonjnj '.^ivpB urn ^nabl-inn^j 

tep ro?fi:n ,tw rftrrh ^*u Ut6k osii :Di-ip-P)N 

DPsn :-ijn Qbiyb Tjpel pdtqw ,"^sn t6n TjpphN :ttp 

tufato' 1 ion rftra PHoiam ,y&-b wyisaa 

v : : v v 7 - - - : t tt : - 





97. 






PUAL AND HITHPAEL OF THE VERBS TV AND JJ"y. 


to raise oneself, to rise up DOipnn 




to be raised up DOip 


Preterite. 




Preterite. 


I have risen up *DDlpnn 




1 I have been raised upTUDfbip 


nopipnn ,niiiprin 




BODip nppip 


etc. nooipnn , oipipnn 




etc. nopip , opip 


Future. 




Future. 


I shall rise up DOipHX 




I shall be raised up DDipK 


wipnn , cpipnn 




etc. <poipn , Dpipn 


rise up DOipJlH Imperative 


Participle. 


rising up DftipDO Participle 


Doipc 


a relative 3i~ip m. 


to hide oneself 


(nn) nfy 


yesterday fenN 


to be poor tJ^I 


afflicted, poor 


' T 


to shave n?3 
a debt 2in m. 


astonished " : " T 


to pray 


(nn) 9pQ 


to beseech, [nn] pn 
to implore : "" 



tin prim ,Dvn ^yb nEwnm Vunn w ^dj tik bpk 
b "peow ^ -ra ,ttd ^ new ^d nob fjb 1 ? ranpo 
,ny ^ pin rfcnw ymn nny on baj jxm :abynn 
baj v6n toot ,bionso ^n rb bbenrnrob ip* "ma 
nrbrii dtwk p rani *6n ,rmy raa ^-pby y deih^e 
rro 1 ? ^yn d^ , rtowi ara : inob died "jb ? ^n dm jyno 
itctdti obe6 ib rrn vb rs ,nbyr\n) mi o ,uj>k rum ^dj 



105 

irvj) bx nnN ann prw ^ vmn ,*b lb njp *3M3 

rebb jxom pnan wwnni rO wed ba "oy b innen 

nan nm "pi *?po npi "crtn sjti : ttjtk bips bde^i 

DnnsEOTi DTW3 Dnasnon ninner "]b o roenn .rib* 

: na in nrwno rai *6 



96. 

to raise up (Dip) DElp 



Imperative. 



raise up 



miDOip , IDElp 



Participle. 

DDipB 



Future. 
aise up 


DnipK 


wfpw 


, Dttipn 


ocipn 


' D *W 


boipj 


ruppipn 


iDipipri 


rnoiipn 


, vacfip 



Preterite. 
I have raised up TlODip 

nooip , ropip 

nip&ip , cpip 

jnppip , Dnsoip 
lEEip 



1. The formation of Piel, Pual and Hithpael of the verbs Y'JJ differs 
entirely from that of the other verbs : the second radical, instead 
of receiving Dagesh forte, quiesces in Cholem, and the third 
radical is doubled : Qplp for pip , UQ)p f r Dip 

2. Dip has also the Piel QJO "to fulfill." 

3. The Piel, Pual and Hithpael of the verbs y'JJ are formed in a 
similar way : DD1D for 3DD > DD1D f r D2D ; but several verbs of 
this class are regular in Piel andHiphil : v7Q i /y\l , pi , VT^H 



to raise, exalt, {PicT) DV1 

extol 
a door-keeper ~\yS$ m. 

to be depressed, low ?2C> 



a Lcvite 
pain, sorrow 



j5> m. 



to compass, [PieJ] 32D 
to protect 



to magnify, to bring up yft 
to found ID* 

to impoverish [n] Eh* 



Drngie^ 'O^tfrp? V. n ^ 'HTW tete unypob ipbni nfon 

t 7 : - t ) I v t - t t : t : t: T : v -; 



104 

95. 

Some anomalies of the Hitlipael. 
HITHPAEL OF THE VERBS 10# AND nrW 

to keep oneself -)ftFVt?n 

Future. Preterite. 



Imperative : y&F\wT\ I sball keep nraFV^X I have ke Pt TV-iran^i"! 

- : myself '* " : v . myself '"**: * 



Participle: TOTte I "^H^H ^^\t^\ r\^T\y?\ *VpPf%\ 
[J ' etc. II etc. * 

Inf. coyistr: ninH^H ; "to prostrate oneself " (nntf) HinPil^n 
Imperative. Future. Preterite. 

"hnH^n rmnFMI I I shall pr. myself JTinFl:^ I have pros- TVinrWI 
-:-' .-;,-;. ..-:>- : v | trated mysel f " :l " : 

Participle. With Vav conversive : 

mnrifi^JD | he, she prostrated herself inriKTn , innB^l 

they prostrated themselves pnn&TTI , nnB*1 

1 . When the first radical is $ , & or Q , transposition takes place : 
"T2HEH for Tgttfnn ; if the first radical is S , the H of the Prefix 
is, besides, changed into JQ : pH0^3 f r p^nj 

2. In the Hitlipael of the verb T\TW (originally *!j^), a *j is inserted 
after the second radical. 

3. Before "I , JO , H (sometimes also before 1 , J , j , 3 , Tj, the 
prefixed H drops and is compensated by Dagesh forte : "inCOn 

for Trnn , v&m for jeunn . 

4. There sometimes occurs the form ^ySHH which can be regarded 
as the passive of /JJSnH HpSDnH "they were mustered," D22H 
(for DD3nn) "to be washed," ^BtDH (for XSCOnH) "to be defiled.'* 



Note. In order to accustom the scholar to read unyocalized Hebrew, 
a few exercises are presented without yowels. 

VANITY. 

to be exalted, [nn] X&: a family nnBSPD/ a she-ass pnX / 

proud : * "" 

a graven image, ^D2 m. t o lead, to drive jm a Canaanite *:y:3 w. 

an idol '' v - t 



103 



94. 
HITHPAEL OF THE VERBS K"7 AND H"7 . 

to cause oneself to be healed NQlHn 

Future. Preterite. 

Imperative: KaiHn . I shall cause my- NSnHK 'j I caused myself ^nB"inn 
" ~ ; ' self to be healed ' " : '' to be healed 

Participle: Nsnnft njKa-inn ^KB^nn ! rwijnn nwnnn 



etc. 



etc. 



Infinitive construct : ni^HH : "to uncover oneself " (ri73) n^aHM 



Imperative. 
uncover thyself n^PH 

Participle. 



Future. 



Preterite. 



I shall uncovermy- n^nH^ I have uncovered ^n^sHn 
self ''" : v mvself ' " : 



^nn , n^nn 



rfenn , n4nn 



nwo /n>inp etc n>^nn,*?rr! etc. nnHnn ,nfenn 



ra^ /srcx z/oiv 7 ^^i> rira .FOX 

P]1t3 m. || force, violencenptn/. || a lion 
torushupon[nn]f>2J ! a den 



to act [nn] !>3J li prey 

deceitfullv : 



mx m. 



f\)}D m. to seize 



a heel, 

a footstep 



?*?? w - ! a cave myn /. to fei " n frn] r&n 

tt: I oneself sick : ' T " 



on the out- pnn 
side, without 



the belly 



pif. 



to strengthening 

oneself, : 
to take courage 



to be much 3 yj II straight> 8incere ^ to be weak gn 

many . T , t 

rvn rb a ,^nrn Dtf 338ft irrMrfo nW rtitoa 

t T : t - : tt: v )v- 

,inin Vyi&n pn :nrw fetfh rr% ^BQni .iri&oVjrnfen 

T .T T - I VT" T - - T V T - ; ; VT - 

*6 -iiy ,i6 ^win jyji tyro inyp ndj ,"b* rn*o via 

I - : v t : "-a- I: t ; v Jv -:i- : -t 

ffWl yj^ DW 



102 

tap "ferna snrr*6 ^ ,tid Dra ^nnrr^K i^tin jrri 



93. 

HITHPAEL OF THE VERBS AYIN GUTTURAL. 

to bless oneself *p:ann 



Imperative. 
bless thyself 



Future. 



Preterite. 



Participle. 



I shall bless myself TpaHK ;! I have blessed Tb-QnO 
"* T : '" | myself : " T : 



About the changes in 
these yerbs see Lesson 73. 






unn 

: -t ; 

jrb'iann .Drtnann 

biafin 



to glorify oneself, [nn] ")XQ || a brook 

to boast " 
a hunter 



a horn 



T" 

HP / 



to quench thirst Ky -q# to grieye 



THE STAG. 

pnj m. height 
a thicket "spD m. 

to delight oneself [nn] tty 



P133 > 



[nn] asy 



to magnify [nn] !?na 
, oneself, to boast ' 
a company man /. 



beauty 



PD 1 * p.) *tp m- 



tyxtprpto vmjst^irh^ Esw.iwsv "is?* 1 ? ^<j r^ *<a "2a 
irtitna Tjg :^up?i ptn^si iTP- nai-by agm ngfcrn 
rani ,o$ aa: irrijj Ha^x aayrn em ,nipvi rbrrrw 
tnjo *66 ,0^1 no -rate rVna dj>i :n*a imnt man 

-v.iv 7 -7 v -: 7 : -: 77- 7 7 -7- -; v 

:jna "wbjyi n^rrrpi ^japa 



101 
HITHPAEL OF THE REGULAR VERB. 

to sanctity oneself ^np^i^i 



i. thyself 



Imperative. 

I vnpnn 



s. yourselves 



\tnpr\ii 



Future. 

I shall sanctify B^lpH^ 
myself " ' : " 



thou wilt s. ; 
thyself \ 



^pnn 



Preterite. 

I have sancti- ^n^TpPn 
fied myself ' ' ' 



j n^_p_nn 



vnpnn 



f nj^fpnn he will b. himself VfapjPP t 
' herself EHpHH 



she 



Participle. 

&\prjiQ 

D^pHp 

ni^pPD 



we shall s. ourselves KHp^^ , 

tehpHP 



you will s. 
yourselves j 

they wills. ) ^1P-^. 
themselves ] j 

nj^pnn 



thou hast 

sanctified ^ 

%?// ( n^pnn 

he has sanctified PHpHH 
himself 

she has sanctifiedn^npHn 
herself T : " * 

we have sancti- ^C^lpHH 
fied ourselves 



you have J 
sanctified i 



n^pnn 



yourselves I jrVnpnH 

they have sancti- l^npHH 
fied themselves '" ' 



1. The second radical has frequently Pathach, sometimes Chirek : 

2. The Hithpael often denotes to pretend, to feign the action or 
condition expressed by the simple verb : "l^ynn "to pretend to 
be rich," DZHnH "to pretend to be wise." 



clouds 


D'WPtW m. 


to walk [nn] 7]^n 


strong, a 


hero 


1133 m. 


to understand 


[n] bt? 


to glory, to boast [nn] p?n 


strength 




TtVQM f 


perfect 


crrpn 


a gift nnn/. 

T - 


to boast 




[nn] Tfin 



t It I: v :r v : )- : ' : v v: t: -: 

n>nnn . brnoirto tok " : ^pIT "& Dtfari oyftsn 

j.. _ . . t t : - v - t t: t) - : t: v t - -: - 

-bs oty*i| Dippzn ,?)Vd-\j$> "nnOrv^K iD^pn Pirn ^sfr 

inpernnra bVnflft #" ,n& Dttfii nrn d\wj :ioyn 



100 

2. The Hophal of the verbs yy is similar to that of the verbs y 'Q : 
Di?fl for Dlpn ; thus the form of the verbs DP and yttf is 

)- "IJT "T 

identical : 3^iil "he has been made to dwell" and "he has been 
brought back." 

3. The prefixed Jl of the verbs J?"J7 has also Shurek in Hophal : 
DDin f r 33pn ; like in Kal, Niphal and Hiphil, the consonantal 
Afformatives are preceded by Cholem. 



on account of "QT^y 


to put to death 


[n] nD 


1 a sack 


nnnpx/. 


deliverance, flJRBfa/. 
victory T : 


to smite, to beat 


[n] 702 

TT 


i to be able 

i 


[Hoph.] fo 

T 



16 :on isob bain ck .raten iddi ronton ran 

t : - t : t : - t - 

:ra*rnK36 man *zfMb lafcrta yn sri* tsi bflU 
,'rpt 1 rra Iso^n ^ D^:xn *n*i :nano TflTI nor 

I t .it : r - t : t : - 1 

*jni rfenna wnnniDNa a#n nozn -n-r^y row 
Orcein :)|?ton opjn {iefton cyinb in^a tD^olB 
fciQPifc irefC moisw ran nao :y-iNn anpa onab 

t : t - I v t t vlv : v : - : 

t : v : T ' t T T 

insntfnn nfrrh -nnn^p cftb plD do 



92. 

HITHPAEL. 

The seventh conjugation, Hithpael QySrVl), is reflexive, some- 
times reciprocal or passive. It is characterized by the Prefix HH and 
a Dagesh forte in the second radical : EfapnH . It is formed from 
the Infinitive construct Piel ; the first radical has, consequently, 
Pathach in all the forms of the verb. 



99 



... _.,_ _ t\-.i- ) vt-:i- - I v t t v I - \ I v : I 

t>n rvfcw rate h3 -b Ian iafl nf6 idn bA rrrwpK 



91. 

HOP HAL OF THE VERBS *%< fj ^^Z> y"J? 

to be made to dwell (3^) aK^IH 



Participle. 


Future. 


Preterite. 


n^his if 


I shall be made to 3>lK 
dwell 


i I have been made T^K^n 
to dwell ' : " 


T T 


brfip , ^in 


: : - t : - 




etc. n^lH r 3^P 


etc. rh^n , 2&n 



to be established (Dip) Dp^lH 
Participle. Future. 

Hlpp^D > Dp*lD ! I shall be established DpIN 



HlDpID ,DWlft 



"'ppin rDpin 

etc. DpW / Dp 1 )" 1 



Preterite. 

I have been ^^1"! 

established ' : 

etc. riDpin /Dpin 





to be surrounded (HDD) 3d1i"1 

- T 




Participle. 


Future. 


Preterite. 


T - T 


I shall be surrounded 3D*&$ 


I have been ^HaDlH 
surrounded 


ITlarfD ,D>d1D 


^plH ,3p1H 


r\ltiVi rfJlgpYl 


i 


etc. nplH , art* 


etc. Hnpin , arin 



1. The first radical of the verbs ">") is changed into *) which receives 
the Shurek-point ; Jgftn for 2VfT\ . 



98 



T :|T T ".'IT V : T T " : T V T V T 

-p'-Q Tonn n^y nr6i?n ,fi"6#rr3 * vnpn fiito nnjj-i 

Jv - 7 - - t : - t t: -J: : r " - 

nfefh wipvn 3-inn BHa ba ; ^ mop rhopin my^i 

: t : t): - -t.it t - t- v ): t: ): t : vvt 

:p-p-*6i rmcrvb drft* ,on?riN *?s?d btnvn 

I t :)t :-: t I n ; - t: 



90. 
HOPHAL OF THE VERBS j"B . 

Inf. constr. : ^2("J ! "to be brought near" (Bfoj) paH 



Participle. 


Future. 


Preterite. 


IfeQ 


I shall be brought >afc$ 
near 

VaH c>an 

: . - \ 


I have been TVaH 
brought near * ' " ' 

Pt&n , p^an 

: : - \ t ; - . 


DVaE 


paP , ^a* 1 


n&$tl , mil 


T \ 


etc. 


etc. 



1. The verbs y'Q have always Kubbuts in Hophal. 

2. The verbs ^'B whose second radical is Jf , are conjugated in the 
Future Kal, in Hiphil and Hophal like the verbs y% : ptf , n*p , 



pfflpi; assjyrj. 



a pillar, (ToifD c.) ftSVB ' to stand (3VJ) 2flP 

a statue v v " T *' " 

to reach [n] JttJ J to pour out ptf* 



possession 
to dream 



t \- : 



; nom'n rio teWu nina aE dVd ram opy d^tti 

t : t t - - * - : t : - t \ t \ : J -|- -:i 

issttfo-os . he^k rd* -U mb ?an ^ : ?& r$u Ete*l 

t t v v ;it t : I - ; - ; I v t t v t ) 



97 



npirtBsi HEfrf? |W ^oijn : tjfik nj?E>n "Wta jin^BrrnK atfn 
d^kWt ^J8 Ta &raan tot ;? rvzrty D^En 
ntf&bg l^pH p^rti Dnyan :"ron nisnn? D^eflp rrn 
ten iofefctf? faj ban oefi^s :dt? ^p? wa0"i6 



o 



89. 
HOP HAL OF THE VERBS T\h 

Infinitive construct : Hfe'"! i "to be carried away," "to be led into exile" (n^3) H^H 

" : t tt t : t 

Future. 



Participle. 

rtoD 

v : t 

f : t 



Preterite. 

I shall be led into n^2^ I have been led TV^H 
exile '' ' T into exile " : T 



^Fl , rfoFI 

v : t v : t 

na&n ,fon 
na4>n .fa 1 



rvfcn , n&n 

: t t ; t 

nnjon , .-fan 
pfan ,anfan 

I v : t t i 

fen 



nlfcp/. | to bring up, to offer [fl] r6y 

injHXI a burnt-offering rf?V / 

T T 

Lay hand upon 3 T J"PC* ; to burn incense [,-|] -i^p 



incense 

to show 
to 



exile, exiles 



n!>ia / 



to lay waste, [Hj 3"in 

to destroy 
a sanctuary, *TpQ m. 

a temple T ' ' 



-qv nrtan -rate nbun-ay D^tfrra rb:n man fopnr 
l^n *6 -KtfN Dnmr^y ipsD yr^u : ntm Tta join 1 



96 

sjrra n^n nni> i^men ?H?rii6 i^jtfnaa r6nr*6i ?ttq' 
d^d'i ,tn rraa bfcnen mcMpi :r6ri&6 ianfen tM hh 

- ; -t - : t: : : t t ; t; ). t 

rrvev tD2v vhn -m rrd nnx nn *6 ; Dirby oyrv-nN 

T ; V T ' T - ' :i~ T T V " T*. TT 

. I t : v : 



88. 
HOPHAL. 

The sixth conjugation, Hophal (?JJ'Bn), is the passive of Hiphil : 
it has the same characteristic j"| , but a different vocalization. 



HOP HAL 


Oi' 7 


THE REGULAR VERB. 


Infinitive construct 


IpsD ; to be set over 


(*7pQ) TPDH 


Participle. 




Fv&ure. 


Preterite. 


CipfiD) nppD 


I shall be set over "lpsfr$ ; 


I have been set in-,i^"1 
over ^1E?V 


PhpDQ 

T t: T 




np^n . ipp 


rhpcn , -\\>pr\ 


t; t 






Unpnl 

IRnpon ,DFhps<1 

) v : -: t v : -: t 






t : - : t ; : r j 


hin 



1. Like in Hiphil, the prefixed J"| drops in the Future and in the 
Participle, and the Preformatives receive its vowel. 

2. There exists also a second form with Kubbuts : Ti fctfH ; the 
Participle has this form more frequently than the regular one. 



a deposit 



|Vl|33 m. a fine, a punishment >jy m. I a street 



**n m. 



to destroy, [n] nnt' ; 

to corrupt 
wages, a reward "126? . 



workmen H3&OD 'fcjfy ! to expect, to hope 7IT 
to deposit [n] "IpQ to put to shame [n] D?3 



95 

2. Thr vowel under the Preformative is frequently short and followed 
1 > y Dagesh forte : 3D^ 

The Secession of the Ten Tribes. (I. Kings 12, and II. Chronicles 10. ) 

to lighten [n] \hp II a scorpion, mpS? m. 

" T a scourge with T ; " 
to he hard, ntfp , sharp points 

heavy T T ' t0 break awa - v ^? 



to he thick my I except t6iT 

T T | T 



a yoke ^jj m. 

to load [n] DEV 



to chastise IB" 

the loins D^fltt 



to iaiwv-Ufl[n]30 | thelittle finger jbpm. 

*0*i Una Tchtsrb b&rfcn-^3 3 D2# *s noitf osnm rbh 

7- J . : t: t t v : t v : t: - : |v 

tok :i6 osam-bN ro-n ,brtfen ^np-^Di djot 

) t t: - : v : -. t: -I: 7 : 7; 7? 

fejjpi nitfpn tj'qn rvpgp. bjgn nny nnw ;V&3rn8 n#j?n 
Db .mom d-t^n tdj^i :tqs.ji -u^y ?nr-i#8 iasn 

: 7 : - : v -: v - t)v: --: 7 I -7 v -: 7 - 

Dinrn^^ ?8i *o?i fifr| ;^8 ts#l m?2 ne6# Tiy 

,n irvro rax rtobtf yen* oris? far-rate QynwrriK 

- : r -7 : v : t -: J-;- 

t6h ran ?-cn nffras^ ytfrr? D-^yij diw tpn .ids'? 

7 : -;- 7 7 7 7 7 ; '7 v - ) 

.nolo orai orrtte rran mn uvb yizb rrnn-DK .iDNb 

7 . v -: 7 :- : v- 77 : v : r 

,.!&# -raft* mpwi nasrn 3iya tawrb nnay *b rm 

\ 7 : v -: ):- : v -;i -7- 7 7 - ! : 7: 

vbx ran ivxb&itoyn ina tfna im anbrrriN ysni 

7 : -.- 77; : 7 ;i7 v -; *T :- v I -7 

:*dk % jtod roy veib rrrn as? 1 ? "te^Tte ,10*6 anbri 

7 : 7 77-7)7 v- 77 - 7 :- 

qk ; m&y^s ton ^ , -as y DD^y own ^n nnyi 

7 v : .. - I -!- -7 v -; v:iv -7 7-: 

Dyrv von iD^npys ddhn *id\n -o*o ,ww2 fiShfc no 1 

t . -7 7- -) .- -7 v : v : -:i- - v : v 

, nvp oyn-nx rbvn m ; w*btin era SraftrtK Dyrrfei 

t It 77 v Jv v - I : - - 7 : - : v 77 7 : 

yoET*6 ^ ^ne^ba to*i :iHrn nwra bV^k nuTi 



to erect 
a sacrifice 



to briii-: back, [n] jfttf 
to reward 



[n] mp 

pip w. a tabernacle 



94 

a thought ri^fe /. to bring 



to remove 



[n] ma 

p#0 to deliver, to help [n] y 

[n] TiD to establish, to direct [n] ^3 

. i 



^^,||flBH i, r^ ^Nr *!& \$fft p^*on #irfc -fjgs 

t : *: : t: Ivt- -\ : :i- : - t :)t 7- 

:* -oVflk 'ftSiWi .teJ#5 ian btotf ibthitrb ffosft 
D3rcka li 1 ? Iji^ri 3^n ,nj?n iisn in tjipn ii# wan "0 
:nm nsra-bs mrpa h^bni 033^ r6 Win -rrw tafc 

t t t 1 t ::) t : v ; 7 -7 7: v -:\- 

.Ms j^n mtatt rrirr itfrao njn eton j6 ,nMb 
: r&#o tea inD^m 



o 

87 



Imperative, 



HIPH1L OF THE VERBS Jf'j . 

Infinitive construct: acH ; "to lead about" (33D) 3D"1 



Futur 



Preterite. 



1 ^Di"! r 3Dl1 I shall lead about 3D^ I 1 1 have led about T^Di"! 

lead ) t x T . . .. 



1 - 



Part id ph 5. 
I HapS , 3D?p 

I nbpD ,5>p8 

he led about 3E*1 



>oH , apH 

3Dfl -3D 1 

" T T 

tv": t 

n>3Dn rfeo^ 



Hapl"! ^HapH 
Hapn , apH 
"apn 

jnapn 'DHapn 
kin 



1. The third pers. masc. sig. Preterite has sometimes Pathach 
under the first radical : Snn . 



93 



,iW1 ~>tfx yvn Trba nw V"in afrirfe-nK baa n-nxn 

v -: I t : t : I v t 7 v t v ~ t v : - t 

-ny narnb nrrf-bN era* . bvnvr ^xb tdk rwo : Ton 
- ) T - ) - .. T . ..... . T v TT - 

- t; t 7:7* 7 ".' ~: " 77 ~:i- 7 : 17 

-Dab ;i alp* iBg^ffii DJ7T3 WfrO laniaba Dn^ 
ima 1 ntoin " run 1 :0DTti3*6 aWl "ipsa 

t I 7: - : v -:i- v -:i- 



86. 

HIPHIL OF THE VERBS V'B AND vy. 

Infinitive construct : D^pH ; "to raise up," "to establish 1 ' (D^p) D^pH 
Imperative. Future. Preterite 

Vpi! , DpH i I shall establish D^p^ ; 



rttv?n 1 b>n 



Participle. 



bo established 



DP* 1 ! 



T ' T 

PUopH r b^p* 1 ; 

t : "T T I 



I have established ^Hb^pn 
nb>"l /H^pH 

inb^n rDDb^n 
win 



1. The second radical drops : CpH f r CHpH . Cholem is inserted 

before the consonantal Afformatives of the Preterite ; but some- 

1 1 

times it is omitted : HS^H t HDH . 

t : - T" - > 1 

2. The shortened Future is QH^ , with Vav conversive : Dp^l . 

'.). The Future Hiphil of the verbs v"$ is identical in form with the 
Future Kal : p^ "he will understand" or "he will cause to 
understand." 

4. A few verbs V'y have two forms in Hiphil , TO "to rest," ITJn 
"to cause to rest," rTjiH "to set down." 



92 



It: t t : t : - : v -: t v 

ivfi* "hd 1 ? ^Ni" 1 ^n ,b ihpb 

.... T j. 



85- 
HIPHIL OF THE VERBS *'). 

Infinitive absolute : iniH ; "to leave remaining" (in*) "l^niH 
Imperative. Future. Preterite. 

( VrriH TrtH I shall leave -PniN ; I have left Tbrm"! 



leave < , i 



Participle. 
u i H-PniD , iVrtD 

F ) 

I | nWWD # DVniO 



H^niH ,1-PniH 

T J " 



FhniH iTtartffl 
rhViiH ,-iYiin 

T ' 



do 



Infinitive absolute : 2&\*\ ; "to do good" (3D') S^D'H 
Imperative. Future. Preterite. 

i _ 



good inj3Lj<n ,bvn 



Participle. 

etc. rhVD , nVD I 



I shall do good ZpD^ 

i 



n j2&r\ > fa vn 
t: : i 

etc. 



I have done good ^PatD'H 
etc. 



1. Like the Niphal, the first radical changes into 1 which quiesces in 
Cholem : TiTH for TiTH 

2. Some verbs i"Q retain the *> which quiesces in Tsere : 3^l0^n for 

3. A few verbs retain the i in the Future Kal, but change it into * in 

Hiphii : ?t , tf tn , Ernin 



deeds D^tfB * a mother-in-law nion/. a locust 

t -:,- T 

abundance JQP to add, to increase [n] P|D* hail 



nana . 

TI3 m- 



- 91 - 

84. 
HIPHIL OF THE VERBS 3"B 

Infinitive construct : ^jH ; "to bring near" {&})) ^aH 
Imperative. Future. Preterite. 

1 shall bring hear tJ^aX ;| I have brought near ^n^H 



VaH ,#in 

bnng J 

near j_ to % % i 

nimn ,^an 



Participle. 



IVaO ^aD 



bring- 

: ing < 

near Ini^BDaviD 



n^a'n /Va'n 



n^afi b>vi 
upSh 

an ^Qnt^n 



The first radical of the verbs 3"D drops also in Hiphil and is 
compensated by Dagesh forte in the second radical (see Lessons 39 
and 57) : Ejhjfi for {J^ jR . 



to deliver, [rfj ?3 j, a lodging- jfe m. to cause to go, [n] T^ perhaps ^X 

place T to take 

-ad to tell [n] iu ; t0 teach > [n] *T to dela >'' io tarr - v y*i 

to show TT n , 

I to set down [n] m: to refuse im II a worthy 2*m3 



to save 
to turn in 
to urge iva 

a robber Y7B> m. 



to hasten 



' I man " v 

nnft to be willing [n] ?X' 



to recognize [n] "DJ 

no wh 'qneq -dhd ?3 ! ie6 mn yrie ,TiinK ^ *tfjfl 

I - *-:it : t : :- - - .-....- 

,*J59 etd f? Wan - c *rvfrs? ro 3 :dthn }^p \j-iirh 

t : - t v : - -T-: It- v : - 

^an "icte tfn wn T3 Ttirs .toy nana "as s^TRxil 

. . v _. . T . . . . : - : ) - : - 

"p raw nota A insrs Dnni&n to dtub; lit tt6fc*rt* 

1 v : : - t t t : r- : _ " - t : v t 

t : - t -tv : : - : vt - 

nrra ,7pg Win A ;^ip3 gsia^ ]$d &g ,-qn m?-^ 



90 
1. In the Preterite, the prefixed |"i has frequently Seghol : H /JJH for 

nb;n- 

t : 

' 2. In the apocopated Future (see Lesson 38) both the Preformatives 
and the first radical have Seghol : 7^ , *"1D/1 (but in Kal : 

3. If the verb begins with a Guttural, Kal and Hiphil are usually 
identical in form and can only be distinguished by the context : 
^l_(Kal: "he went up," Hiphil : "he brought up"). In|fW,"lpN 
(Kal), the Preform, has Chirek. 

4. In the apocopated Imperative, the Prefix J"| and the first radical 
receive Seghol : 3"1H ; m verbs beginning with a Guttural, they 
have- Pathach : j)^f] . 



to multiply, [n] rOl to lend [n] pfA before D^OS 

to increase r T TT 1 vv : 

to give to drink [n] np# to think, to suppose ??B j descendants. V"1a w - 

an enemv feOfe? m. to be thirsty SDV ! a pail, a pitcher 13 /. 

- 7 - " : : I ~: :~ v v : - T : - t t : - v - t t: 

a- , : , P^n .npanb tdk -wtf* :ofi nstirhy neta btincn 

t I : - 1 t : : - t vv ' y: t - - : - v _ : - : 

MM inpttfK ?r#tM d:i ,nntf .tokct jTod era oyo 
, tMhd *6 ^ie rfcn . rptb -iok any s : Bbaarrmi ptf ni 

: t I v 7 : ]" : - 7 I j- - : - v I: : 

-rate Teen ten n^ : ^v~i.rn oa drr> tfN ntnll rurn 

7 v 7 - v :~ : T : v v -: 77 v 7 - 7 : ; -7 

"0 , rrattf ddp Tl^n -itf k -run Di^-nx ftrt . * tdk 

7 t v : v : * v -; 1 : v : t: - 7 

.ar6 -in^n Tiwer dj?tdk :db^ oak rmi rrafceb 

vt - : i- ) -:i- 7 7 v 7 v:r 7 : 

: fa-dip* to , b*i nin rrf?D : mb inp^n kdstdw 



89 



82. 
THE DONKEY IN THE LION'S SKIN. 



to testify- 


n:y 


to bray pr\) 


while 


-riy-b 


without 


^ 


to frighten 


[n] insi 


a fool ^3D m. 


if 


t to drive 


pw 




I 


TT 






an ornament, 


*nn 


to strip off 


[n] qvb 


a skin, a hide niy m. 


to mock 


[n] & 


splendor 






- T 






"T 


to see 


nrn 


to deceive 


nail 


to cover oneself P|BJJ 


to look, 
to regard 


[n] an: 

- T 


truly 


3 



iohna'n rrara tn -insi .is nbjpi ,n -iiy Nan -lion 

.. .. T .. . TT .. . j _., ._. __ 

DN frfr ?PK ,YJD niTIBD D'DJ DX .13^J) ^D3H TDJW 

T f ' "T : - t : : - v 

u*Dzn wb*\ >pnw Hp Ktn rmian ^ip - n djtdew 

T - T- IT,- ,| T T - ' ) V ' : ~ 

^ ,ne?Tvi 6 idki rbjn dj tern ivirrti* etn pnfcn 

t: -v.iv t t: t- . ) -:: 

: tpfe ~ti& "ItoQ f n 9 ?j? hjjj Tjbip ?jn ; ^rrori nnjj 

:v:dV inps-t'] fcppiqi,Tjn "ftrrwi r^jo dc^d^i 
iefaW^ en Hra* 1 ,c>nrr Tir^s ?-nn Etob ^2D rvinn 

- " -.-I- T TT T TTT'TV 

ipnfcn ate ,nsrr*63 "Ql 1 ? ^B*n inpo? baa jvirtscn 



83. 

HIPHIL OF THE VERBS 7\'h 

In/, constr.: rVfaH ; "to carry away," "to lead into exile" (n^2) H^H 
/wiper afo've. 



Participle. 

carry- ( nS;D , n^D 
ing ) 



Future. 


TT T : 

Preterite. 


carry away rpjfc$ 


I have carried awayTV^H 


^n , r&n 


rvwi ,rv&n 

.... x : 


ni?;H , n(^ 


HnWl , nWl 


nW 


tt$n 


ro^n ,&n 


{rvjafi -on^n 


na&n ,* 


fen 



88 

a pillar iraj[i. to keep silent [n] Bnn to be faithful, [j] |K)tf 

trustworthy " T 

to enrich, [n] X M > to think, 3DTi to believe, to trust [n]pX 

to become rich " T to consider " T 

to listen [nj 2t'P want, need "riDTO m. prison "TlDNn JV3 

n&to : ^a ppaTl Drnaa : wnn thxn Hr6 ^^P ^ 
rn^sn ijliznnri dnw. ,d:^ on^ ;*>. iarjfcn ^d!? td*l 
DtBBjn pa imx Frtpjft risnori rraa }iefctfb hjx 
72 jtfptfl : .TTiif ^jH?aa WDDtf "fPSH ^n Baffin] 
niDTO s^k jSa^pjw BhnH ,^"yp#3tfpn imTfca 
n^yn &th ^ rena ;iW. &6 jdsft p: arte , nnpfr aris 
^?1 ^]^n : jiaj rnse; don , atfrr crn tf^rO ^*j e* 



81. 

ra# Z)0 ^M) /// SHADOW. 

to pass by ""Oy to seize [n] ptn to destroy, [n] 12 N 

T " T to waste " T 

to look, [n] P|pK> to make haste TDH to leap, to spring YF\_ 

to look down " T . , 

a border ilfife>/- a piece nn: m. vanity ?3n rw. 

^k ttrfHtfrta Tip. n3 nni rra rTU nDt^-by las aba 
iTua bra tik nni *s Dt^n^i neon ^-nx *m ,mbn 

T 7 - 7 ~ - .. . . 7 7 ~ " V :"~ 

Ab nyi-^wx ntpan-nfc vsp Tftytfn iisrpi nraiT^ ^Wn 

lays *6i ito n^tn7 itfK iron nnb pmn jypb 

naiy by? p^tra inyi i^n.T3Np ,ban rpnp 



87 
4. Before Makkef, this Tsere is shortened into Seghol : vTpti *\, 






to bring near, [n]2"lp 

to offer 
to bind -|#p 

to remove [n] pm 
i 

D 



wickedness nfffl f. ; to rain [n] "100 : folly 



nW / 



to commit, [n] ip3 i ,a gift, nn:o/ ii iniquity pK m. 

to intrust " T j! a tribute T! ' 
to sprout forth nOV to deliver up [n] 1JD < 



-neto teb DD^p2 ""nsoe? nan .Dyrrfo ids: ^bdcI :aiD 

v -: : v: J : ' : t tt v - t : t 

"dk :tDvl!?K Tia }eHipn pneh nnh rtift>Di ,nefak 

v " v: t: v ): - : - t v : t : 

fpsN "n"" 13 rjfw ayn splat bar -\m wiitrbx -ov 

p : - I :it: t -: - I \ t- v -: t -: 

- : : I - - t: v v: t: t t 



80. 
HIPHIL OF THE VEBBS PE GUTTURAL AND N"D- 

Inf. constr.: -poyH ; "to cause to stand," "to set" (10y) "I^OyH 

Imperative. Future. - Preterite. 

( 'Voyn , 10yH ' I shall set -pOyN I have set TVlWfl 



aet 



f n^ioyH , n^oyH 



Participle. 

*>( HnoyD , -foyD 

.2 1 vv " :, ~ 



VoyH i^9?J? 
-OoyFl t OojP 



nipyH rPHo?n 

Ui^yH 



- 86 

:\ipi:2 gdzi^p tfyT! ^ke?tik b^rby ^ppn bwop 

v -: t v t : : : ' t :i~ 



79. 

FUTURE, IMPERATIVE AND PARTICIPLE HIPHIL OF 
THE REGULAR VERB, 



consecrate 



Infinitive construct : t^pH (fcJHp) 
Imperative. 



Future. 

I shall consecrate B^TpX 



Participle. 

I am consecrating rV*lpD B^TpD "JX 

we are "Hfe'HpD /QV^pDurOK thej 



thon wilt 
he, she will 
we shall 
you will 






1 . The Prefix H which has Pathach in the Infinitive and in the 
forms derived from this mode, drops after the Preformatives : 
0^2 for Kf^jpiT* B^lpQfor Ehiprjp. The Future and 
Participle Hiphil are, therefore, characterized by the Pathach 
under the Preformatives : compare tfj^p^ with W'lp^ , E^pw 

with tinpr? 

2. Before the Afformative H^ and in the masc. sing, of the Imperative, 
^ m is changed into Tsere. 

3. This change takes also place in the shortened or apocopated Future : 

a) in expressions of command or wish, especially after ?fc$ : 
j&^FT^N "slander not," ?h&l "let him throw." 

b) after Yav conversive in the second and third pers. sing, and 
the first j^ers. plur. : TJ 7p^ "and he threw," D^p^l "and we 
brought near ;" but : 7] ^EWI "and I threw." 



85 
78. 

H I P H I L. 

1. The fifth conjugation, Hiphil (/^Di!), adds the idea of causation 
to the signification of the verb in Kal : ""Q * "to remember," TSUI 
"to cause to remember," "to mention ;" TDD "to reign," 7| vDH 
"to cause to reign," "to make king ;" hp "to be holy," E^pTl 
"to cause to be holy," "to consecrate." 

2. The Hiphil is characterized by a H prefixed to the verb and by 1 1 
inserted before the third radical. 

PRETERITE HIPHIL OF THE REGULAR VERB. 

to consecrate (Ehp) B^Ipi"! 

3. The characteristic \ drops before the I have consecrated "CTBHpH 



consonantal Afformatives, and Pathach ;j ^ bagt 
is substituted for it. 



4. The accent rests upon this Chirek and jj 



I: he, she has 



we have 



not, as usually, upon the vocal Afform- 
atives n and Vi generally also with | you have 

i 

Yavconversive :rrppnl (Leviticus 3,5). || thev (i 



: : : ts ; ' 



When a verb has a particular signification in Hiphil, or is exclusively used in this 
conjugation, it is indicated in the vocabulary by a n iu brackets. 

to throw [H] *T?B* | the upper 3D~I n^Bf- | to separate, [n] ^13 

7 T i mill-stone *' '' "| v to distinguish 

to make peace [n] DpM a tribe E3E> m. j an inhabitant 3|#i m. 

*y*Tp*. ^ to^ rra n\22b f ^b ^2frrw Tlnpn 
TWan new 0D%-fcn * un : D^srn-^D wyb ^tw le^ipJl 

.j ... v .. .. ... T . . _. -t t : t: v |: 

-pa nmsb nrsnxsn nDnarrra Dn^m ^syrrpLcnN 

I t : - t : - t : - I v : -: : -t I v : v 

tiki s&ttik to^tfH Itina vvft I'Mbb msn niyn 

V : : v :!: : 7 - t - It 

lv v -: - v V - V t : - - t t: 



84 



1 1 



PUAL OF THE VERBS r\"b . 

Infinitive construct : nfe " to ^ e uncovered" n?3 



Participle. 


Future. 


Preterite. 


r&B 
r&B 


I shall be uncovered H /JX 

v \-: 


I have been 
uncovered 






ruTWn , &ta 




t : \ t , 


\ : 


etc. 




etc. V?3 



The ^ of the verbs fc$" 7 quiesces in Kamets in the Future Pual : 






to command 




mv 


to fill, to fulfill 


^?P 


love 


ran**/. 


snow 




J?& m. 


a request, 

a desire 


nb&tiof. 


high 


T 


the middle 


(?pn 


c) T|W m. 


to hide 


nno 


to be strong, 


133 








wtafy? 


to prevail 


" T 


a reproof 




nniin /. 


because 


to cover 


IDS 

T 



TPTfH? "K$? "is "fls^n rva-bM "ttk-tw hb% tHs 
*imb 1MB roji mSn iBMajrbai pMrn awn fei : 

:it t t : t : 1 vt t : t - \ . 7: 

by ,u>n -ins uv? S3 Bnysn lanin 03^1 'fwr^S 
jbeJ D^prD D^ran Drvn I'jiofer \o "Hra "Q ">#m 
&&rr|B wn jib "G ^rransB fop n$j pjp^ni -nr^Ba 
mVb-; ininBDnsnMBn^p rrolnrniB n ^W i'b g t0m 



83 






t: t 

o- 



76. 

PUAL OF THE VERBS A YIN GUTTURAL. 

to be blessed ?p3 



Participle. 

t t : v v : 



Future. 



I shall be blessed T|"1Dn 

?rl> ,rpy 



etc. 



Preterite. 
I have been blessed 'lO^S 

: : t ; - 

nD")3 ,7j-Q 

etc. 



Jn the Pual of the verbs Ayin Guttural, the Kubbuts is lengthened 
into Cholem, to compensate for the omitted Dagesh : TflD for TT)^ . 



P]TJ 



to delay HEncm ( to bake rjK 



affliction,. *J"y m. to tear 

misery ' T: 
to scatter ~hq atonic, coat niiria/ jj leavened Y- nm - to nasten b^S 

to be dispersed lia ; I a possession rtSjg / j | to purify Vp 

PUP/ || benevolentpir^itt w 



provision HTV /. 



a cake 



dough pV2 m. 

to expel gh| 



J -^ |t : t t -: T T T - : v : v ) -:i- 



CH2 q i yon *o ^ nisn ruy psarrDS ?*nzr \a an : rpv 

ion .onbri'y"^ n-na tin ,nanannb to *6i Dnaso 

) t t v 7 t t -: -:-:: .it : . -; 

D^syn ra TteDi "TOE -in*rEj? lafih tfi-ntfrw Tibhb idk 

- t I T T . ; TV - : v : - -: Ivv* - T 

l?iS2 D"l^-pi ,#83 l/lt^ TO3n Iflpobo nuno ^33 

t t t I v t - : Iv v - ) v : - : : 

ran rirjto :?|iDn *6 pmrnw ,ruWina rbnift rbm 
: D^jnri nnso ttoD " q^ vn : b^b iorfe jnr^s , Thy 

7 - : t " J 7 7: ; 7- : - I - 7 J t 



82 

75. 

P U A L, 

The fourth conjugation, Pucd O^B), is the passive of Piel. It is, 
likewise, characterized by Dagesh forte in the second radical, but is 
distinguished from Piel by the Kubbuts under the first radical. 

PUAL OF TEE REGULAR VERB. 

Infinitive absolute : KHp ; "to be sanctified" t* ;, np 



Participle. 


Future. 


Preterite. 


mpft 


I shall be sanctified ^^IpX 


I have been ^HD 
sanctified S -!. 


n#N$? 


>vr>* , ehjto 


FiEhf? , nHp 


(rtenpD) 






DV*j?lp ; 


n;Hp* , *Eftj>i ' 


l*fchj? , owEftj? 


Di#jjpQ 


roEHpn ,tffrj> 


> 



1. The passive conjugations have no Imperative (see Lesson 59, 4). 

2. The Participle of the passive conjugations is characterized by 
Kamets under the second radical (see Lesson 53, 1). 



a butler r.p&D m. 


any thing 


n^*ta 


to consume 


b 


an iniquity, a sin py m. 


setting, west 


KiHD m. 


a pit, a dungeon 


Ii2 m. 


a chief *\\& m. 


rising, east 


fTJtp m. 


greatness 


'nhi f. 



-rata ran dp i-fiaa riN w ?? ,nota ^&jr*6 ns 
"iDTQ :j;~ip3 r\pvb rift dud \3# :nrn 3pg n'j'p? 
nytf :tso "2D 1 tew ra ted :fijj "IS> noxi 
11 bro ?n^to nnn run dWti :tf*a 6sk d^bTv 



81 

1 . In the Pid of the verbs H" A the "> quiesces both in Tsere and 
Chtrek: T$* and TF^[. 

2. With Vav con vers, the H drops: ^Jpl, DD^l; as the second radical 
is, thus, the final letter, the characteristic Dagesh is omitted. 
This apocopated Future is also used in place of the Imperative : 
bjFT^N "do not reveal." 

3. The verbs Pe Guttural, J*"B, 3"D and *>" are regular in Piel 

and Pual. About the verbs fcO see Lessons 55 and 62. 

i. The Preterite Niphal and the Preterite Piel of the verbs j"2 are 

.i 
identical in form : ^HC^ii J 



THE WOLF AND THE LAMB. 



innocent *p2 

to curse 7?\> 

to tear in pieces ])Qp 

to err, nyn 

to go astray T T 



a lamb nta m.'.\ to rebuke njfl 



to finish, rf?3 
to cease T ' 

ever since Hiyo 
I was 

a fountain pyft m. 



to seize 



rr,K 



grass RB*!m. j guilt netfK/ 

to cry out, pjft to swallow, yS^ 

to exclaim " T to devour 

to scorn cpn ! : to graze nya 



ij)W? .naete r6y ufoh tfpyi ,ny'n rte nxd ajn aw 

vt- :!: tt v t ; - tt - : - 7 : : 

"n Trho vbr\ irbxn rrcns " , n "dt r\S .Tatfi 

T ... .. T -7 :- -: - T 7 - 

:rnpa Hirnx .awn -intf'i ?niya# ntfbtf 1 dv unpy 
TDK*! :mfrn ai^y in Hzh Tyo t6 -ris .p6bh nA 

V7 - v v v : - 7 v T - I 

: i_ iiya u<6 tytw j6 .."ben tsri :nritf "ryso .awn 

T v 7 - I t -7 7 : - : - 

nnw y&Vpi 'asm ?mw ?r6 qm ,pjn*i yehn nx nnh 

t-. :|-: ;r- I t: I 7 I 7 I -; 7 77 J- 

nnyDtth parw mtfo ,-q-6 nb *b iiy :DN>na man 

r t v v - : 7 t : v : t 



80 



4. With V av conversive, or when a monosyllabic word or a word 
with the accent on the penult follows, the accent usually recedes 
and the Tsere under the second radical is shortened into Seghol : 



strength jy m. 

a neighbor JVCJJ w. 

T 

continually TEfl l| to lie, to deceive i|3$ 



to serve mjp 

praise n^nn /. 



II 



the Eternal, God i*p [[to announce, nfrn 

to proclaim, 
to deny, J n3 

to deceive 



a benefit tiE-i . 
food jiTE n. to praise ^n 

Lpu3"13 , d#? ran ?jrg ifea DTp*rnK "?}13 * 
:ia mkin "ran ,nsH?33 rfrni nDia :uW>sa 

t : t t : t : t :it -: t : 

"013 : Irenes ntf? dto ntso ,totf Ol3 ,rtrri nx* 

:it - : : ' : _ : : it t 

bis * ?j?lp? "?p.2 ir^arb to#v6ki ,;yri xpfpa 
^ :in ehd 1 ! >ira#n Drrw dv6k "nni-'i ran* nfcro 

t: "I -:- : - v v: | v t : - I v* -:i- 

ab) i27"rDn t6 itfbefc terns TH 1 * ,im iayb.-'y 

. -:i- : t - - v | - t : t: I -: 

m oraten :nctfn meflS rrn ytfin 1 tirran kfn nptfn 

7 -: - v -T : T7 -\ : -:i- l:~ : 

-on nnyn it 7p3j uruw inrffefrTa rraa DYntfE 

-: 7 - 7 J t : : :i~ T7 t: : :i7 : 



74. 

PIEL OF THE VERBS PI - ?. 

Infinitive construct : rfol i to "reveal" nb 



reveal 



Imperative. 



Participle. 
he is revealing n^p ton 

she" " n^p irn 
(Dial? on 

theyare " nto t n 



Future. 
I shall reveal '"^N 



Preterite. k 

I have revealed *j"p y^ 

nrfei ,rfei 

t ; T 



79 



I - : vt - - : : Ivv -:i- : 



t Iv v -: : t v T" h " -: t tt- 



73. 

P/.E'Z OP riP? FEARS' JOT GUTTURAL. 

Infinitive construct : "spa ; "to bless" *pa 





Future. 




Preterite. 


I shall bless 


TO 


I hare 


blessed 


'iO"Q 


thou wilt " 


0")Dn ,T]-|3b 


thou hast 


<( 


3"o , jO"q 


he, she will " 


TV? -VI: 


he, she has 


h 


n3T3 ,Tj-|Z 


we shall " 


TO 


we have 


M 


5~ 


you will " 


npTZto ,OT3n 


you " 


CI 


1*313 , djO-Q 


they " 


noP^Dn . O-D; 


they " 


M 


^T? 



Participle. 


Imperative. 


I am blessing ["blllD , TOD *3JK 

v v t : ' t : t 


bless (thou) 0"Q ^"0 


we are " HId-IDD ,DVoQnJK 

:it : :it : : - -: 1 


" (you) n J?"")? ' ^H? 



1. In the Piel of the verbs Ayin Guttural, the vowel under the first 
radical is lengthened to compensate for the characteristic Dagesh 
omitted in the second radical: 7TD for-TTp, TT\2 for TTQ' 
Before |"l , T\ and y the vowel frequently remains short : "VI CD "to 
purify," V)rO "to deny," ayn and 3S7H " to abhor." 

2. The second radical receives comp. Sh'va instead of simple Sh'va : 

rnp ; leynan ; but : ora ^ma . 

3. The form TTQ its more frequently used than 7TQ . 



78 

72. 

THE PARABLE OF THE TREES, (Judges 9.) 

to rejoice riEfr j, sweetness pn'O w. I fatness \vn to. | a bramble 1BN m. 

must, CTVfi m. to wave, to sway jnj an olive-tree, JTT a cedar nx w. 

new wine 
integrity D<fi m 



onve 



a shadow ^V. to leave off, ^m jjalord, Sv2 w. 

to give up " T a master " \ 

summit ^-| w . to take refuge, nDn a vine ?D3 c. 

to confide T T ' . 



fruit mfl / 

t : 

m# nftw >? onr- v6pD pro itory ? .jtsgn jiyirp 

,dt? in BHOa -tojri ijW .orrfe qbpV ?]bp^jrrwi vieto 

yoeft ,D3> "ksa-^K wotf ,0"r> td^ ,*np"i rVip neti 
... .... ....,- ... . . VT .. _ T |... | _ ._ 

: dt6k dd^k 
rdm irrft nD*Pi sTiba nn^y n&o^ o^yn <obr\ rebn 

7 : t : Pv v v -: - : 7 :it J t 

H3? 1 iritfx "'JErrnN TWnn .rron or6 -ofi iw^y 
.ru*^ o^yn mptfi ?D" , ay.rr^y yiifr to^hi ,o^^ooTfes 
prarfiR Ttnm .runnri nrb ns^'ni iit'js ^o rfcon'? 

Pit v : -thy t- : - v t v - -:-:-: 

bcswn nail nrayrrby jnib Tcbm ,rnten tourtiw 

t : - -t - - t : - t : t - t : 

tik T^inn .lain D.-6 na^ni n^SPD^D rwrob J&& 

: -t:iv Iw- v t v - t : t : - : I v 7- 

fQ^rorrts y^ TO/m ,iretoK] ovfeK mbfemn ttftrn 

t - t : - t : t -.1- v: - - : 1- 

T I T : 7 - J" 7 7 7 V 7 7 

TiK-nx teNini itDsn-jD eta ayn .nlrow ;^a on wa 

: - v - : t 7 7 I 1 - : : -: 

,pbpi Qi*n in^-Dyi fijnroy orve>y ocro? roa-D8 nnyi 

: I : v -: 7 : vv:iv 7 -; 



77 






IMPERATIVE AND PARTICIPLE PIEL OF THE 
REGULAR VERB, 



Participle. 



Imperative. 



I am sanctifying rVnpO > B*lpQ ^K I sanctifiy (thou) 



nic^pQ /DVrpDumN 



(you) 



1 . The Participle of Piel and of all the following conjugations has a 
prefixed ft . 

2. The Infinitive, Imperative and Future Piel, when followed by 
Makkef, have generally Seghol in the final syllable : fcG""!^ ' 

- t ) v- : 

3. The characteristic Dagesh is sometimes omitted in letters with 

Sh'va : WD2 for fefeQ . 



to depart from "VI D 

the Most High ffo m. 

thanksgiving, praise min / 



to lie, to deceive 3*3 

to accustom, to teach 1E>p 
to move J^iJj 



to seek favor, D^Q KJf32 

to solicit ' T 
to offer n3T 



to honor 



"123 



-ronEfip neb njno^Das isiasrnw ?ri*mK "23 

:|- > t t- : - Iv v: I t 

:2fch t6i npj* "13"^ EsrfiJSH m\i? nf^h :r\3tin tir> 
new mo tid ifrn: \vbvb tfozfi .nrirtri wfoA nni 

.._.,_ T .. I vt: 1 : v: ; t 

uan :ete:: *5jk Turn** :wim d?v Efi?3 3ico 

)- : t - - v - : t: t |- - 

minft kti nam :2^trDBeto nfrra ,^i?r^2 D^prft 
:ybw *6 nbipi nisn nriDfr pn ,pdW?p 



76 

70. 

FUTURE PIEL OF THE REGULAR VERB. 



1. In the Inf. constr. Piel, the first radical " Inf. constr. : Hp "to sanctify.' 
has Pathach instead of the Chirek of the 

Preterite. 

2. The Future, Imperative and Participle 
Piel are formed from the Inf. constr. 

3. In Piel and Pual, the Preformatives 
have Sh'va. 

4. The Tsere uuder the second radical 



I shall sanctifv 



thou wilt 



EftpK 



KHj>i ,EHpn 



drops before the vocal Afformatives and 
verbal Suffixes: ifchp^ DT33r; before 



he, she will 
we shall 



the Suff. SJ , D3 p # it changes into 
Seghol: ?TO3K 
o. The verbs Lamed Guttural have either 
Pathach under the second radical, or I 
retain Tsere and have Pathach furtive 1 j yo1 
under the third radical: rktib and J 



Bnj3n ,Bftj> 



to delight in njn 

T T I 

intelligence ^D> . ! 
to gladden ntSK> | 

a garment rpcfc?/. i 



to vow 
a vow 



*T"I2 a word 
"ni w. deceit 



strange, n3J 

a stranger ' : T 

to receive, ">2p 

to accept 



n?D/. to delay, to defer "inx 
no-ID/, to praise &T1 



intelligent 



}13i a stranger, "if m. 
T another T 

foolish, impious ^1; to wash, D27J 

II to purge 



spnsfcn jna ?piE6 i!u iDrfcofr SD^i rbsrrnK Efap^i 

! v 7 : T" I: : T : : - :i- tt v !-. 

l.v v : 7 - : - ".:**: t : t : - 

"fy : jl3J 2*2 liSK 7\p DHK ^ra ,38 i"iE s D3TI |3 

2i\x :nin"2fMn ffran jw :r6& hut abvo to ,rnn 

- 7 I v - : 7 -: I v v v v : . : - 7 

aterrrvR c ^ H3T.R nfe3|n nru* 131? .inefer^ji tdk 
tij tin "rafta ?73{?J *6 ^T^l ,D ^%? n ^ '3|2^ 



*) See Syntax 10, 2. 



75 



69. 

PIEL. 

The third conjugation, Piel QJ7S), expresses intense action and is 
characterized by Dagesh forte in the second radical : 13$ "to break," 
"Q$ "to shatter ;" "1DD "to count," 1SD "to recount." It often 
renders the Kal transitive: pT\ "to be strong," p-ffl "to strengthen;" 
KHP "to be holy," Efap "to make holy," "to sanctify." 

-It "l* 



to sanctify yfap . 
I have sanctified ifl^Hp 



PRETERITE PIEL OF THE REGULAR VERB. 

1. In the Pret. Piel the second radical has 
Tsere which drops hefore the vocal 
Afformatives ; before the consonantal 
AfFormatives it changes into Pathach. 

2. The ground-form has frequently Pathach: 
I*}!! , IVp The three following verbs 
have Seghol : TOA , D23 t "1B3 

3. The vowel under the second radical 
drops also before verbal Suffixes : i*lp 
"he has sanctified him," D13X "lie has 
destroyed them ;" before the Suffixes 
^ , D3 / p it changes into Seghol : 
Spaa "he has honored thee." 



thou hast 



he, she has 



nenp ,,nenp 

(jjEhp'.Dn^ip 



to seek for 



for, instead of nnfi ! to pay, to requiteD^ |-i to speak 

tin ^ivth mai imnNira &6i mAEfipa :vmn dn 

.... t : t : : : I - : 

. . . i- . T *j T . _ . . . _. t T - ' T : XT v -: 

uEfTp :D^r6 fc"D?# p .n$y nefta rpnto nrin nyn 

:|- -: T T : t t : 7 



: s?deui npju mm 

7 : ; v -:i- t : 



- 74 - 

a week JR3I5J m. " miracles nixi>DJ / to sow - jnf II only, but T]X 

rest fSXS&i*- an assembly mvy f. to atone -153 between pa 

........ 

a solemn JirQC n3B> 11 the passover (IDS . a feast "ryio m. a memorial fror m. 

sabbath T " " ' t 

the sound fTOVVl/ holiness ^Hp w. a eonvoca- JOpD m. to prune tot 

(of a trumpet) T ' || t i on t : - T 

-:i- tt: t t- t " ;- " T : : v 

; n\rvb riDS ,crcnpn ra tfinb ifrs? manna ( fie!x-in eftna 

T ~ - v t ; - T I v - T T tt : - : I T v - 

t t : ;t t : m t : - t - : 

:iri win Wbtin vihb ntfvfa .rnrbx rfnb nmw 

7 : - v - t : I. y v: t \ t 

nynn jfpi rjlrotf o rrjrr Eftnb Twa ^3E?n tfifa 
,wn o^ten nvnin ^2pn tffb iifrS3 !]N :ehp xnpp 
Ehr6 dp iy h^ara :oDvfcn nim ^ DD^y "d*? 

v - t t t -.1- v v: t : : y - - : 

myy 'ran <#> ; nin^ o^'nintf nisprvjn nrn "W2tir\ 
,rojn "jnefnh frirfc nv onfe^i netora ltd? rrnn 
-ns 126 ,uf? sww -few DR30 eftrfc Di 1 -few ny-n*ai 

t t t : v : t t tt : - : 

roe! rrjtfjsfrr niEQ ;i3Ttet j nm ipx rrtKbesi 

: "torn 



- 73 

t I v " !. T t : 







VJ 

68. 






ORDINAL NUMBERS. 




Fern. 


ifasc. 




i'bft. 


Jfa&. 


nw 


, ^fcjj sixth 




T 


, fl&W] first 


wy;2& 


^3K> seventh 




ivj# 


, "JJ? second 


nvD0 


, "0 , $ eighth 




rnphf 


,'&b& third 


rrrefei 


r^B^M ninth 




rrjfcp 


'JTin fourth 


nnw 


, vvfeW tenth 




rri*pn 


vthsn fifth 



1. From eleven upwards, the Cardinals are used instead of the 
Ordinals. 

2. The feminine form of the Ordinals expresses also the fractional 
numbers : TVp'bp * \ , T^Tf] 1, ttH^j - ft ; but : H^Dp 

or ^n * J 

3. The multiplication of the numbers is either expressed by the dual 
termination []*> , or by the words 7JP and QJJg) "time" (properly 
"foot" and "step") : D^DStf "seven-fold," ubsi fib "three 
times," Q^pyS JD# "seven times." 

4. The distributive numbers are expressed by the doubling of the 
Cardinals: nSJDltf njQCtf "seven by seven" (compare "DID 1D32 
"every morning ;" see Syntax 5, 3). 

5. The termination "> , by means of which the Ordinals are formed 
from the Cardinals, forms also Gentile nouns and Patronymics : 
HVT "a Jew," ^tfto "a Moabite," T^B a Philistine." The 
feminine of such nouns or adjectives is either JT or fp : rVDfcTO 
and JT3*tiO u a Moabitess." 



72 

1. The Numbers either follow or precede the noun ; IH^ always 
follows it. 

2. The noun which is joined to the Cardinal Numbers 2 10, is 
always in the plural ; joined to the higher numbers, the noun is 
generally in the singular when it follows, but invariably in the 
plural when it precedes the Numbers : Q^P HC^/^ or iW}/$ D^p" 1 
-three days," HIND W^ll U>p2$ or Eft* HIKD $lT1 "500 men." 

THE DUAL. 

3. The termination Q^ expresses the number "two" or the Dual. 
This termination is also found with nouns, especially with such as 
exist in pairs: Q^jp "two days," Q'JTi? "the two eyes/' D"UTN 
"the two ears," U$F\ "the two feet." 



a side 


IS m. j 


the right side 


' T 


a ram 


Wj m. 


to delight in 


T T 


upward 


nbyi> 


old 


1? 


oil 


i9&? m. 


a stream 


br\\m. 


to live 


rrn 



^ rm :ddiw nan n^i dd^ mr nriK tosra ma mm 

:i v : t- -: v t v:r t v t : t 

-^2 vm : pra mn hot , rue? dtwdj d^# Eton mn 

... .,._ | TT j - ... TT - 77 7 -7 --7 

;rue> rnfry y^ DnyDtnsb apjp in intra d^ apy 
:nxf noi D^nw a^tf sd^ ,vr\ ^ ,apjr ^ vn 

t t - : t :- : t - v t - : I -:i- : : - 

zpMt* rrtrr tiqw nnyi ,non^D ri^ix rrv tei d^dto 

) v v: t : ) : it t -: t : t : P v -: :it v v : : 

;into rue? onfryi nwrp nsto ::nb own ^Di33 

: t t :: t Iv v t - t - : 

ruto^wjttrja np ^>yi ,n*2p -wh np-j3 np ysbirp 

,r6yiii rutf anew no "Tanas *?*nfcr> ^a nsoo vn irotf 

t : - t t t { v !'." t : - - t : : - : .- T t 

fnnn idtohi niKE etom d^k ntf^-i p&k nto $# 

V ;-| -;r -:r t -j v ; Iv v 



71 

. n:pn |in ? rnnij "?-ni jtoj?n nm\ , ngrn r6i-u ^l 

nnto3 nw jejuni nrn nb rpKi ,"!#] "9 wv :s 

:n"a] ninrq p^> ,ruj -toj nptfro ,7]rp? 

o 

67. 

THE NUMBERS. 

The Numbers are either cardinal or ordinal. They have two 
genders, masc. and fern. The Cardinals have also the construct state. 

CAKDINAL NUMBEKS. 



Feminine. 

rrfegnnac 

rnfcp w> ) 
rnfc^p b6# 
rnby pan* 

,-nfry eton 

rnfew yntf 
mfcw njbtf 

: v V : 

mfry ytfn 



Masculine. 

-itry "ins ) 
; T T " \ 11 
i^y wy J 



I Feminine. 
Const. Absol. 









nfc>y npte 13 , V*7* 



ivy nym 14 

T T TT : " 

; -itry ntfbn 15 

t t t -: 

; ntry rnste* 16 

T T T * 

; nfcpy nyatr 17 

t t t : ' 

; nfc>y TOD& 18 

; nfeqj ny&yn 19 



yne> 

y^n 

ib>y 



,nnK 

T 

,-ib>y 



3Iasculine. 

Const. Absol. 

; -inx , nnx i 

- - TV 

; ntJ>fe , ilB^tf 3 

: t : 

; nym** , nymx 4 

- - : - t t : - 

; neton , njton 5 

; ne& , nfti> 6 

;nya^ "iy3tr> .7 

; ru'DC' / n:btr 8 

: t : 

; nyvn , nypn 9 

; Tirtiw , n-ib>y io 



wibx nynK> ?ooo 

T-: " : 

mh* npv sooo 
d^k ny^ri oooo 

fan # nam] a myriad 

wta rnfog 1 I - 000 

- j. 20,000 
* D^tf> 30,000 

^M nxp 100,000 

D^K^K 1,000,000 



n , nxo ioo j 
dtikb 200 

- T 

nixo e^tf 300 

nisp ymx 400 

ntep Eton soo 

*)<?>? 100 

D">B^K 2000 
D^E&K nB#0 3000 

D^K n^Dn 5000 

t -: v " "! 

wzbx n^ 6000 



21 



onfew 2 
Dntan nnx 
iron Dne'y 

DnbjJiD'jtf 22 

D^tf 30 

D^yms 40 

t : - 

onston so 

D^C> 60 

D^yiD 70 

D^b^ 80 

own y0 



70 



3. In the Future and Imperative Niphal, the first radical of these 
verbs receives also Pathach instead of Cholem or Kubbuts : 



sen ,nT3Dn. 
~ . T v _ . 



to cultivate ~\2V 


to be warm, hot 


Don 


wax 


ttfcl m. 


a hinge Y m. 


to measure 


mo 


a door 


n!n / 


to lay waste,to desolateDOS? 


to melt 


DDO ; 


sand 


i?*in m. 



h*rp\ \p :\p'"iv\ nyjo ,pb rra-^ tac^ dtid ^j 
jjfts on-i :do3i Btoam om ,ncoa nraa isn"n nop^ 

- t t 7 : v v - - : I v - Iv -It- v I :it 

t : :- ) v t t 7 I . i 7 : : - 7 

rrri *6i taa^ db'i ,^n^b new netornN fyizi obo 

77 : 77 : - - 7: : 7: 77 v -: I : : - 

nnvn teEti ,v-wn HagO iknfir^a ^bd nn -fa ds 

7 v - 7 I V 7 7 7-7 7 : : .... - 

trtfjan nfeetfn onun ,-oyn nsetfn y-iNn tro-rtm 

7 v 7 - : - 'TV 7 7 - : - I v 7 7 7 : - : 

tb 1 p -non "wd :inD"^y ^sn ,mvrh$ Dion nfcnn 

- ) 7 v -:i- 7 - 7 : 7 - v v- 

*6i is" 1 -^ ne>N dm bins ^tnfcr 1 ja iddd rwfl :mb 



.. T . 



66. 

TiJE OAK AND THE REED. 



1 ! 

nn c. 



pm 



an oak 



nW- 



to move to and Jflj strong 

fro, to vacillate TT 

very itfO""iy to break nnn near, by ?X 



wind 

a storm mtfD nn 

t t : 

unhurt D^ a cane, a reed rop w. to bend flS3 to be weak ^"n 

T V T - T - T 

ance, 
sight 



to wonder nOfi [ rage 



Til m. appearance, nK**IOw. thin 



PT 



II 



urin s y ttnii <iKb"-iy nsaij nnyo nn opni .oWi m 

-: 7- : - 77 77: - I77- - -:i- 

, Tnatf j rn nab : id*6 vftatai - nmBrr^y nnnni . D^e* 



69 



t : I v t t: 

tjnds ]i2j -;i :oisn Va -Van parr^N ;fwrH?a vjsk? 
SKrfcm nnpbflsn :inab D"Jiaj m ;nns oblyia ,wd 

) v v: -I: I t t : : v: t t t t 

n *tfna new owH?s .lis vxttnb "o* ^n# :i?*nfcn 

- I v v -: 7 - t : I 7 t - 7 7 7 : 

:]:: lv : - 7 - I t t-;it 

jian ton nsc? :*ts "ufc jtaC *6 nnptf in ,rroi nfcft 

I v v: - : 7 vv : I -|7 : 7 : 

*& *|vp ^n rj-rta 7J2 :"ij?$ fitb n^Ksi-iyi ,tj 



65. 

NIPHAL OF THE VERBS f% . 

Infinitive construct : 3bH (33D) "to turn oneself," "to surround.' 



Participle. 

I am 
turning USD J 3D J 3K 

(D^aoJuruK 

we are ) 

turning ^j 



Imperative. 
c ^sdH ,abn 
In^aDH rlaisn 



turn 



Future. 

I shall surround abN 

abF! rie^ 

n>aDH z-iaDH 
n>aDH ^acf 1 



Preterite. 
I have surrounded ^HaD^ 

HapJ ,nap J 
HaoJ ) io2 

T - T - T 

Used 

jHapJ /QHapJ 
feed 



1. Like in Kal, the second and third radical of the verbs J7"JJ are 
contracted in Niphal : 2Q3 for 2303 3DH for D3DH About 
the inserted Choleiri and Seghol see Lesson 50, 3. 

2. The final syllable has sometimes Tsere instead of Pathach : 



"T 



68 



ttanfn hp Men .tibsMn Tioa iQi .insnn-nx "mi 

- I t - t : 7- t : V v T 

eh u9 rhxn DJ-in : tms? t>2V\ , ris ^yijn tin ^yn^ 

t J t 7 -7- 7 -: : I -: 7 - - 7 : 

,lri Rrnnnw strrOi i3 '-12b: orann ,ns-ir6 oa Kferc& 

t 7 :: 7v:iv : : : -j 7 : v : - 7 - : 

7 : v -7- I - - : : 7 -: : : 7 

:rora unajp b nny nn rinniso *6 



64. 

NIPHAL OF THE VERBS V'JJ . 

Infinitive construct : DisH (DID) "to be shaken," "to totter.' 



I am 



Participle. 



Future. 



totteringnoiB J , BtoJ 'JN I shall totter DiftN 



we are I ! : ~~ : 

tottering \pfaq 

Imperative. 



totter 



njoien ,teten 



"dIdH ,Dta>n 

t : 



Preterite. 
I have tottered T^D j 

JlDiD J , DiDJ 

T T T 

JDbJ /DHbDj 
fatoJ 



1. The verbs Y'XJ have a final Cholem inNiphal : QiDJ for Qipj , [SifiN 
for COl!^^ . Before the consonantal Afformatives of the Preterite, 
this Cholem is changed into Shurek and another Cholem is 
inserted : ^ntOiD^l 

2. The accent is Z'y ?D before all the Afformatives except UT) andjH 



fraud 

a lip 

the earth 



ITCH / 

t : 

neb f. 



for a nira-iN-iy of old TND 
moment T ' : " 

a rock "flV . to-morrow "inO 

the midst 2")^ m. before 1M j>rej>. 



not i?3 

to tremble 'n) hn 

to be- firm, [J] ^2 
established, ready 



67 

7 T : V 7 ' -7 V V 7 - - - T7 7 I - 

-to ranTI tiS , *rto"to n^n " 131 : rfinb ratf ^z^n 

7 ; 7 V 7 7 7: - : 7 7 - ; - 

now rtipp t?k rl3 iDWurto ni*nr6 vrto rbh owi** 

: * 7 : - 7 7 : - v 7 : t J\ 7 : - 

T : ' 1 7 : : 7 -7 ; 7 ) : * It t: -:i- 7 ; 

itv& *6i \/rep wrrca ,Vi npira tiw odk 



63. 

FUTURE AND IMPERATIVE NIP HAL OF THE VERBS 

V'B AND y% . 

J*/ constr. : J^TI (y^) "to save oneself j Jw/. constr. : ireH fw) "to be left." 
Imperative. Future. 



save thyself 



save yourselves 




I shall be left 
thou wilt " 
he, she will" 
we shall " 
you will " 
they " " 



"inO 

T 



1. Like in the Preterite, the first radical of the verbs ">" is changed 
into 1 . The Preformative fc< has Chirek instead of the usual 
Seghol. 

2. The verbs 3"D are regular in the Fat. and Imp. Niphal : 7)i^ , 

ton 



a burden N&2 . 
to escape [3]?X3 
slyness HDiy / 

accept ! }?ap 

to cut off )Vp 



SELFISH ADVICE. 

to be ashamed[j]D^3 ! | before DID 



if not, unless vh^p 

that, in order to \y$? 

a blemish, Q^o w. 

defect , 
a stum- ^iBOOro. 
bling block 



to meet, [:] -|y> 

to assemble " T 

to deliberate [:] J*5T 

to lay snares, fcjjp^ 
to catch 



folly !&*/ 

both-and D1TD2 
to remove "PDA 
the tail 3J?*. 

TT 

scorn, flB"in/. 
disgrace T :v 



uprightness i^ 1 w 

atoj -q tpi :toa*i 1ri vap^ 133Q nea ^pij -ina to^ 
\yhb t rvrm nwvb wtrusYyVi Aom rn*rto nison 1 ? 

I - - ; 7.7: -;j- ; I -7 : T v v T : 



66 



62. 

FUTURE AND IMPERATIVE NIP HAL OF THE VERBS 

wb and n6. 

Infinitive construct : Nt3("l (SVC) "to be found." 
Imperative. 



let thyself find 



let yourselves find 






Future 
I shall be found 
thou wilt " 
he, she will " 

! we shall 



j! they " 



" T " T * 





Infinitive 


construct : H PaH (r6a) "to appear." 






Imperative. 




Futurt 


I 






("fen 


I shall appear 


rArt? 


appear (thou) 




1 W 


thou wilt " 
he, she will " 








| &n 


we shall " 


nW 


appear (you) 




I n ^ 


you will " 
they " 





In the Future and Imperative Niphal, Piel and Hithpael of the 
verbs &$"? , the third radical quiesces in Tsere, but before HJ in 
Seghol. 

About the verbs H"^ see Lesson 36. 



'} c. to fill, to be full k{>b 



to be satisfied jn> : 

. " T I 
splendor, mNDD/- 

glory vv ; ' I 



aery 
precious 



ajudgment,tt2*0 m. 

right T : 
a crown mtOtf / U help 






to shut DDK 

knowledge nj^I / 
riches Jin tn. 



mNDn mey :ynp inrrQ -n^p , 1ari3 mm ^-n 

vv : ' v v -: It : i- \ t|: :it : t : 

on-innroi *nQnxP naqna iKssn npiv 71112 t ruvf 

t~: : t v t 7 : t : t It t : Ivv; t 

t : :!--; t : )tt I t : it 

v t-v t -:i-v - v:rv ttv - - J * Iv 



65 



3. The third radical of the verbs Lamed Guttural is preceded by 
Pathacli instead of Tsere : yO^ (in pause JHD. 

~T * ~ ~T 



satisfied yh& \, to rise, to be high QVl 

gladness ffob ' to lean u P on W ]V& 



a province nnD/ to expire yij 

a city r\-\v f. to pull clown, D~n 

|| to destroy " T 



rryto"DrnoK rw yun :rbxn a^jxna awn vnxn 

t : t t : - tt- ~: v t t -.it -t I v t t 

rmtan -iyete neto -toy' 1 ) : ry-i?K hdk*i , yifen ?pi roto 
.._.,__ __ . v -., T - v | V T ..- _.. T . j|.. T T 

: it - : t t :it T T - 

Tibsn nfamrbDa omjn anrrn ftnpl , ueforbv "tos^i 

)...._ T . v .. T . . ._ -:||T- t :- - -:i-: 

crjrch ra ,mp cnn one*" 1 roraa :mofc bipi rtfcfa 

7 : : vl t t t : * : : t : 1:1 t 

;}y#rH>K arwbw ,?pWaa rtrr^w ncos :tnnFl 

|.. T . - I :it v : Jv - - : 7 : v - : t 



61. 



a bowl, myp/. 

a dish 
to pour out ^|DK> 

desire, lust niKfl /. 



THE FLIES AND THE HONEY. 

to be able fo 
sweetness pnE 



a fly MT " to be lost, TUN 

to perish " T 

to taste DJJtt woe ! -"ix 

a corner H3Q / !| to be foolish [j] fjtf* j to cleave, p2 r \ 

T ' || " T to be glued 

t6i , tsrrbln ip:n "ffite "TO 6?tfn ipnp 0303 , rran niae 
nni orby Kiss >rm i-lrrfa fr&*i rTieH iiy b& 

T77 v -: : ;i- .. T .._ ., T . .. T . :|T 

ivnoKi -unibj uniKra 1 U^cti ^ u$ Ik .rofi 



64 



obaa ^ , neaP iDi di*q i man d^ riw : iTicsjfi dd^n 

...... J 7 7 TT T 7T T J" " T ' V " ~. 

-^ i3n nns .orro*H?8 ids * lorwmK nt^y dttw 

T T ~ T T : " V " T T: 7 T 7 V 7 7 \\ 

.w> mo nn :rato roto -apn ,d^3 tpfOK 

7.i7 : 7 : 17 7 7 : "It t : 1 v -: 

of bBtt .taWn "o< "in :n:ipK dk>i ,no ^nran nafta 

- t t "It v t : t t v _ :i- 

'.OT^B VIX - ^ B^S ^H "S 3123 "^TH ,^Ntf T3 IPX 

: : 1 vv v t v - t I t -; t v 

mwh'spi iriib bx^M ttfaa .ncfoprbx *ty<to ^'bj3 

t : ) v v )v "T : it t : - J: 

.njttoFl iryeh rtWTT :'fr^ta' , nan htt *6 -rfceso 

t :~ t t : : t v- :it t -:n 



60. 

FUTURE AND IMPERATIVE NIP HAL OF THE VERBS 
PE, A YIN AND LAMED GUTTURAL AND "). 

///. consfr. : SpxH (5|DX) "to be gathered." II Inf. constr. : nTJ'H QTJJ) "to be forsaken." 



Imperative. 



gather (thyself) 



Future. 
P]DnH I shall be forsaken 

''SDKn thou wilt " 

he, she will" " 

we shall " " 



gather (yourselves) 



: it j 

n JeDNi"! y u will 

they 






1. In the Inf., Imp. and Put. Niphal of the verbs Pe Guttural and 
^"3 # the vowel under the Preformatives is lengthened into Tsere, 
to compensate for the Dagesh forte. 

2. The second radical of the verbs Ayin Guttural receives comp. 
Sli'va instead of simple Sh'va : 1^887*1 (see Lesson 13). 



63 



59. 

FUTURE AND IMPERATIVE NIP HAL OF THE 
REGULAR VERB. 

Infinitive construct : "lO^'H (TX*) "to be guarded." 

T - T 

Imperative. Future. 



beware (thou) 



TO$n i; I shall be guarded 



^BttTI 



beware (you) 



! 



thou wilt " 
he, she will" 
we shall " 
you will " 
they 



a < 



T >, 

;it t 

T " T 



1. The other principal form of the Niphal is the Infinitive construct 

"T3$n , from which the Future and Imperative are formed. As 

""OC^H is contracted from ""IDEfan , the first radical receives 

Dagesh forte to compensate for the omitted J . The j"l of the 

Infinitive drops in the Future and its vowel recedes : '"ip&h for 

"TD&ST ; sometimes also in the Infinitive after 2 and 7 : "pfcGDi . 
t : : it 

2. When the Inf., Fut. and Imp. Niphal are followed by a mono- 
syllabic word, the accent usually recedes and Tsere is shortened 
into Seghol : Tib ^IQWH , Htfl DTOH 

J : v t v t 

3. Tsere is generally changed into Pathach before the Afformative 
nj (see the paradigm), sometimes also in other forms in pause : 
fcl (Gen. 21, 8). 

4. As only the active conjugations have an Imperative, the significa- 
tion of the Imperative Niphal is reflexive or reciprocal. 



to make a rp-Q JVO 

covenant ' " T 

to totter, to stumble ?K>3 

lest 



1? 



to exult, to rejoice (^2) ^*1 darkness 



an arm, power 
to cut 



nHa 



where 

a covenant 



nna/. 



::! v t : 17 1 v v: t: v - : ) v J: v t 



62 



nm vm :?yJ2 Hank *Q*i ,?yiD Hint* robb irr6tep. 

tt :i- I-t: t :- t- | : T ;- vvt :- 

:ctf nub nonsto d-dn tti ;v"*b 

t t t : -: t : - % ) VT t 



58. 
PRETERITE AND PARTICIPLE NIP HAL OF THE 

VERBS V'B 

"to be left," "to remain" (-irr) inij 
Participle. Preterite. 



he is left 


T 


I have been 


left 


to 




( n*?jpJ **) 


thou hast " 





: ' - t : * 


she " " 


( (H-iniJ) 


he, she has" 


u 


iTinO . ini 2 


they are " 




we have " 
you " " 


it 


jPVinti DFhnO 






they " 


it 


hnO 



In the Pret. and Part. Niphal, the first radical of the verbs ^" 
is changed into 1 , and the Preformatiye J has, consequently, Cholem : 

TW for -inu 



^ , [13 "6ij ^dn cm ; pd Tl-ftiJ -raw Tyn-nx Tona 

t -: t - t 7 :- v -: t v : - t 

vt - v : 1 i I VV 7 77: 

7 ) -:i- : t 7 7-: it: v t ; I v v t : 

7 - 7 : - -: 7 7 v 7 v vt 

njH?? bsi crfwJrr^i D^orfcj rn ^32 TjSri *tfJM :^ab 

7 7 -: -7 : - 7 : 7 vt Jv v : - : 

:iDtf bfu lanfcra >avfe rrerra sntf inhnUn rrorr 



61 



57. 

PRETERITE AND PARTICIPLE NIP HAL OF THE 

VERBS J'B 

"to approach" {Wl) B>0 
Participle. Preterite. 

C'2j nnS I have approached ^FVsJ 

t : - t : - 



thou art approaching 



n^'3.] fiK thou hast 



vou are 



J) he, .she has 

OVO Dn we have 

HitwJ inx yon " 

thev " 






Like in the Future Kal, the first radical drops and is 
compensated by Dagesh forte in the second radical. 



LOCAL HE. 
The direction or motion towards a place is frequently indicated 
by the unaccented syllable H appended to the noun : V1^ "a land," 
H!T1K "towards a land;" fiBSJ "the north," HJlBS "northward." 

t :- It t t 

When this local He is appended to a feminine noun, the fern, termina- 
tion H is changed into H : H03 "a high place," HHD2 



to count 



"ISD to smite, 
" T to defeat 



f\H a priest 



}ri3 m. ! a wall 



ncin;. 



"^ Dflefcp n^ :yyn nnn npiy rarn ( ^t^ W_3j 
tdn neto :^ DVaSn iwften ppp d^ehp rnoirtn 

- t v t: v t - -: - ; r ): t 

I v : v t: I I v v: t: I : - : - t t t 

iTpftw 1 blpa yntin *6-dni ;Tr^b DiaO ?s ffDpn 

I v v: t: } : - : : ) v t : t ! v t it- 

v t Iv v - : t : --t : J v : : It- t: ): v 

t : - T v t : - t - I V " t t 



60 

The ^ into which the third radical of the verbs H'v is changed, 
quiesces in Tsere in the Preterite of the passive conjugations. 

Note I. Distinction must be made between the first pers. plur. of the 
Future Kal and the third pers. masc. sing, of the Preterite 
Niphal: iDBfa "we shall guard," but:TQ#J "he has been 

guarded ;" 3 T J? J " we shall leave^" but : 2 T V 2 " ne has been 

forsaken;" nfrW "we shall do," but: nttf'W "it has been 

v ~:r t -:r 

done." 

But as these two forms are identical in the verbs Ayin and 

Lamed Guttural, #"h and Efaj (JJOEtt "we shall hear" and 

"he has been heard," ^^OJ "we shall find," and "he has 

t : 

been found"), the context must decide : yD^J ^teHl "and 
the rumor was heard" (Genesis 45, 16), 7]^ JJDEfa ]2 U ' S() 
we will hearken unto thee" (Joshua 1, 17). 
Note II. The same remark applies to the Part. masc. sing. Niphal of 
some verbs : pfol J , H^W , XWj 



to be seen, [j] ntn 

to appear 
a turtle-dove "lift m. 



a villainy i^OJ/- II to become, [j] .TH 

to hide inD jj to happen " 

-t J] an altar PI3TE m. 

^deH?k nbjj vi ;t^>k nm3n ^ raro rua d-ton 

t ; t: t v : - t - - : t t t t : - 

rfaj -g b*oi^ ^33 yhv)2 ? run TFiri rnrti ro* : rfceb 

t t : t : : - : v- t t- t : P t 

orab ,ntfra nntnj *6i firing *6 .notfn nsna nnfesO 

t 7 ~: : : 7 : : : - 7 : : 7 ; v v 

"hsr ""njrr irrn oin iy anyo y-ixn byner "us nfcjj 
nnjDj nwn -rsn :ehi6 rHrij rwi Din infcwj -eta 

t : : - ' T : 7 : r v - - t -:i~ v -: 

Ipb nra / It^yj dw * T3T3 ryrny \jsk d^# snef 
:ahw poetf inn bipi ,p*a fahj cnsuri :dn3St63 

.. . _ . - : - ) : ) -.-7 7 : 7 - 77: 7 



59 



In the Preterite of Niphal and of all the following conjugations 
of the verbs ^'v , the third radical quiesces in Tsere before the 
Afformatives H and J . 

Some verbs have a feminine form in the Infinitive Kal : TOID 

t :)t 
"to approach," HDH^ "to love," ("INT "to fear." Such forms are 
T-:r t : 

also used as feminine nouns : rDHN "love," TOil^ "my love." 

t-:i- -T-:r 



jnstice, virtue np*l/- 

two V\V>f- 



a messenger, 
an angel 
ten 






j to seek, to demand Eh 1 *! 
' to hide oneself [3] {On 



. DiH? n^btsn npKi > dtp? Qppro rnx 1nvp<5 *& 
:Tyn-jp ksi .nteraD^n ?prta ^nernw TjBij^rnK np_ rap 
? 12 crrfe* nn "itf n e^ no xaojn . thdst^n idx rtjns 
iburbr ante DVpJ onx :" dsg -mb tiwioji ?JBfn 
tiMrta i 11 "i 1 "n^yon ,nm DranJ "rate rtpon-fea 

: t: - -:it : t t : - v ~: It- t : 

: np-ra nikwbi iri rDnfc&i "tin H&CVb 



56. 
PRETERITE AND PARTICIPLE N1PHAL OF THE 

verbs rrb 

Infinitive absolute : n?a J ; "to be revealed," "to appear" (n?3) PW J 



Participle. 



I am appearing 



j Dty) una* 

V : * : - " 



Preterite. 



I have 


appeared 


vtoj 


thou hast 





rvto rD^ 


he, she has 


<< 


t : : t : 


we have 





U^jJ 


you " 





jn^jj ,DTHJ 


they " 


u 


td 



-*- S8 - 

1 . Before Gutturals with composite Sh'va, the J receives the corre- 
sponding vowel . 

'2. The second radical of the verbs Ay in Guttural receives comp. 
Sh'va in all those forms in which the second radical of the regular 
verb has simple Sh'va : TOg^ \H$&i 

3. The Niphal of the verbs ^<"D * s formed like that of the verbs Pe 
Guttural. 



to separate TlS | poor pDD *. i to turn , to change TJDH 

to be gathered to- [j] ^np <\ a cave my / : a Jew HOT* . 

gether, to assemble T T : : 

myiaT^K to riip ,w^a no*0 rab ion apsr 

t t : - v ; r " v I" vnv -: t t : - t ) -:i- 

neko .nwlrpa tpbjtVk FtoDttir*nriM nrv*m ;r**rrnK 

v -;i- t t J v - v t : -v.iv; 7 7 t: I vn 

bttq osp^nj D^nj^n {Tdrrc httf :?)TiN prn* f]d*G 
,tmmrnn * its "mow ^tid tw UttsJ *6 oriias 

: - v 7: -7 : v : - : :7 7: t : 

-by lorfcji onnsn onmi fonpj ;nnofe6 dap "sterOi 

-: : : . 7 : : - -:J : 7 : : 7 : I - : v : 

nfawJ rtn any ?DTi i ?Kn rva arctf stpid :orralK 

tv:iv - *7 v:i7 ~v:Iv - - ...... 

-fe> : d^dbO DTK mom - rrwa posn nosn : rob ymfo 

7 7 : 7 77 : 7 : I : - - : 7 I -7 : I vv : 

: , ai3Dn3 ariN 



55. 

PRETEBITE AND PARTICIPLE NIPHAL OF THE 

VERBS K "h 

Infinitive absolute : KVD^ ; "to be found" (tftfo) NVoJ 

: * T T t ; 

Participle. Preterite. 

he is found KJdJ MV1 ! Iliave beenfound V*b$ 

thou hast " n?3 'HNVpJ 

she" ""! J KYI I he, she has" " HNyp J , NVD.3 

we have " " 'UNioJ 

you " " jHsttipJ f DPwJ 
they" ^VDJ 



I x : 



they are" 



_ S7 _- 



When a verb has a particular signification in Xiphal, or is exclusively used in this 
conjugation, it is indicated in the vocabulary by a 2 in brackets. 



HIS m. to desire, [3] PJD3 
to lone 



a snare 

to be missed [j] lp3 to fight [:] DJ"6 

a bird liQV c. to escape [}] I2S0 



' to be broken, [3] ro^ 
contrite 

a sacrifice rD? m> 

-v 

: a fowler &p)> m. 



a word IDS m. 

yesternight >DN 
to despise nT3 



d^ij6 ,rrormK 3iyn6 fl imsao TdodJ ti^jj ,* 

t : t -: v ~:i~ t: t : : - ; I v 7 7; 

ufei -nntfsa ton mpsj :etk dtid coboj $6 :fotau 

7 \: v : - v v 7 :l-: v - : T : 

7 : - 7 ) 7 7 -: ) -:i- v 1 7 7 v J 7 : - : 

-ion ythiT f-tf-wrnN rob ns# ^?paK m:& jTIdddj rjDDj 

- 7 - \ : 7 v: v 7 : - 7 77 I t - : 7 : - : I 

iw? DrrptfJi -cob origin wn opTf)*? 5 .^tnip 1 . ">.pb 
.mrbreii "ijfoi "opt SDDvfrK ii_ nN nan^ EDTifetoA 

7 : : : 17 t:* "f: ' v " v: t: v 7 -:i- : v : -: 

Dvn-iy Di^rP? ai rrJm : pay \p3 ripnbji dps 7J2 

j , .. . . . T ._ . . . T 7 : : v -: 

... .. . . : 7 : : :i - " : * ' V. " ' 7 : : 

: nnn 16 Drib* pdtJi *QVfi ab , rhatfj nn 



<>- 



54. 

PRETERITE AND PARTICIPLE NIP HAL OF THE 
VERBS PE AND A YIN GUTTURAL,, AND Jf'S- 

Infinitive absolute : 21V 2 > "to be forsaken'' (DTV) 2TV J 



Parh 


ciple. 






Preterite. 






I have 


jeen 


forsaken ^H^tyJ 


thou art forsaken 


thou hast 





r\srgi <FhTyJ 




he, she has 





rhtgJ , ntgJ 


you are " 


) D"h?yJ onx 


we have 
you " 


<< 


" jFhryJ DFhryJ 






they " 


< 


faryJ 

: vv 



THIFLID PART. 



THE VERB IN THE OTHER SIX CONJUGATIONS; 
THE NUMBERS. 

58. 

NIPHAL. 

The second conjugation, Niplial PJ7SJ), is the passive or the 
reflexive or reciprocal of Kal ; it is characterized by a J prefixed to the 
stem of the verb : "ID^Jl "to be guarded," "to guard oneself" or 
"to beware," "to take heed." 



PBETERITE AND PARTICIPLE NIP HAL OF THE 
REGULAR VERB. 

Infinitive absolute : iDtiO ; "to be guarded" ("IDC>) "I0S*0 
Participle. Preterite. 



I am guarded 



I am bewaring 

we are guarded 

or : 
we are bewariiu 



"IDKO *lJK I have been guarded ^FhB>J 

PrwJ 43M thou hast " " rhotfJ , rVlOBtf 



(n-io^j) 



he, she has 



DHoeO brU we have 

t : : : 

HItoB^ i:n:X you have 
thev have 






1. The Participle Niphal is formed from the Preterite ; like all the 
Participles of the passive conjugations, it has Kamets under the 
second radical. 

2. The third pers. fern. sing, of the Preterite, niOQ^j is in pause 

rnDKfa t identical in form with the Participle fern. sing. ; these 

two forms are only distinguished by the position of the accent, the 

Pret. is b^D : m6$J , the Part, is JH >>ft : fTTDEfa 
.... tt : -: tt : 

3. The signification of the Part. Niph. differs from that of the Part. 

pass. Kal : the Part. Xiph. represents the action as being done 

in. present flute, whilst the Part. pass. Kal has no reference to time : 

ZMrCn ISDn "the written book," 3FQ3H ISDH "the book 
t ~ v " ~ t : ~ 

which is being written rumT' 



55 

4. To this class belong some verbs fcO , which retain Tsere in the 
Preterite : #}& , TWX> ? the verb fYO has also middle Tsere : 

no, rob. 

T " 

5. A few verbs, termed middle Cholem, have Cholem after the second 
radical : jtDp , p^ , 72V) > H2 ; they retain this Cholem in their 
inflection, but shorten it into Kamets-Chatooph when the accent 
is removed to the last syllable : \&2P "I was able," ^n^D 1 ! 
"and I shall be able ;" H/D^ "you were able." 



A euphonic \ is sometimes appended to the AfFormatives \ and } , 
especially at the end of a sentence ; in the latter case, the vowel of 
the second syllable is restored : pJJDI^n > VU2T]7\ . 

The H of the Afformative HJ is sometimes dropped : ]JQn > P^HR 



labor, service friaj; /. j the sea (Wpl) D^ m. faithfulness TfDH / 

-.-... to be heavy, 133 to despise H3 

to pass over 12V burdensome ,- ., , ., 

a staff <?po m. old a S e W m 

a flower py m. , "" loTe , kindness, IDn' *. 

'.-i mercy 

an abyss Qinn R to turn aside, to depart "no ' grass Tn w. 

roa ^nfcr ^sj iQvnrbv rrdyn rras :r*Q ids ann 

: T " T : T7 - T ".IT 7.17 1 V7 7 '7 7 77 

rf?: Kr^j :d^pt^sj rrtojri -opn .ion rune :jpp 
op? ,'rto nirr vsn ntste bs :a$p -cdj j6i -i#3 

- t - 77 7:1-7 v -: I v 7 - : : * " 

tin rvtsw ittfN roan-tew D-nonn tea tubd .-idn 

7*7 v -. .- v:i7 7 - -7 -:i- : 17 - t 

>3th tpti nnsn iTOji prwrw trgj? ^pm "s [spas 
ntotf JtJsk njpi ^ mrrtu :sno -o kt mn :nijnn 

7 I V ' T| .17 7 T" T ; 7 7 7 -? 

-g-n .pa tej ,-pyn 0r :ddv6n j niap-n* patfn 



54 



-iDtf'i r-osrb-nN ncnvn "w nan nb*n ,oin \ti 

t- -: t v t t-;it - ,- :it I v:iv- - :i~ 

^o ^ .dVis? rer6 vrib ddst nnsn inner opno w9 

t t )- \ : v : it ' t -: -7 : J \ 7 

qinp ]pi by& u$h :vm oy pbn: tv tbt t^ ahji 
DiTi mi n9 b sTfri "stab tfrw p .-toi6 jjpi ,mwi 

- T :- 77 7-: - Ivv - -: \- - I 7-7 

d'ti -nan eftyn :tiiW? yntfj wi ,lnfc rpbra ,nn*rnN 

-:i7 - )v7-:i- -: 7: )t: :~: 7- |- 

: nrwrn^ mfrsk nasn 16 nete na tistbd ^tf rrfo 

77 I- -:i- 7.-7 v -: )-:i"~ - : * 



52. 

JL4Z OF Tfftf Ftfi?5 MIDDLE TSERE AND MIDDLE 

GHOLEM. 



to be able ^y 
Preterite. 



to be heavy "133 



I was able 



Future. 

tiibsn) M^ II ! sha11 be 133 N 

heavy * ' v 
H33H , 133n 



t : tt; t : t 
t :it T 



-man , naa* 

etc. 



Preterite. 

I have been ^FH23 
heavy ; " T 

ni33 , rnia 

fTttS , 133 

t ;it r 

etc. 



heavy 



Participle. 
nn33 , dh33 , maa , "Da 



1. Many intransitive verbs, termed middle Tsere, have, in the Preterite 
Kal, Tsere under the second radical : "Q3 , jHf f V^n ; in the 
inflection, this Tsere is changed into Pathach. 

2. Most of these verbs have Pathach in the Future Kal : -Q^i , jpp ; 

but: ysrr. 

3. The Participle of these verbs, which is identical in form with the 
third pers. masc. sing, of the Preterite, has the signification of an 
adjective : -Q3 "heavy," |HT "old." 



53 - 
'2. Like in the verbs yy , the Preformatives have Kamets : 3D 1 ^ot 

330) . 

& Before the Afformatives ^H , Dr D, 1J/ Cliolem is inserted, before 

t : 

r\2 Seghol with Yod p ) ; these vowels have the accent. 
4 The accent is also ^v /p before the Afformatives J"! , i , ^ . 
5. With Yav conversive, the Cholem of the Future is shortened into 

Kamets-Chatooph. Before Suffixes, it is either shortened into 

Kamets-Chatooph or Kubbuts : *n^nn 



to turn, 22D 

\u p> round, " T 
to encompass 
a watchman "\J2>b* n. 



a hundred njflO / ; anarmy ^n W- ! to celebrate Jjn 

T - 

a camp mnft to. \ fifteen ib>y ilBton I' a month bhH m> 



rrcfecmKi inrvnN ?itd vrv ran .yBfirn-^ tdw 

t : - v : ; v ) :it : - t - .. ; . t: 

orai ,w r\vb mr\ ns ,nn oys tbtttw D'HaDi 

tv -.i- TV T v v - : 

DyrrbK yefirr tan :dtob yn# nria toon ^z^n 



oeh , nn nvs ]Wtnr\ era Tyrrnx tob^ , Tyrrnx too 

\T- - ~ I * T - T V T~ T 

tcktok 132D ipoafn ofai -d 1 ^ nitfci> ife>y rte ;runan 

t v : it . . . - - . T .... T .._., 

noon ;n ^-o^n Ehr6 dp nfry ncstora idtob sn& 

\ - - ' : - v - t t t -:i- t : 

:inix linn yrvfn ehm ,trp; njntf irw Driini ,njrrk 
:Trrn mfa Wi rniasn jiton jrf> run enran 

TV " - - V T T ' V T -: 

:tjq Deafen Dnd&rrnK i*o ^ ,m no&n 



51. 

PRACTICE WHAT YOU PREACH. 



to hunt, to catch -flV 


rightly, well p 


to divide p">n 


then 


TK 


prey tv m. 

a leader, a ruler n^m. 


a den nMj / 

a liiding- "inb w. 

place 
an assembly r\~\y / 


to be willing, j'Qn 
to desire j " 1 
a statute, a law pn . 

welfare mitt /. 


to be ashamed 
to speak 
to be silent 


eta 


the (i]in c.) injj to. 
middle VT 


a desert naiy /. 


to advise yjp 


to meditate 


DDT 

-T 



52 

icm ir.niN Vw^ dto n^n ^yy ?^ntB^ -6n anion >nn 



: t 

i 



rs ,ttubtw \ni*n nn ,oyen nniDN nor-^ 3py 
die''? lsTy-5 >3-*'wsn- i ?^ .tsbj 1 ? rvn "osni in 

t |- : t : : : - -:it : v - t ! : 

sjss m'^ ^? n ^? '^ ?^? ""sftr^? ^ '^t^p 

rbv drrun . *?*oe6 rot Ijjnfen ->jpi : ^rfrtt tpt^hi -ray 

;v v 7 7 : : ; 17 7 : ); 7 v: r- ' - 

)-:i7 : 7: - 7 7 v : v : 7 : 

fa brnfen ^2 ilJ'W? uvfa< " ugsnr i^nfc^s? tfra 1 ? 

7 * t: * : : 7 : v: 7: 7 7 : - lv v : 

: Didjj^ annx dt6k nnjtraft? ," nnin DDTy-^y DmND 

7: 7: -: v: :i- vvt 7: - t:t t :- 

:abiy--iyi nnyo ,?h*t3i ?lnNimnEh rtrr 

7 -: 7 - I v ) : r- 7 ; 7 : 
O 

50. 

KAL OF THE VERBS jj"JJ . 

Iw/. a&5. : (33D) 2D; "to surround" 33D 

Future. n Preterite. 



I shall surround 
thou wilt " 
he, she will" 
we shall " 
you will " 
they " " 



3bN 

S6F\ , abn 
abJ 

n>3DH , 1 BdH 

t v S i r 

n>aon ; wb 1 I! they 



I have surrounded 
thou hast " 
he, she has " 
we have " 



Hsd 1 nio 

T - 

Hap r (nap) 3D 
T - tfap 
JIT&D , DPap 

(133D) 13D 



he surrounded 3D S T 

TT" 

he will surround me \33D* 



Act. Participle. 

surrounding 331D 

Pass. Participle. 

surrounded 3}3D 



Imperative. 

surround (thou) ^3D , 3D 
Cvou)H>3D r\3D 



1. These verbs, whose second and third radical are the same, are 
termed yy . These two radicals are generally contracted into 
one, and the second radical is compensated byDagesh forte, which 
is, however, omitted at the end of the word : 2D for 3D 



- 51 



I v v: r ' v: 7 t: t t - t: : t v : v 

r6nx ,nn^m nanrrr^ ,noan nip r^THBn *s din 

t v t v: t! v : : : t v : - - - t : t -I: v): : t t 

tfo'zadntibz Ftfow .try* ttjktik jn ,tb :lTni 

vv: * t : - : t: It v; v - t| v: : 



: risen 

t -: 



49. 



THE INFINITIVE WITH SUFFIXES. 





Verbal, 




Nominal. 


to guard me 


^Irmh 


my 


keeping ^IDB* 


thee 
hi7)i, her 




thy 
Alt, for 




us 


frta 


owr 


UlOK> 


you 
' " them 




your 
their 





1. The Suffixes of the Infinitive have either a subjective or an objective 
signification, and are, accordingly, either nominal or verbal. 

2. The Suffixes are appended to the 7^/. cowsf. which is inflected like 
a Segholate (see Lesson 7). 

3. The forms 7]1?3f and DD^TO^ occur also in the active signifi- 

) :t : v :t : 

cation. ' 

4. The Inf. of regular verbs with Pathach has sometimes Chirek 
before Suff. : 3D? , rQD# 

- : T : ' 

5. The Inf. of the verbs J" and Y'B is inflected like the fern. 
Segholates: fljfe, TOfe; HFl (for nJH), fjflj rO& , TOtf ; 

6. The Inf. const, of the verbs jTv and VJ? remains invariable before 

Suffixes: rrfa , Ttfaj Hi VI, *!*n ; DP, TOP* 



to urge, to entreat J?3Q 
this time, now (n) ayB /. 



to help 
now 



ry 



"W 



to pass the night, (p*)) ^ 

to lodge 
to anoint T\W 



50 



48. 
THE FUTURE AND IMPERATIVE WITH SUFFIXES. 



The secon 


d pers. masc. 
Imperative. 


sing 


. of the 


Tfle 


Aird j9ers. masc. sing, of the 
Future. 


guard me 








^?.P? 


he 


will 


guard me 


Pilio^) n J^o^ 


" him 








: r 


i< 


M 


" Me 




" htr 




: t 


t v ; t 


M 


<{ 


M him 


(USoj^) iriio^ 


" us 








tfjDf 


(1 

M 


M 


44 




" them 










<( 


< 


44 you 
44 <^w 


piotr ,DDiosr 



1. The Cholem of the Fut. Kal drops before the Suffixes ; before 
?J , DD and ] 2 it is changed into Kamets-Chatooph. In the verbs 
Ayin and Lamed Guttural, thePathach is lengthened intoKamets; 

y&K ->xm&\ ^sbtf. 

t : -t : - -t : 

2. The Afformative HJ is changed into } before the Suffixes. 

3. A euphonic J is often inserted before the Suffix, or it is assimilated 
to the Suffix and compensated by Dagesh forte. 

4. In verbs H'v the H with its vowel drops before Suffixes (see 
Lesson 47, 5) : ^JgftT "he will make me.'' 



perfect(no^/)D^ I to bury 



13p ;j to visit, 
T to take care 



"Ip53 to watch, 
~ T II to keep 



d^ n^cb sfnba insaon 16 oiti rritrrti opsi rotjrrs 

TV" VT - \ T ; - 7 - t - 

io m awte :tarTTTP *6 ,roe* Taafri EiKn >lbpbp 

I . t : v : i t - : - - .. I . . 

b ivrrbso ?m^ r 1 :Wdj3 iwlrr inarwi .rrrbsn 

T t | :t : t: ; -: I t t : t v:iv- 7 : . - 



3tsp Vbwrrow ,lsy mnpro odds? nst 



V wW 



49 

3. By the addition of the Suffixes, the verb undergoes some changes. 
In the Preterite Kal, the Kamets under the first radical drops, 

the n of the third pers. fern. sing, is changed into H / and the 

i 

Afformatives QH and Jfl are changed into ^H : 112W , \j"V2^ ' 
I v ~ t t : 

rrcv i vtrnotf or irrotf ; amce; , ^pnnw . 

t : it : -t : - t : v :~ : : : 

4. In verbs with the consonantal Suffixes (except with Q2D and Q 

(see Lesson 11, 3), the accent is ^y ?p , with the other Suffixes it 

is jnk) . 

5. In verbs T\" 7 , the H with its vowel drops before Suffixes : 



T T T T 



an evil) a calamity njTl / | an entrance, a door nriQ wi. to gather, to receive 5]DX 
a judge DDi$ w- : to pursue Pp"i ii therefore |3"?y 

tow tdn PhD ^iiy :Wnr6tf ^m ttvg tt^otf * 

... . T . -t -: 7 : - : v -; | v . tt : t: 

Kirr!* : nhai nin nisn natais :\jdd*o mm ,^a?y 



..... ... :|T . . . ... 1 T . ,._.),.. 

lorolKTa D:ra Ddtj; * 02 p-^y s*inroy *6i "tin 

v : -: t t : T7-: t: - I t -: : t: 

nt e^n-dn .thi ,^rln nrls "noy ^sH?** "O* true 

t * 7 t : v 7 - v : "7 v - 7 7 : i- 

tdk bm) :vk mow ,# ; k rte-tfn .Tbw ?6k#) 

-7 7 1-7 ::-7: : - 7 : |- : 

-m it ^jrbtf -rata tttq t6w ,n bp2 ^ny6# Vwbtf 1 ? 

7 t: - 7 : v - rvv- J -t 7: ) : : -1 

t3l\i "InS^ -^n ,b*nfcn rfca * Tiro *Wwb tok 

I -7 : v -: t: v: 7: ) 7 - -.1- - 7 

?tiiha -pin b*s Kl^n *utob in** dn tffcn :\n*ripb 

-: 7 \ : 7 v 7 -: 7J: 



77: 7 



48 



TIK ITEM iDtf ?H3 DrDET "I0N TSJn HNiH IHStf 

v t 7 : : t v : - : v -: t -; T t 

eh ton ran .ifryn nttftf crcnn rb$ irbtiH unann 

t t: - t t v:iv ~ )w - \ : 

t-:it t: vt I - t v -; vv - v: 

nun :^k r6# arm "rata irtfJNn DH ? - nay rf?Kn 

t- t - t I t v -; t-:it It v t 

: nvw vim tbWi era , ^fena 'nbib pn Dm 

v -:i- 7 : 77- t: : fvv I t 



47. 

THE SUFFIXES OF THE VERB. 

When the object of the verb is a personal pronoun, it is generally 
expressed by a Suffix appended to the verb. These Suffixes are : 



The third pers. sing, of the Preterite with 
Suffixes. 

Jie has guarded me ^ *TPP 

" " thee ^*)P '*j"!P^ 

" him, her t*hoti t nVp 

M " us IJiotf 

you TDysp '^OlPP 

" them \-\XW , D"lbtf 

| tt : tt : 



Plural. 
us !)J J. c 

u 3/ 



you 



them 



Singular, 
me 1J 1. c. 

( 7] 2. m. 

him (1 /j) m 3. m. 
her (P| ) n 3. /. 

T T 



thee 



1. These Suffixes are appended to all the persons of the verb, but 
when the same person is subject and object, the reflexive conjuga- 
tions Niphal or Hithpael are used. 

2. The Suffixes are appended to the verb by vowels called Union 
voivels ; to the preterite by Pathach or Kamets, to the Future by 
Tsere or Seghol. These Union vowels are only used in those 
verbal forms which end with a consonant : "1DE7 , "MlDttf , DT3KJ 5 

~ t - t : tt : 

while the Suffixes are appended immediately to those verbal forms 

which end with a vowel: TYlbttf ,7PrH3# ,rOtf SSHotf- 

: - t ) : - : I IT t : 



47 

46. 

DEMONSTRATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Plural Singular. 

these 6n) r&K c. ; this IT neuter, (,i?) ntf?/- HT m. 

those inn/. ,onnro. ; that K*nn/ . Kinn . 

1 . These Demonstrative Pronouns receive the article when they follow 
the noun ; when they precede the noun, they include the verb 
"to be :" 
these men r&Kfl D^3 Nil) ; to man np &nn ) 

Mese are the men D'EWKH n?K \ ' <** M the man B^Kn HT f 

*/io*e men Dnn ITEONn ) ; that man Kinn evtfn J 



those arc the men D'BPJNn OH I ; that is the man 8?'Nn Kin 

t-;it 



2. The Interrogative Pronouns are : 

TO ,HD) riD; to whom? ^; whom? "OTIN; whose? who? ^ 

[.- t : 

what ? 

3. HD stands before K and 1 and in pause : IfiX HD "what shall I 
say?" rVfcO HD "what hast thou seen?" HD UHJl "and what 

t t t t : - : 

are we ?" 

4. HO is the usual form ; it is generally connected by Makkef with 
the following word and followed by Dagesh (p n rT!) : t]E}JTI5 
"what is thy name ?" It is sometimes contracted with the follow- 
ing word : DD '0 "what is to you ?" H7D "what is this ?" 

5. HD stands before H , PI , V : "P n^riTID "what has become of 

T T T TT 

him ?" 

6. HE} is also used adverbially : SUSTfTQ "how good !" TQTItrnD 
TjnTin "how I love thy law !" 

an oath nyi3E>/. II venerable X11J |j speak ran II surely ! J3X 

*6 ^3JK] , r\Ti Dips? rijnj Uti pis . nd*n iriJEto spv ^73 
dm ^ HT r ,rwi Dipsn m&TIg) *i*w ini :wr 
dw 1 ? nrp nx-TTi T5n :mb#ri "twf Pto .arr?6* rra 



46 



nrw D^IJH w~V2 w0$ ota :-gK rv?3 Tysn 

i t ! t - t: t 7 : - t 



44. 

PRECAUTION. 



a frog 

end 

beginning 



JR"l *. to dry up 

pp m. ;: deep 
TVtrsO /. '] to answer 



B^ a pond 



TO 



i end 
how ? 



rnn* /. 



eta trtk otsri ;Eusn eb^i ,tik baa otf 1 D^mes ^# 

H" : --3T - - tv :|- : it :.--: : 

run .-inja ia^i , npoy n*a wdi .dts" 1 ypn vn :dt6 

t v t v It *-.-: : : : - t i ( :i~ vt 

pd-n b .use coin ran rsrh :,ib$ nru .mb tticin 

T T ~: V ' 7 7 V I T T T .I" - 7 7 

; 7 7 '~S| " '. 7 -... .. ,, 



45. 
CHARITY, 

to dissipate "^a ! to give way, K*tD a store- iviX 1V3 w. needy JV3K * 

to cease - house, 

I treasury 



1V\ m. 



hunger, 
famine 
empty p-| 



liberal 3*"0 w 



riches 
to favor 



fen 



a friend 3riN wt. 
man WM ni. 

to lay up 1VK 



i to be rich -|J?JJ 

- T 

^2 Din roete orf? irw .d^ pirn ym nm "aWn ojto 

77 - : v 7 ) . - }.. . . T TT Iv v " 

^nn ?rvEW ntfrrra .rariKirnxi^NnDN^ : innate 

!.-: 7 t - 7 -: : 7 v 7 ; v -: 

m*s nnw , :r6 arm hod rra** , ^xb m i#k nobisn 

7 :- t - : 7 77: Iv v ; 17 I v 7 : 7 v -: 7 : - 

Tntfv .ic*6 :j?en )i :pn?}nsiK rvg p ,tsh ?j$rn ,Vrn 

v ->:. I ; 7 : v 7 - 7 y -; I - 7 - -,V 

: ne nifcrao &w *6i , en jn t ia wn *6 



45 - 
43. 

COMPAKISON. 

1. The Comparative is expressed by the simple adjective and the 
particle ft (or the prefix p) before the object compared : piHD 
Q^i3 "sweeter than honey." This form of the Comparative is 
also used after verbs of quality : *| Jpp /1JT 1T1K "his brother 
will be greater than he." 

2. The Superlative is expressed by the article before the adjective and 
the prefix p or 2 before the object compared : ITl^P TlTin |fi2n 
"the highest priest among his brethren ;" "QN| rVQ2 T^H "OjN 
"I am the youngest in my father's house." The object is some- 
times omitted : 7H;U"1 THX "his eldest brother." 



THE PARTICLES iD3 AND ft WITH SUFFIXES. 


from me 


<lfit? 


i like me 


*3ios 


from thee 


!JfcD t^tSO 


like thee 


tjtos , sjtos 


from him, her 


hsm ,fco 


like him, her 


nfe , ^rribs 


from us 


13BD 


like us 


tti3 


from you 


|30 , D3D 


like you 


fn3 . (D3to3) D33 


from them 


;np , onp 


like them 


mtoa . (Dna) ontoa 

v ; V t v : 



first, former |i$K"i ' pearls DT3S w. 

only pi small, young -pjJ 



meek up !| a reproof myj / 

the ('JB c.) D^Q ro. a banquet, nflfc^D 
i face '* : " T ,i a feast v ' 



vhpb 3iCD : nnefa rra-ba ro| feA rra-^K rc? 2110 
natt 3i~ip p# 3iD :tr^D3 "ntf jnbtf e^o ,ncn rnja 

* it l"t , : - t t :i- 

trjfcUnn owitf tdkr-^* itrrab rncn naiB :pim 

t t - v - - :. t:t t I t 

?n*?E ty rroi ,efrnB pinia-nb infato Ma rn 
neto e*nti :^p ^jg ND?n pi .^pv 1 ? t?k rims 
sjn ,-ok jura ipsbttwi 'JS-bsJ -iBta DsrrtsD He 1JV 

T T I J T t**;it : - v -: tt t : t *t 



u 



2. The second and third pers. plur. have also the form H.Tplpn 

3. Kubbuts is frequently substituted for Shurek : Iftp^ , DDK! , 



'. T 



4. With Yav conversive, Shurek is generally shortened into Kamets- 
Chatooph in all those forms which have no Afformatives, except 
in the first pers. sing. ; the accent is then ^J? /D 

5. Some verbs 1"J? have Cholem instead of Shurek in the Inf., Imp. 
and Fut. Kal (see 1) : ETQ "to be ashamed." NQ "come," NUN 

T 

"I shall come;" this Cholem remains also in the Fut. with Vav 
conv. : fcOD^l "he came." 

6. The Fut. Kal of the verbs y "$ is formed in the following manner . 
TEW , TEJH , T^Ffi (the latter form with Pathach on account 
of the T. 

to stand, D^Jp to slumber ou a father- jnh m. ['. to roll ^3 

eviUbaT (njn/0 in ! h W l0ng? ^? nj ^ M toaiidfto afc* xi^ a companion "On 

a pit t jW/~ dust "** w - to dig T ma a sinner **?? w 

nn ^bo duPI Dfj ^nj&prapn tw o^nbyy rony 

dk rwrb ,aieft Klsr DrrH?D thop iron nn 'jbqs ,jn 

. . T T _ T . TT T T T ... . . 

w rob* .tf? tdh^i unrH? ae^l nato "n^ :-qk Ntf 

7 - :r- v - : V T 7- v Jv T T 

-issn iD^riDTiyn n*oxi anygsntfa tin -1 ?*? rtstfKi 
,w ^ i: jab n^a -ids'! :rhth rb .netob r\rv 

).. . .. . . . T .... v v _ T . j.. . 

Tbprbx ,"ja ?fis> otfn onw ,mDP6s^ 'jo" 1 dstwi 

I .. .. - . . . ,.. v - . T T . . _ T .. .. 

,ber pq nn& nis :terf jnb d.t6:d ^ ,wmn rrr\2 

7 V 7 -7 .;- 7 - ) V V . 

nr\ :y&F\ -iDsrfoi .nn** ney :an0fl rbx p bbxi 

7 7 7 V .* 7 - 7 7 7 T " I V V " : 

,^^3 rfatfnn nisi ibvnar - w^ ^votf - ^ 

v : 7 ~:i~ 7 : I 7 : 7 

:cpn &rn nin 1 roan 

I 7 7 : --.1- 



43 



to sleep \&* 

to take, to capture H3") 
a shield po m. 



to be fatigued 
to awake 
to possess 






the school "UE&n JV3 m. 
to be weary yy 

to be good, cheerful 2& 



mnxrbx n^n m* iai : "nay * *5 , ntH *6i j^k 

T . v 7 7 T . - . . T . T . T i - 

.rflrr oViy vfo* it] 1 ? pa *mi ,dpqn mnFrtn ."to*6 

t : t v: J t ! 7 t t : - 7 - 

-3 ,idh aon nneh "?dn :yyn nnn totfn /torn ok 
to :rb nnn -rate n rvew ,s$ifi spin ^ips rwbtf 
^m rdfr n t6 ,^i"u Bfrn my *$$& W nx . ""Q?frn 
nnte fefr*! ,nniK re^i tf 1 ^ by n "as Mofai rrg 
-dk WC onwri :qtokh aran^ inw .no beH 
TSratfTKi totTFl w tea er :.tobb ftn*i ngn 

: - v : 7 t : Tf ' :r : ' - :it 

iddvtVk putt 1JK .nntfn 



42. 

FUTURE KAL OF THE VERBS TV AND i"y . 

Inf. absolute : Dip (Dip) "to arise." 



I arose 




DWtfl 


| I shall arise 


tap** 


thou didst arise 




1 

mpfcl , Dpnl 


thou wilt " 


wpn / dipH 


he, she arose 




Dpnl ,Dp'0 

'tt- 'tt- 


he, she will " 


DipH ,Wp^ 


wo 




Dfsjrt 


we shall M 


D^pJ 






etc. 


you will " 
they will 


rt)pw rfoipn 


Jpoc. 


Future : 


DfP 


ni?pn /loip^ 



1. In the Future Kal of the verbs V'J? , the Preformatives have 

Kamets, sometimes Tsere : CliT for jjjWi . EfiT for EHT 1 (Dip 

! t I: * 



for Dig] 






42 _ 

2. The vowel under the second radical is Tsere (see Lesson 30) ; with 
Yav conversive and before monosyllabic words, this Tsere is 
shortened into Seghol and the accent recedes ; but in pause: 

.... T 

3. The Future Kal of 7PH is taken from 7]T 



an assembly *?np m. 
seven nyDSJ* m, 

t; 

three nB>S># m. 



pleasant 
a booth 

to meet 



D*y3 to bear 



-fr 



i13D/. a wilderness "O "ID w. 
yjQ I an evil-doer yift m. 



a native m?K 

to slay, Ep| 

to sacrifice ", r 

together irp 



run .pW? 3'pi! 1 "raw .rpcTM, brr\ nrfr nefas th 

t : It t v ) -:i- v - } t t :it v -:i- 

fnw neto :<ywh t31pd j ?n rfo^to ,umi ^rh* 

I -:i- : v ' :- : J : v t : i- : -t v: "1 

T : - T V ' V V T T : V' ' " " *" V T 

g to 3ie .nrbsr^M Tay: -own turfat nin i! ? nroui 

t t - t:it v - v: t - t : : : 

bnp Tufr :^m mfoa Tniy; 1 *6i .TBarffiyroy Wl 
tiKDS ottffi ubi^ib tirr nm :iw$ *6 o>yehrDjri .crsriD 

j. . . .... T . T . T _ .... t : : : 

hnfcra mmrrte ,dtp nynctf tactfH raoa :irn irk 

7 : : t: v t t t - : : i" \- r 



nrnu otik ra# D^yrro ate-na ran :o^an 



41. 



FUTURE KAL OF THE VERBS V'D . 

Jw/. cows*. : nch dfih'O "to possess." 

I shall possess Kh*fc$ 

thou wilt " v-pn /^n 

he, she will " Bh^H tjjh^ 

we shall " B*tJ 

you will " njeh^n 'feh*Fl 

they will M H^tH /l^n 



1. The first radical of some verbs ">"2 ! 
quiesces in the Future Kal, but drops 
in the Inf. const, and in the Imp. ; the 
Imp. of Eh 1 has both forms : ch and j 

2. A few verbs '"fi retain also their < in 
the Inf. const, and in the Imp. : ID' , 

io 1 ; rrr . niv i kv , kt i \& , titf* . 

i T- ; -t Ti '"T ' { 



"1 

I am in anguish "9 "t j to revenge 

mercy OWS m. 

a gift, a bribe irft^ w. II riches 



41 



DjM not }K 

npy w. like, as i3 

lK>y m, to guard, to keep ~\\22 
(anger) 



"??^'l -1?3 or# ^"jn'l rTQK pnr^ 3p)jl ^'i :iri& 

1 

.tdk*3 ^te"j2 rnKjiyfirnK k-Q -lys? ^|pv RfeW irwFJ 
,raa ijfiw qpf 1 i&H ? ^ Dft!?S ""Wto fopn dtk n?n 

td#i iru^oRi fro twB^n ru&m :iyp^vby^l 

t v : - I T I t - t v - ) - t 7 :) : 

.ram wstq ,nttrra Nrn^Bj nan ^~ia ."irto in 

t - 1- . - T : T t : : - t v t 

opna my?) .^b 1 mn nttfja ntbia :n%K J ?K din tb 

! v 7v : : t: t - t t - : 

"nFri* :arr nfcwo tea rcia Dvf?N ?fc m 1 : ^n-SD"' 

) v7 -:i- : t - : v: ! : I t : 

:uferoy nra "Hfto usy ut6k rrtrr vf :?pjlSa D^n 

-: 77 v -a- 7 : 7 : : J . : 77 



40. 



FUTURE KAL OF THE VERBS i" 





Inf. const. : r\2W [2W y ) "to sit." 




I sat 

thou didst sit 


V " T 


I shall sit 
thou wilt " 
he, she will " 




he, she sat 


a^nl / a#fl 


we shall " 


3^3 


we sat 


ntfil 


you will " 


nja&n ,h&r\ 




etc. 


they will " 


ni?b>n fbj^j 



1 . The first radical of the verbs v*g drops in the Future Kal (see 
Lesson 30), and the Preforruatives receive the long vowel Tsere : 

3#m fooe^n> 



40 - 

bfirv) >^pvn w*& rfte abj} :ro? i^nnl o^^n ipra 
nfcqSTiN r0 ;f? *on rrftb rwvb np^pi ij*&p rrtb 
e^sq ir\ hn vpI ivbto van &vb nniN fryh >&vi cran 

*7 -T|- -- T " T~ '7 7 77 T 

:nw npyn tft$n hid-js ? niir-ri .jnrto -or] ,lw? 
gsj rira raVi nn=rn ;tfwi nn ttt^k jnj.TDsrh 



39. 

FUTURE KAL OF THE VERBS y% . 

1. The first radical of the verbs 3"D drops j Inf. const. : nfc?2 (&M) "to come near." 
and is compensated byDagesh forte in the 
second radical ; likewise the p of npb ' 
npK , n\m (see Lesson 30, 1). 

2. The verb jro loses also its final j before 

the Afformatives T) and J in the Preterite, 

i i 

and in the Inf. const. : ^njlJ for *mrO , 

nn for npn . 

3. Yerbs ending with n drop this letter 
before the Afformatives beginning with 

n: wa for ^nn-13 . 



I shall come near 
thou wilt " " 
he will " " 
we shall " M 
you will " " 
they will " " 



V? J 



1. The paragogic H is often appended to the first pers. sing, and 
plur. of all the active Future Tenses ; this lengthened form ex- 
presses self-excitation, willingness : "to^N "I shoU keep," rnOEW 
"I will keep ;" ip\2 "we shall give," flJTU "let "* give." 

2. The particle frO is sometimes added to give still greater emphasis 

to the expression : fcOTD^N U I W M go-" 
t t : r 

3. This particle is also added to the third pers. Fut. to express an 
urgent request : TPDH W7]T "may the king go, I pray." 



39 



I made 


t'l^l 


1 kept 




Ipefcl 


thou didst make 


^ynl ,toyh) 


thou didst keep 


n^KTil , ioirnl 


he. she made 


\ffvjk) ,\&&y 


he, she 


kept 


"iD#nl ,-or s l 


we 


fc^il 


we 


" 


ioefrl 


you 


nyfenl rfcgml 


you 


" 


nrwnl ,r>Dtfnl 


they 


nrfrypl ,w_1 1 


they 


ti 


nriD^nl -^ 



1. The third radical of the verbs H"*? drops when the Vav conversive 
is prefixed to the Future, and the accent recedes : J^JP] for H^JJ 5 1 

2. The Preform atives receive Chirek or Tsere, and the first radical 

t i 

has Seghol : J^l '|??31' u* verbs beginning with Gutturals, both 

the Preform atives and the first radical have Pathach : t^JPl , ^y^l ; 

but in jm ;"in^ the Preformative has Chirek. 

3. This shortened or apocopated Future is also used without Vav con- 
versive to express a wish, a prohibition, therefore always after 
^ (see Syntax 13, 2.) : UBJJ vj *%p may the Eternal be with 
us ;" SHF)"^*? "do not see," but : HN'TfN' 1 ? "thou shalt not see." 

4. If the second radical is one of the letters '2, "J, JO, 3, B, p/ Hr 
the apocopated Future has this form : 2IH / HH , TP^ ; com P are 

VTfU. 

5. In the Future with Yav conversive of the verbs ft"D * the accent 
recedes : b6& , b^lifa J T^f 1 * T2N'H 5 but in P ause Jt is a S ail1 



but, except DK\3 


to pity, to spare ^cn 


to kill JHH 


one(nni>.)nnx /. 


death (niD c.) TWO m. 


a 8 word 2"in / 


to sin Nton 


anger C|K fc 


rich TBty * 

T 

poor Bh n. 

T 


to burn, mn 
to be kindled 
a (ewe) lamb nfe>33 / 


as the w*n 
Eternal lives T: 
the bosom pTl * 


to be great, ;na 
to grow 

much nsnn 



-pm ?*& rrn -rety 1 ? ;eh "irixi tot -inx ,nnx -rca m 

I T T I T T ' T : T f V { ' T TV TV " : T 

-\m nxop nriN nfcas-DN xs fero ehta :lwo pbti 

v -: t -): - - 7 : I - tt : : : - 

nntfn )02m bjm inso -,ywv va-nyi toy ^unl ,.-ijd 



38 



2. In the first and second pers. sing, of the Preterite with Yav con- 
versive, the accent is removed to the last syllable, but not in the 
verbs fc"^ and H"!? . 



the face (^5 c.) D'jQ m. an old man 
... . T 

produce 



old age 






so, thus 
to labor 



]ptm. 

ha; 

-ay 



a master 
to respect 
that 



)HX m. 

m 

-T 



?}J3 ion rte r6tforro0 tmt^n 6y itin j ?n no** no? 

I : - t t :--:- t v -: i v v - t I" 

;-1o&fH?k >*bx nm .unxn-bd? Ynxb dv6n *>2ob *t | 

-:i- - - t : t: t : I T : v: - 7 |- 

,7]vn ->ss ?pra nm ^ ^~p T n-ril ,]tfi pab nsshl 
yea :^rcj6cn3 rv&sfl t^nn^ n^ imtfltonfp 

: ) v : - : 7 7 7 : -;i- 7 v V ; 7 : 

-dn irrtm ^:n ,^T>Nn naV) ,?p? ^b mini ,cpn riyw 

7 : -; j v v:r- 7 "i; IJ"t : 7 : -7 : I 7 7 

Tjni^ -opTj ri]SB htt :: :rns ;rv nifen yyi ,,nbp^ ynxn 
r\T^ wnn era rnfer'b^B itbob nirr mm ijrrfee 

v: r - - I v 7 7 7 - Jv v : 7 : 77 : 7 7 



: -hn idea tik nirp 

7 v : 7 v 7 : 



38. 
THE FUTURE WITH VAV CONVERSBE. 
When the Future is connected by "j with a Past Tense either ex- 
pressed or understood, it receives the signification of the Preterite. 
This ) prefixed to the Future has Pathach and a following Dagesh ; 
before ^ this Pathach is lengthened into Kamets. 



_ 37 



36. 

FUTURE KAL OF THE VERBS H'b . 

Inf. const. : nibl "to disclose.' 



In all the conjugations of tho verbs 
n"^ , the third radical quiesccs in Seghol 
in the Future and in the Participle masc. ; 
before the Afformatives s . and } it drops, 
and before the Afformative n: it is changed 

T 

into * quiescent in Seghol. 



I shall disclose 


r&N 


thou wilt " 


"hijk , rb$\ 


he, she will " 


rh:T\ ,rfxP 


we shall " 


nfcj 


you will 


mm ,&n 


they will " 


?mn ,& 



youth nniyj || an orphan oirp m. 

multitude 21 m. war Wife / 

to be delighted, pleased n"l Ijwhen? *rp 



how? 7]^ 

to emigrate rbl 

\ life On c) D ,J n w. 



tostfm ccti tt^s DDsy rvnF) .ddhbub noDn toon xs 
.ruajnsan rusk ?ehn rv3 ten Tin :jrrtsD'DDnn 

V ; - T T - TT - : - T T T V 

D^T8} -cnin^ re? te^ -rsri ftoK :pribi< nin? on 
,i3tcb* rby$ tn ,fcfrb inx rrnrv :inix n^son 

. T .. .. ... |V j .. [.. - T T . - v . . 

ni:? 1 ? oabTDjJ n^n ,^3 .hribpb in in ?tx utk nyjni 
nfrn-i ntonbm rastf 31b dt As -idk * bzx ;rfivb rvii 

t : t : - t t t t - t t: t -: t 

b^k rpir- wn ,p ?fc nan jtdb6 rr3 ruriPmb .rriim 
rfa 1 rfa .-inx jraan niny pntf 1 ? rv3 ras 1 wm ,d^ 

.... T . T . T _ T . . . . _ . . . . . T 



37. 

r^F CONVERSIVE. 

1. When a verb in the Preterite is connected by ) with a preceding 
verb in the Future or Imperat J 4 its time is thereby changed into 
the Future ; this 1 is called Vav cwversive (TpSHn 11) \ FHftNlT]/ 
"go and say" (and thou shalt say), JTEWl lE^H "thou shalt 
keep and do." 



__ 3fi 

35. 

FUTURE KAL OF THE VERBS N"D AND tf'b . 



Inf. const : 


KV2 "to find." 


7;//. const. : 


73 N "to eat." 


I shall find 


KVdN 


I shall eat 


Ml 


thou wilt " 


^vdH i nvoH 


thou wilt " 


^n ,{o*n 


he, she will " 


Kn ,K^ 


he, she will " 


faun ,k*r 


we shall " 


wJ 


we shall " 


bK3 


you will " 


njnfon rteoFI 


you will " 


ru&*ri rfoan 


they will " 


n^Nvon %i 


they will " 


t : - : 



1. In the Future Kal of the verbs &$" , the ^ quiesces in Choi em ; 
in the first pers. sing, it drops. 

The second syllable has generally Pathach, in pause often Tsere : 
bim for ^3*0 . 

2. In the Future Kal of the verbs ^"^ , the ^ quiesces in Kamets, 
before HJ in Seghol (see Lesson 29, 2). 



a raven 


3ij> m. 


not any ^3 fc6 


unclean 


W3B 


the face 


D'fM . 


an evil 


rm / 


to count.to assignn 3D 


! sorrow 


$Pm. 


I sweat 


ny? / 


a iig-tree, 
a fig 


njKn / 


to befall NVO 

T T 


a star 


3313 m. 

T 


a ditch 


^n w. 



nyo : nns fejf rijan -wi : ^95^? ^hntik wfrn vb 
-bx -oj vvb ivgpba *b?tiPrbx :ur& hgiff) ?pac 

Deb *opK vjri rCErrf* Deft l^pn on ^jgn wsh 
nin nisn mm njrctan ts /nrrriK Foli :pAt 

T v : v t v : ' ~T : v : : t : 

T7 t : I .: : t: : v : : t : 

abb ,uccfch tbdo ruto :jodK rnrr era aynK ftn 

l": t t : v 7): v t : " : 7 : v I t: 

:inV -i#n 3*^37 ^ ,nank nonab info :iop , rriotf 



Tl: 



35 



34. 

FUTURE KAL OF THE VERBS AYIN AND LAMED 

GUTTURAL. 



Inf. const. : yb# "to hear." 

T 

Plur. Sing. 

we shall hear ]}&&} I shall hear yo#X 

Jg ( te^njthouwiit | vny?) 

Irtish* hear (Wn 

he will hear ]})2^ 
she M " VO^n 



5*7 ( to^"> 

Will -J I 

hear ( H Jro^H 



In/, const. : $'$$ "to ask." 

Plur. Sing. 

we shall ask i?Nfc>J I I shall ask bi<&R 

7 ( fcw*n | thou ( Wri 
ask lnMr ilusk hWn 



they 
will 

ask ( njpN^n 



l^KB^ he will ask ^Kvp 
she " " ^N^H 



These verbs liave Pathach in the second syllable (see Lesson 28, 
6). The second radical of the verbs Ayin Guttural receives compos- 
ite Sh'va instead of simple Sh'va (see Lesson 33, 1). 



to flourish, to blossom 


m3 i why then? 


nr ntsi?' 


also 


w 


to reap 


Op ! : to withhold 


y:o 


to sow 


m 


to be afar off 


pm a flower 


|w m. 


verdure 


p-|" w 


to be hungry 


ajp II 









nraa lam 1 unisan : naso ftNtf fl cn , dd^ 2xvF\ naten 

7 t - -: : t : - t v -: : v t - : t 

- : - . . - T .. _. -tv T - r : - : 7 : - : 

n 91^ njo 1p"!$ ne&K ^ : prnfi "lpj? "Dip :ort? 
nx ,insa jrwHi ehnn dn ifrns 1 dukxh p"v tfa^n 

: ~: : -.1- t; 7 - : 1 w - : 

rm bxifr \a :iroia-n spa? s?jp? *6 5 cn ,-ip$ 
pinn :?j^k yg#j p r neto^ w?5# neta ^dd g^inr^ 

ijjeeP n^na rfesrn ,D^Eho mm 



34 



obn noi 1 *iefc nys irrzb unn iljmbD "rtriK :d"in 

- t I" v -: t t : -t : t : - : - -: t t 

'.-lyinbiybibtf run* : Tiotfn *riraehr* ::u*n *6 tua 

vt t : J : t : : - : - v : t 



33 



FUTURE KAL OF THE VERBS PE GUTTURAL. 



Infinitive construct : *V2)) "to stand. 



1. According to the general rule, j JrlUVdl. 

the Guttural receives compos- , 

iteSh'vain all those forms in || we shall stand TDJJJ 

which the first radical of the 
regular verb has simple Sh'va. 

2. The vowel under the Preform- 
atives is always that of the 
following Chatooph. 

3. Before the Afformatives * , and 
} the 8h'va of the Chatooph 
drops and the vowel alone re- 
mains : i-i^I/fl for *Hm 



you will stand 



( 'ho?' 

they will stand < . ~~ 

{ ilJioyn 



Singular. 
I shall stand iyK 



thou wilt stand 



he will stand 
she " 



nop j 

ioyFl 



the day before DB^tJ* 

yesterday . : ' 

yesterday , piBD 



a friend, 
neighbor 
wicked 






together WPI iniquity }]N m. 

i just, righteous p^V || to plow uhn 



3*B* :fn i-i 1 ' isb niaeTra .-toyfi obiub rrirp nay iW 

-:i- t : : : - -:i- t : t : : -:i- 

:3rorH?N tok jni ?]sn ittqWo n tfw -tm yen 
uw IW n^n ovon :ttt lorariltfa tfinrvab 

t : - - v t t - t : - ii*" : -: i~ 

*? .rrarrriN 3tj?K &6 itirrfcg n*atw riiyj 16 in 1- :-) 

H& VI T3? , ?reOp JfTtSvi npps Di'irbo td^$ 

*DWbe> bion run* *6 -rata dst?k rdh ,*nn**Vto 

: t v -: - v vvt J ;- 



33 
FUTURE KAL OF THE REGULAR VERB. 

Infinitive construct : "to&^ "to keep." 



lured. 




Singular. 


i0 i. c. 


I shall keep 


TOgft 1. e 


j faepp 2. m. 

1 n>jo^n 2. /. 


thou wilt keep 




j iD^H 2. m. 

1 hm? n 2. /. 


j ?"#? 3. m - 


he will keep 


iB6Jp 3. m, 


( n^D^n 3. /. 


she will keep 


iD^H 3. /. 



we shall keep 
you will keep 

they will keep 



1. The Preformatives, originally unvoweled, receive Chirek in the 
Future Kal of the regular verb, but ^ receives Seghol. 

2. Some verbs have Pathach instead of Cholem in the second 
syllable : ^JP , 03^ 

3. The vowel of the second syllable drops before the Afformatives i 

. i 
~nd * , but is restored in pause : TIDC^ for 'HpCp^ ; Pathach is 

then lengthened into Kamets : ^il^H from ^b^H for ^Efc&P 

4. Before Makkef, Cholem is shortened into Kamets-Chatooph : 

TinJttnDE^ (see Lesson 28, 3). 
I : r t : 

5. The accent is always on the principal syllable ; it is, consequently, 
y J?!0 except in the forms with |"| j , and with 1 1 and 1 in pause 
(see Lesson 11, 2). 



falsehood, W&m. unleavened nJTD /. willing pan 

in vain :T bread T ~ 



to watc-n . *lpC a neighbor JV01? - 

justice p~iV m. 



diligent pin 

when, if *3 



if, or DK 

to steal 3j3 

-T 

a festival, feast in m. 



*:d hfOo\ vb\ ,dds ^n bvn$ *& Axnipn ^ " Jlina 
rwar Id ^ riDtffi nisren :n-n idds bra 1 rf.rr ;qd3 

7 7t : - v v t : t : V T 

1-7 :7 7 : t : t : 



32 

ns*71 K2 Dip ^neo^S 33Htf *fp nob ,*?j$ Dip 
ta& topi mWTK Inj? :TO$n -m np ubnn Kj 

.nrfc ra* npp >rn& nsny :neh rva rrofc nrwi? 
u^rno^ .^b$ barter ^ :^np^ nrw *gJ 
noBtfo^K nop :*r#* n F: T8 ^Hfc Hafc :t$? 
nyp^ :it^8 ^ QT : P^ T ^ 5 ^ : H*7 



32. 

THE FUTURE (THV). 
The Future is formed from the Infinitive construct by prefixing the 
letters ^,n,M wnich are called Pre/or matives. For the better 
distinction of the gender and number, the Afformative i . is appended 
in the second pers. fern, sing., the Afformative J| in the second and 
third pers. masc. plur., and the Afformative Hj in the second and 
third pers. fern. plur. 

THE PREFORMATIVES AND AFFORMATIVES OF THE 

FUTURE ARE: 



The second pers. masc. 
sing, has the same form as 
the third pers. fem. sing., 
and the second pers. fem. 
plur. has the same form as 
the third pers. fem. plur. 



Plural, 



we 



J 1. c. 



,Q jni-n!. /. 
|nrn 



3. m 
3. /. 



I 

thou 

he 
she 



Singular. 

N 1. c 



I A 



m. 



n 2. 

8./. 

i :;. m. 



_ 31 - 

lazy 5>VV height Drip r. || hither, here &Vl 

to be wise DDD 



provision IW /. an ant PI7DJ / 

t tt : 

property, wealth *D1 m. ' to lift up, to carry tffcjo 



to remain 3g^ 



a Hebrew (nn^y/.) "iny w. 

i^mi Trin r\j2v :*n^ rraa ^tf lain d^ no X* 

I v : : - : - -: t : / t : : - - vt 

rate rtpBrrjo n&m ?pjroj KST :Drfer?D ^>dki bSi vi 
did 7^6 rnW mono .torn ddtj? Dim 1& :otf nn 
-m>)Df> :rJ7 np Btonnj -tstofi ^"]ri .dt3s6 nss 
n-Tdgt rijng na icdtw ^ "G toni ^ -m .vmb 
:qd\-6n "*? tod to irtnasnTD n#a Vipi ^ .onob 

v - v: t - t : : ; t I t :) : ; t : : 

.Tpix rrVTW ^1 iDnxnpb tobi ~-r6 rrrs mra trip 
:D3rn rrcJm Hfcn .bsy r&Dr^K l 1 ? 

t -:i- t v 7 : : t t t : v j 
O 

31. 

IMPERATIVE KAL OF THE VERBS YV AND *?y. 



The fern. plur. of the verbs 

"""J is wanting. 



sing (thou) Ve> , T> arise (thou) TMp, Dip 



sing (you) ^VP 



arise (you) rijEip, fo^ip 



PARAGOGICn . 

T 

An additional or paragogic H expressing wish, entreaty, emphasis, 
is often appended to the masc. sing, of the Imperative : n"V?&tf 

for iDtf , nrbv for r6#, rtitf for 2V>, rwy& for mp. The 

particle fcO t which is used with all the forms of the Imperative, 
expresses the same idea, and may be translated by "please," 
"I pray." 



two 'F\W f. ft song TK w. a sister-in- HOT / some, a few DHnK 

i! law - 

to lie down 330 ft daughter- r.?S/ to dream D^H 

T in-law T " -t 



30 



to feed, 
to delight in 

to forget 
to dwell 



HSH sound, noise ,Sp m. a sin 



KI3n m. faithfulness naiDM'/ 



gracn 



nri M 



to acquire, to bur r^p 



pun 



to pardon rho 



understand- nr3 /- 

inff T ,' 

rain, a heavy Q2 m. 
shower 



pp merciful 



^j n - a trans- yj>2 m. multitude, p~n 
D * - gression plenty 



i! ? 813 "lino ab :-rw ^ ^ *ib -2 -OTaH?;? tang 
1DK :nPK ami n:n -a ,*jratefo vor6 il^Di -DVibN 
riTDDnniP iTtenirr Dl-o ! h??K :rw Tin** .-noDnb 

t : t -I : It t t : - : : t t : t - 

rra Tjgg Ypen V"? ra *jp0 : jbW ^jk de&i pen 

t v! : t I v : : tt )-: - - } t 

T : v : : t : v : t : v.it 

~E2 :fc.TKn6*rii'ron :DD3D!rbD3roQin1 1-ds?i 

- ! - v: t - : v v:it v : - : t ; vv:iv : : 



take \ sit down I ^rr | come near 



pa *. 



;thou) 



tako 



30. 
IMPERATIVE KAL OF THE VERBS J"B ^YZ> vg 

^p ] ( thoa > (Va / 

Vip git down I W 



1 n p (thou) 



come near J 1^3 w 

(you) tru4 



/ 



1. The first radical of the verbs y S and *g , which are regular in 
the Preterite, drops in the Imperative Kal (see Lesson 27) ; like- 
wise the 7 of Hp; The verb TuH takes its Infinitive and 
Imperative from 71 j^ . 

2. Some verbs j" form their Inf. and Imp. regularly : "iyj, ^j , 

&D3 



29 



(rest), sabbath ]"QB> c. i to watch . to keep -)3 daughters(ru)nm j one "i n K m. 

agate -|j?&c. .' to shut "0 D I to-day Din j, a traveler Fnk * 



to rejoice nbtP , with me 



HDy a teacher mio n. j! to understand pa 



Inpfr :* *jb }rp T to Tjpbra TOE? : rriivp lb?ft 
n:n orm *6 dk i^wft dztbtw innsD ;njrra D^y 
Fei rrrHwrnK ^wt rur^jrt TWsJn rU"ib \iJ3 :djtiq 
-on lBpeh1"ip!7 i-hdj? "toy., ns nnw :^;y ntfo rnin 
?ft - an3 ttnoK ofce6 fate? :snn ?pfc6 -iUj :* 
sina Eft 1 ? t-nrofeo rtrmh Itds rnWtn tnnrmn 

I v: ; - : t : : t : : v t t : - 

rb jni -iew man *&> ,Tiirw intvi rf> ratf "9 ,owi 

J7 1 ~ T V -.' VV ; - T T - ' 7 - 



:udh 

7 



29. 

IMPERATIVE KAL OF THE VERBS K"B, K'6 -4iVZ> pH>. 



disclose 
( thou) 






find 
(thou) 



disclose 

(you; 



j fca fiud 

ln>5i I (you) 



j fay? 
1 n Jkvd 



eat 

(thou) 


j t3N >" 


eat 
(you) 


Plur. 

{ fan m. 

irusSi/ 



1. In the verbs fc$"D , the first radical receives Chatooph-Seghol 
instead of simple Sh'va. 

2. In the verbs ^' v i the third radical quiesces in Kamets, before |"U 

T 

in Seghol. 

3. In the verbs H'v < the third radical quiesces in Tsere ; before *> 
and } it drops, before i13 it is changed into ^ quiescent in Seghol. 



28 



pi* -o ,w*d r*o !'> ..ixnsb re rpv tin irhn 

) 7 I v 7 t t : - : : it | - : y " 

XW*?* 2ltr? nEto-b Tfi^j ;i :^1?# "*#*? |*fc nsnp 



innstD 



28. 
IMPERATIVE pffif). 

The Imperative is derived from the Inf. const. It is only used in 
the second person and has four forms, two in the singular (masc. and 
fern.) and two in the plur. (mas. and fern.). The fern. sing, is formed by 
adding the Afformative "* , the masc. plur. by adding the Afformative 
} , and the fern. plur. by adding the Afformative H j 

IMPERATIVE KAL OF THE REGULAR VERB AND 
THE GUTTURALS. 



hear 
(thou) 



hear 

(you) 



1 . Some regular verbs have Pathach instead of Cholem : Q? , ^p , 

2. In pause the original vowel returns : ^10$ for *Ht2$ , r \vy$ for 

3. Before Makkef, the Cholem is shortened into Kamets-Chatooph : 

4. Sometimes Kamets-Chatooph instead of Chirek is found under the 

first radical : O^Q 
: t 

5. In those forms of the Imperative in which the second radical of 
the verbs Ayin Guttural has composite Sh'va, the first radical 
receives the corresponding vowel (see page 13). 

6. The second radical of the verbs Ayin and Lamed Guttural receives 
Pathach instead of Cholem. 



i yew 


: 

ask 
(thou) 




1 

, stand 
(thou) 


( '-ray 


Sing. 

keep j '? m ' 
(thou) J 1 1CK i f. 


t : - : 


j ask 
(you) 




! stand 

: (you) 
* 


I H Jipy 


Plur. 
keep ( llW* 



to ask t>'xK> " bn& 

to hear yo$ * y?OK> 



27 

to sit rO^'-tr to eat &K * ^DK ; : to keep 1D0*'*3|! 

to take n'np * npi? to find &&0 - KYQ | to stand ioy * -joy 

to go out HNS - N^ to disclose nfe " 11^3 

to arise Dip * Dip ; ; to come near ri>3 fc^J 

1. The Infinitive construct of the verbs H"? ends with Hi- 

2. The Infinitive constr. of the verbs J"Q and *'g) ( a l so G f F\pb) 
is formed by dropping the first radical and by appending the 
Segholate ending H ' (with Gutturals H_ ') But a few verbs 
v 9 form their Inf. constr. like the regular verbs : ID* 1 * *iD n "to 
found." 

3. The Inf. constr. of some verbs doubly irregular Q"B and ^"7 , or 
">"B and X'v) is contracted into one syllable. 

4. The Inf. constr. of the verbs yjj is Dip for DID . 

5. Inf. constr. with prefixes: 1D#2, lDB?/ lEffl&i iD^D- 

INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE. 

The second form of the Infinitive is the Infinitive absolute "VJft^, 

T 

with immutable Cholem in all verbs. It is used before or after finite 
verbs to denote continued action, energy, intensity : "9X yi^ 1J72EJ 
"hearken diligently unto me ;" 12TH "DT "thou shalt well remember." 







T 






to leap, to dance 1p"l 


to kiss 


pp>: to go down TV 


to weep 


HD3 


to laugh pnfc> 


to mourn 


-1DD pasture njTjpf. 
2iy c. jj to come near gjjj 


to sojourn 


via 


to hate tfjfcp 


evening 


to fear 


N T 



ny. 'pin^ ,! ? nyi niSpb ny '.DTnsn tpy? ^P ttv 
,Drv?n rto^ :Nj ,! ? nyi i-|fc6 ny ,7ip"l njn ~1CD 
ruiby rOT? nox *6 rt$ ?DDb Nipb -w ton fO&2 

T V V T T * T T T V T ] I ' ' T * ' 

rfctf d.tdk : f6 pra nn*opb v^ ristrrw -win rfifcHs 

- t 7 t : - t I - t : t t): I t v : 

... .. . _ v T .. v . ... j T . . . T . - I - t : - 

nc'io m nor tin :mb 2KB6 nhwn nN ny 1 ? oiy 



26 - 



26. 



THE PASSIVE PAPTICIPLE EAL (^J ^lJQ) 



disclosed 



t : 

Qfci [ 
HV^5 i 



airy 

T 

Hnlry 



forsaken 



; 



IPfatoi 



Sing. 

T 

i"htee> /. 

guarded Pb\ 



1. This Participle is characterized by the vowel *| which is inserted 
between the second and third radical. 

2. The passive Part. Kal of the verbs $<"2 is formed like that of the 
verbs Pe Guttural. 

3. In the pass. Part. Kal of the verbs fTv the H is changed into " 

4. The pass. Part. Kal of the verbs J" 2 , ">"g and Ayin Guttural is 
formed like that of T3$ . 



women (n$N) D'^3 to put on, $2^ '.houses (JT2) DTO ^ no one &>$ f$ 

r to clothe oneself " T ' 
rest nr.D/. 



2iy . j "~nnn f. II to bless TM men ^) D TJ* 



to desert 



,T1?3 ilnx Tjnj : ^Tj 135J ! ? iTHJ? |rU TtiK * Tjn3 

d^ei ni v Q i ? rbxn wpsn :yw up? nfctt nirv6 dhn 

rra asfr rw .rQfiV -ryn-b :utjq 0*133 osn D?ra 
inirflfE on* "2 rHTpte c? n?to hk ^k sable; : ^ 



INFINITIVE OiDD) . 
The secon'd ground-form is the Infinitive 1ft ? . This Infinitive 
is called construct, because it is either connected with one of the pre- 
fixes ft, ^ , 3 , 2 , or with a following noun. The Infinitive construct 
of the verbs in Kal is as follows : 



25 

to ride 3D"> saith DN: a thought rQ^riB/. a statute 11911/ 

- t {I -, : tt -:,- 

: nirr dk j , "on ccrcnn *6i DDTfiatfno TYbtfro *6 s 

t : \ : t t : v : - : v : : - - : : - 

Tlfoh Tfera td#i 1 ^P3 yEtf ?raN . pnsrb ton dt6n 

- I \ - : - t : I : - t It I t : : - t ' v: 

nna obm riyfoaarHw an JTPhsx npy\ :Thim 

~ ;i- : it : - : - - .it t v -. : It : * t : 

:nrtr rraa }i DTifch orb aha* rn Vtfl& VJ3 ^T i >^ : 

t; I : .it " -: v t - : f- : r'"T t 

: Dirnhsrteo aria ms Dtfc : vnpna obrn 

t t t tt v: t I . : : it : 



9Z 



>). 



PARTICLES WITH PLURAL SUFFIXES. 

To some Particles only plural Suffixes are appended. 



after nPIK , TflK II upon 

- - jj 

after me nnx 

after thee TpriN, "?pnN 

after him. nnriN, ViriK 
her T *"* T "'- 

after us UyiM 

after you |3nn , D?nnK 

after them jnnnx, omnK 



," 

j! upon me tpy 

upon thee Tj^V , ^*bv 
upon him, her n^y, V^y 

T V T T T 

upon us }j^y 

upon you f^Sy, Dp^y 
upon them ]Jvhv , DiT^y 



to fo 

to me "i>N 

to thee 7]"S{* , ^J\S 

to him, her rv^N , V^N 

T V " T " 

to us xAfl 

to you J3^ , V3h* 

to them p^K , DiT^K 



at, by 



fc 



cream 



non/. II this 



n? w. to trust 



nt33 



I^K wa neta wtawi n* : neb ^ jnJi ^K so aftcri 

/ v t v -: t -:it - v ) -t: - t t 

rbti oDTfiaK ->rb* * Ax-it^ ^ ton neto rtMfo 

T v - v: t: t: : - T ... t :t - 

DiT^y Tosn DITJD^ trui D^m rtftJn tfefoxb rip 1 ? arraN 

v ' ^-: t: ) - t : t t : t : v t -it , J-t t t : - 

Tpnri m ^ wb$ -idw ,unnK N3 tfrfr :ysn nnn 

' '' " v ' - t : -; i- t ) t 

tt - v: :- t t : : -t < <t -:i- tt" 



24 



tra|n tot. noii n^torrnKi Dptwrnw DH^pik 

t : | v v: t | vt -: - T / 
O 

23. 

the servants o/^jjj i-,^ . ser vants Q^-QJ/ ! ! Me words of ntfQ "hm ; words D^ISl 



Saul 
Plural. 



Singular. 



Moses 



Plural. 



our servants U^-ny - my servants "hay :< om wor(1 U^JH 

T-: J ,* T " : " T : 



your 
servants 



their j DTP-OP 
servants | jji,,^ 



QD 1 !;]? thy ser- i Tiay 

1 _ ' i roiifc 1 ' I ' T " 



vants 



his servants T*"Qy 

tt-; 

her servants rTHajJ 



vour j DD^QI 
their j DTP 



Singular. 
my words ^12*H 

thv words < I ,vt : 
his words l"Hyi 

tt : 

her words H^lIR 



spirit, soul rvn c. j; soul, person tf>Qj c. they shall be VJT blood Dlw 

to pour, to shed ^2^ | therefore }3"Sy ; a little Byp pure (fl3? /.) T]T 

to weigh, pn | j to redeem, niQ adeed,worknj?yo w. gracious, pious TDn 

to prove " T to deliver TT v " : " ' T 

hrr^ iyo# *6 bs-i^ ^o :^3Jk D'hth er*t *6 

-b turns Wiira imsso T^cn ft* 1 P"^ T^n 
-^zq niiT p^s :nvr nlrm pm ,1^ya w etk *m 

t : t : I t : I" : t : J- . : - 

,nn n-nrrns d# *6 Wt :Yfcw^aa Torn ,Vm 

t- v : it - t -. t : t : 7 t : 

ni.T nis lonsoa risns 1 ? irvi D^y :m *6 U'iw 

t : v 7 : : .- : T * 7-; 7 .. ... 



24. 

SUFFIXES APPENDED TO FEMININE NOUNS IN THE 

PL URAL. 

the latvs of the Eternal " fYHn ; laws Hllin 



The suffixes of the plural 
of the fem. nouns are ap- 
pended to the termination 
ni which remains invariable 
in the construct state. 



Plur. 
our laws U*nHn 

nynHn 

your 



their u 






Sing. 
my laws Tlnlfl 



thy laws 



his laws 
her laws 



V 



THi-ita 



23 

3pS^ Hpg crrn : htssj dMj^ yiffri , K3 ihi Tjbin tit 
*>m rum ,c2y tstd ails ittfirrnw n*G tea Stt run 

" t : t - : v I - t - " T 

rtjrfc tdk nor :n ny'n a ,fra6 tew iksbtds na 

:- : - - ( t 7 - : v - I - 7 7 

Dnx innvQ pjrfea biT-i snfr ,nifcG cratf job? --run 

V - 7 : 1 VV 7 : 7 7 7 7 '7 ~ V 

VT - I ' 7 * 7 -.17 7 : 7 7 ~7 I VV V '7 

rraa nilttfi DHItf #-> :rfcapn rv2D ni3E? ffBtom 

... T . , T .. T .._ _. -7-: 



22. 

SUFFIXES APPENDED TO MASCULINE NOUNS IN 
THE PLURAL. 



In the construct state the uncles of 
and before suffixes, the Q 
of the termination Q\ drops, 
but the > remains and forms 
the characteristic feature of your 
the suffixes of the plural: 
UTTta "our uncle," but 
IJTliT "our uncles." 



^It "hrn ; uncles D^IH 

T 

Plural. Singular. 

our uncles USfr m - y uucles 



their " 



DSHtii 



in 
r. 



thy 

his 
her 






an asylum, refuge aPpID * 
the south 



i 



here 

a number 



n?3 

VI" 

"ISDO m. 



a tent 

these 
I 






ona ffja :aj|n f$D ntf D?^ *-n *9 ^ T" 

?pia : rra dt6 ^"jro ->Eto! on 'JJ ra$ "? W 
. ^nfen ^ ns*? * : kg pinna spjj : ^"Q v)}P& 

-rw ora D^ian ijspflrrHw Vttwi nap n#n :}M? 

:i7 : 7 -.:- tt . f t . ' i . 



22 



1. The Gutturals preceded by the vowels "j , ) , \. , \ , take Pathach 
furtive (see page 13). The Part. sing. fern, of the verbs Lamed 

Guttural has two Pathachs instead of two Seghols. 

2. The sing. fern, of the Participles fr$'v is formed by contraction : 

ntarta forredrto. 

3. In the Participles of the verbs JT'^ , the J"| drops before the 
termination and suffixes (see Lesson 8, 4.) 



n*n/. 



to roar y$& : from the face of, ^30 an animal 

from a beast 

an image nJIDn/. ' & flock, sheep |&& c. '< straight, right x*' M 



a secret notyn / 



slander ^*3i m. towa l rds,r\x m \\)jprej?. 



to meet 



to come, to enter Kin 
oxen, cattle "ipa c. 

TT 

to flee ma 



rrmn. rttn b :-i*a _i D nr\w "ooki , nitre nm# -od 

V 7 - T ..... v T : T 7 

?*tran :#sn epj rrp van jkW nx bipp nin-ra 

:intnp^ nxy' 1 ira mm ,irrcr? to nnD 1 :rpra Ntff 

7) : : 7 7 : J 7 

-ijxin bp) j*&n bip no ;oe 3ne6 rstenrn nhjtt fcate 
ddtn reaxn ,otjpB onx qrjri bip ?jjpft p^t n#g 

T ... T - .... ) .... . T j.. .. .. .. . _ _ _ 

: DDn nvvb vbf&i 



7 - 

o- 



21. 

ACTIVE PARTICIPLE KAL OF THE VERBS TV AND vy. 
ityforf *A Me Part. 0/ T^ . 



The accent distinguishes the third pers. 
fern. sing, of the Preterite from the fern, 
sing, of the Participle : HDp "she has 
arisen," nop X*n "she is arising." 



thou art arising 



( Dp nm 
j rrop ah 



a shepherdess 
prayer 






speaking 
he yet 



BTO 

only 



a generation 
to flow 



-in w. 
art 



_ 21 



3. The fern. sing, of the Participle has more frequently the termina- 
tion H v than H T 

4. The act. Part. Kal of the verbs Pe Guttural, fc"D , J"B , vg) is 
inflected in the same way ; in the act. Part. Kal of the verbs Ayin 
Guttural, the second radical receives composite Sh'va in the place 
of simple Sh'va: H^gltfi D^NW 



to remain 112,)} ; food 

- -r 

just, pnyw. to fall 

a palm-tree -|Fi w. strong (nW/-) W 



3HN 



^OKD . | darkness TTt^n m* to love 

pure -ilHD J among *pna 

to sit, to dwell n^ || to redeem i>K3 

alone 13^ ' alive *n 



:b'33 b^in dt6k roynM 3I1K fl -DfimK nnittf * 
*)#ra ^p?rn ,iEtora v?y opnn : Q^ijrrW? rrin\?pD 

D'Toltf :" rra mtuk D^toIb nsr? n^oly mir rflrp 
tibetf 1 unia rTj-na^ Dtfi 1 nn yrta i* ^"H'nx on 
^m ,nth nso ^Kifc^-riN rtocttf rrcn irate p*d 
iraan w^"b^ i-ton nmn : pnlai nan nnn rbe^b 

T - T v." V T : IT T ' T T .* V - " 

U^JI :ti ^3 Trr ^ :pino nsp ?$ ,*?:* K 



20. 

ACTIVE PARTICIPLE KAL OF THE VERBS LAMED 
GUTTURAL, N"b ^# JT*?. 






I am disclosing < ^ ^ 

< ntatstiS 



*oria ran || thou art iynW nnx 

hearing j - 



he is finding 

she is " nxviD *rn i ny w na 

7 [niavio jn ;, hearing jniyoip |nx 



__ 20 

a shield no m. there is, there are tf* old Jpt i. or itf 

.. r .. T 

a female H3PJ /. strength, power nsw old age D^pT m. I! this n^T / 

to go up nhv ! night n?'} * a lot, a share pi?n w. i: a male "OT m. 

a ,iniK N"Q dt6n ofah - toVsa dtwttik ana orfe* 

t t tt v: v v : : - : t t t v tt v: 

-fei intfNi mi .nfteao nbj? di-ton :nniK *na rnpji 

t : : : . _ . . . T T _ _ . _ T TT T | ... 

ojk Drrn*r^ TDK dt6k :1frV r6y oi^ d;i ,f? nete 

- 7 7: - v - 7 v: ^ tt -: v ~: 

rrn - 11 :a , oto d^jn H3 eh ,roi"ip riMi -ran ::cop 

777: t-: 7 ; 7 I : - -7 I t It 

:y-i*h pbh \$Tm :p an ' L ' v'tf 1 :on nsa DDK 

1 V 7 7 J V 7 ) * 1-7 7 V V ' 7 77 " \ T ' 

-no ustt *6 iTfobn Di"6 BDBh6 ilJnN ^N nyiin 

; -7 J V V - V 7 ~ 7 7 V ' 

-fen dvrfe nn 1 ? fe s6 ^ ,12 rpm6 f6 :v nVi 

7 : 7 V V - 7 7 7 - 7 7 

:?|ni< fei itf$ Dn^Tnw ?]piX tpk-i :nW|n 

o 

19. 
THE PARTICIPLE pjfrg). 

1. The Participle is formed from the ground-form of the verb. 

2. The Participle has the character of a noun and can, therefore, be 
inflected as such. Preceded or sometimes followed by a noun or 
a personal pronoun, the Participle expresses the Present Tense : 
it agrees with the noun or pronoun in gender and number. 

ACTIVE PARTICIPLE KAL OF THE REGULAR VERB 

Plural. Singular, 

vre are keeping \ B*V "? m ' I am keeping j m ^ ** m ' 

1. Kal has two Participles, one active, the other passive. 

2. In the active Participle Kal, the first radical receives Cholem 
(1 or ), the second Tsere (..). 



to return 2W to fast 



19 

DW to flee 



two *yp m. 

to put, (D'W D^b' 
to set, 10 make' 



to pursue 
to rim 



D1J atonement D^S3 M. 

f]-p a witness *iy w, w hy ? yviD 

pn 1] to open nri3 to die nU3 

-top irwtts bxrw^ "iy *raj Dp-*6 :^iH? rinefe Ttop 

It v : t : : t \ x : - : : I- 

-bx DEtf ,atf -tob6 npim tss pppi *ie\n tin i-ipej-hsj ^ 



7T 

I 



rtoa ynD :in nrvn iew rbtf ^nina d;i irrbia rra 

v : - - t :it v -: 7 t -; ~: 

td luaaWoa "^n Usef :u9 mi Enesn ov * dittos 

t : t : t: v : - t tt \ - - t 

Tto& *t3tt(n masH?s aak fiDtbn tcr&6 ns DC* 

. . - - t : v : - - ) : t : - -; ttt v t 

Dj bsnvr d;i r-Dfti Ttoi .^yb nsNi in BhN :^B3 

t t : -: - : - : - t : | t . I : 

p]Ti vh ihw ,jtoJ yrio :to6 spin ^ >dtw6b ^ 



? l?n? 



18. 
pabtigles. 

The Particles comprise adverbs, prepositions, conj unctions , and inter- 
jections. They are either expressed by the prefixes Q ^ D D , or 
by entire words. Both these prefixes and words can be combined 
with nominal suffixes (suffixes appended to the noun), seldom with 
verbal suffixes. 





PARTICLES WITH SUFFIXES. 


with 


na 


sign of the 


m (to 


\ 


in a 






accusati v*e 






* 


Siny. 


with me 


*m 


me 


'nix 


to me 


in me *3 1. c. 


with thee 




thee 


< . to thee 

\ ijnta 




inthee 1^2. f. 


with him 


)m 


him 


inix 


to him 


* 


in him 13 3 m. 


with her 


rime 

T ' 


her 




to her 


"& 


in her na '* / 
PIUT. 


witli us 


unac 


us 


onto 


to us 


^ 


in us ya 1 C. 

r 




( D ?n& 




c D3n 


ioa5 


\ DD2 2. ". 


with you 


I t?W 


you 


< to you 

) an* 


1* 


in you i m 2 - * 




C cna 




I 'v : 

C Dnix 


( D .^ 


in j (D3)bna3.m. 


with them 


f$ 


them 
i 


1 !ni 


to them 





them J }H3 3./. 
i V ' V T 



18 



16. 

PRETERITE KAL OF THE VERBS T\'h 

to disclose n?3 



The third radical, which 
quiesces in T , was origi- 
nally , : before the conso- 
nantal A florin atives this 
original * returns and quies- 
ces in Chirek. 

In the third pers. sing, 
fern, n is changed into n . 
in order to avoid the repeti- 
tion of n Before the vocal 
Affonnative } the n drops. 



Plural. 
we have disclosed UvS 



vou have 



thev have 



Singular. 
I have disclosed 

thou hast " 

he has " 
she has " 



tin 



to see ilNI to he sick 

liquor nD# m. | as, when 1XPH3 

to drink rWB> to make, to do rW 



rhn to build 

T T 

to remove 



nj3 to be willing H3K 

|T T T T 

TOl where ? ri^K 

to be, to become flTl an ark jhj< c. 



crura n^x nnoa rDTfcsn rhN nvwhen r\pb -iew nys 

t : i- v t : it v:i7 1 -; : : - ):it y ~: 7 

pn^nAn nn ^ >jikt ^r*6 :^*n^D -idd nSil 

; 7 7 7 ~ * ; T V 7 " 7 : ' 7 T T 

nsb' :isd3 TWop ?rrt>y rra :rraa ?"ipia J>n hd-k 

7 7 V : 7)7 -7 V T " I V ~ '7 

: 7 v : - v 7 : 17 : : 7 t v -:i- - : : - 7 

^jH?k mD^ nan ? nn^'i ^ ?piw *6n : rijis? TVdn 

V 7 : 17 7 - 77: - T )'7 -: t : T 7 

era iibn Intf jrli ,ji: ffirtf ]?$ iThiHtf vb ~cp) p: 
rtdbtf :r,ay nim n7l ^ frtri :anyn rub DTKi 

) 7 7 : t 7 t 7 : I v v : v v: 

7: 77 Jv v - 

o 

17. 

PRETERITE KAL OF THE VERBS V'JJ AND vy . 

Conjugate thus: 
to sing Y# , ^Fh& 



1. The stem of these verbs is 
monosyllabic. The second rad- 
ical drops : p for }p 



radical a quiescent * are con- 
jugated like the verbs V'> 
3. Several verbs have both forms 
of V'2? an< * *"2? " C**w and 
M'B , Vh and V5 ; 





to arise 


Dip 




Plural 




Singular. 




we have arisen 


tt?e 


I have arisen 


^PPB 


you have " 


1 |n* 


thou hast " 


jrbp 

|npp 






he has " 


Dp 


they have " 


bp 


she has " 


Hop 



17 



Dn *6 jns-lw "o* nor ?pb-n Dfiyrn ffnn 

v - t v v - t I- Itt v v : -:- T 

^ nato nfra nyctf ^oy: :or6n ^ nan 'nix Dfir6# 

t : t:it t:|t v:it t" v : - 

.rtrfap dn jn&ra b "ton jro ^r)npb t? Ttorn -TVtj^ 
? rri-iN Abo is Dyvw *6n 

t -: J- t : -- T 



15. 
PRETERITE KAL OF THE VERBS &h 

to find NE 

T T 

Plural. Singular. 

we have found } jN'Vtt j I hare found ^HaVD 



The Pathach of the 
second syllable lengthens 
into Kamets before N ; this 
X quiesces and the D of the 
AfFormatives Tl ,D f UF\ t \T\ 
is without Dagesh lene. 



you have " 
they have " 



Dn 



SVD 






thou hast 

he has 
she has 



T TT 

Hnwd 

t :i T 



first jitffcn 

seventh *JP2# 
a lily 



an image D^V w. ' 
distress m /. 



|GHb* m. I) to call, to read Xlp 



favor 



n m. 



our fore- irniSK 
fathers " " : 

but $q 

ma 



to go out NS* 

TT 

time r\y / II to create 

1 

TT 



TT 7 V TT V: - V T TT T - '.". T -; 

?t)-tg fierce irnK infrp ^y? jn N^?p pjj :tohpa 
d#tik n*op n*6 :nn^ .-obn -rata TrtrwnK VIn&d 

t :Iit t t : t : it v -: -: v t t 

riarrriK mpbi ^ bvnw "J3 dH?32 :p*n jiEfton naa 

It- v ):it: :it t : t : I- : I -t t: 

riMWWrrnK inaao pp ifoio *6 jraisin ara ^dk 

) v t : - t t -, : - T -: 

UTflon :minn isba cfprrbo "Px^p :mta pm UkAd 

.. T .. .. . - 7 T |- v 7 - T 7 T 

:d^o Dn^ "ifcta ywn n:t :onns nya *-b fonp 

7 T : V -: I V T 7 7 7 77 7; V ;||T 



16 



rate nhoh &h r\2m npm :T*arno unnetf rtoNtf 

v -: - :- - t -.it It : :-) t : t -:it 

t: - : v v . - .- t t t: v t ) ^x t t: - 

-^D3 ddhk tw * :nas etohb nnn man *dne> pN 

t : v : v - t t: t : t .it - -:it Iv v 



14. 

PRETERITE KAL OF THE VERBS LAMED GUTTURAL. 

to hear JJDt? 

In the second person j we hare heard UyiDEP 

sing. fem. the Guttural 
takes Pathach instead of you have " 

ShVa: nyov for n?ix> . ; ' F3W? 

jj they have " fyogj 



[ CH w 



Singular. 

I have heard ^Hyi^ 

he has M yE> 

she has " 7\y0i& 



thou hast " 



HE IN TERR GA TIVE. 
H prefixed to a word indicates an interrogation: OD'QK Q"P$n 

"is your father well ?" nySEf *6h "hast thou not heard?"' Before 
t : - t -'. 

a letter with Sh'va or before a Guttural this prefix is H : DHSn^n 
p^TlN "do you know Laban?" &F33 iiS Pfcil u is there no 
prophet here ?" The letter with Sh'va has sometimes Dagesh : 
&rn H JDlS^n "is it fat ?" Before Gutturals with Kamets it is H : 
flTT DDK"! "shall he be wise?" PN'T nn^HH "has this been?" 

V : r t t v T :it v 



a shepherd 


nyn m. 


to take, to fetch npb 


hither 


rah 

T" 


to send 


- T 


a people (DJ? p.) DV - 

T 


to know 


-T 


to hear, to obey 


vp^ 


to visit ipa 


silver, money 


C]D3 m. 



nyn#*6 :T\]}6ti izJk "Q"^ nsa :i-QTlBotf?fctoTiK 

t : - t : t t v -: t t- v v: It - * : - t J: ) 

-tyjn yfflpn lineta rnjb baps yt2p dpton :ts6 
- bx -k apr :n#*6 npaTTiN rpb pnsr ?o* bipa 

- t I -:i- t : It : v I - t 1 t : t I : 



15 



much 


y\ ; to serve -uy 

D^"i ; yet, still, more "Hy 


for, that, 


but 


*a 


another 


1HR 


many 


night 




nW m. 


forty 


D^SIK 


sewn 
an apple 


V2& / to leave, 2TV 
~lL ') to forsake 

man * , a fa8t DiVw- 


manna 
a secret 




-liD m- 


morning 
a nation 


^3 m. 



*m 2DV :tbkn -us 1 ? rhny r\mr\ i* nina lay ib 

- T I -:i- )vv - - : t: it t t t: : - ^ T 

Dla :n|Dj?n ^]na brna dub> ya> tjrilR 'fl-py .}a$> 
nab iDD-'nN-nx Dflaig &6 icnn^ D*Jibw 1-iay d 1 ?"} 
ctsq-iw dv D^ya-iN via TVray ">3jn ?tf i NrrnN friary 

t : - : t : - t t : - t t t v J v ; : 

:\ aia ai 1 "9 ,Tbb* *6 -riy npaa rtf?aN no :nW 

t : - t )v - t : - T- T t : T 

?pip jricpj^nio '*-&} T1t?k fc6 *Tting fl-pj no 
immw Fta* nktra Eta :oni8 m!?dn *6i D^msn )jwb 

t v ^ T : it T : t : - t : - ; I-? 

: rue; d^-hk larrriK fea b*n^ ya 



13. 

PRETERITE KAL OF THE VERBS AYIN GUTTURAL. 





Plural. 


to ask 


Singular. 


The second radical being 


we have asked 




Ubfo 


I have asked 


T60 


a Guttural, receives a com- 
posite Sh'va in all those 




| 

) 


UPhw 


thou hast 


j W?w? 


forms In which the second 


you have 
asked 




asked 


1 ns^ 


radical of the regular verb 
has a simple Sh'va. 




I 


TPb*& 


he has asked 


&# 


1 


they have asked 




%>& 


she has asked 


n* 


a corner-stone ri2Q t^~i m. 


to give 




M 


builders 


trite i 


fee wash, to bathe yrr\ 


a child 




bb)V m. 


it has become 


nrrn 


to draw (water) 2Nt? 


distributes 




thQ 


to go 


$ 


to salute nSbtib hl*W 

T | ~ T 


to cry out 




pyy 


to reject, to despise DNE 



D^biy :ofce& -6 nbatf rwxn :runj :&n ,Sk? mi 

t t : t -:it t-t ttt tt -t 

-\m nm irrnfe ttsrri :dt6 r fens .orfl tfj 



_ 14- 



2. In verbs with the consonantal Afformatives *>R, Pi, y, the accent 
is 7^y?0 t w ^h the other Afformatives it is y) >>p (except with H 
and } in pause, see above). 

3. As the Afformatives QF) and jH have the accent for the better 
distinction of the gender, the vowel in the first syllable of the verb 
drops : UPT\DP 



The Accusative is usually denoted by the particle HK or "H^ 



to rule 
to break 

six 



">B?Q wherefore? n^ 1 ? ; to write 

why? 
to gather Dp?: not 



12W 

- T 



to reign, *p6 .; to learn 
to become king " ' 



UHS a letter m2N/. 

SO after *-inN 

T07 to remember "Of 



Triatf :rrarmN Thati vb ntixn i-ovm* IDtf ton 

.- - 7 T - V T : IT 7 T 7 7 - V " T * T 

-*6 ns 1 ? ,tq ??js nurcrnK Fn6tf-vb ms# :^ tti 

7 7 Iv - : v t : - 7 7 7 71 I V V 

nb ininx ion .rHta-rnN Ttaro ?rrwrnK Pdtq 

. 7 vv t v : - 7 vv t v : : - t 

rrarrw irhDtf Dftrfe :* tide? Unit :noDn mob 

v ) v : - : - 7 7: ) : :-* 7.7 7:17 

DPratf ns 1 ? :uia -rata yyn nsriK Uopi? :pmti 

v :- : 77 -: v -: 1 -7 : v : )-t )v : - 

*6 imirrnN an ,ov6k "ct n Trotf *6 ctorrnK 

7 v -: v: - : : 17 

:rnn "rhft ia rwV^i .^infers ^Efo TiSibn in :Tci 

7-.1- |- 7 : : 7 : : - 7 Jv v - -7 77 

1 v 7 7 - 7 7 : 1 7 7 : : 



12. 

PRETERITE KAL OF TEE VERBS PE GUTTURAL 

AND N"D* 

to stand -jj^y 



Conjugate thus the 
verb K"Q : 



to eat 



few 



The first radical of these 
verbs being a Guttural, it 
receives a composite Sh'va 
in all those forms in which 
the first radical of the regu- 
lar verb has a simple Sh'va. 



Pin red. 
ice stood I^IDV 



you stood 
they stood 



thou stoodst 



|~i2y 6'Ac stood 



Singular. 

i stood Thc>y 

'noy 
liTey 



13 



6. Pe Yod, *"D , verbs whose first radical is i : 2h , W^ 

7. Ay in Vav, V'JJ , verbs whose second radical is ) 3!)^ , Q)p g 

8. ^4yiw Foe/, i"S? , verbs whose second radical is 1 : *y$ , ]V] 

9. ^?/m Ay in, J?"JJ , verbs whose second and tftrd radicals are 
the same : 3DD 

T 

10. Lamed Aleph, ^"7 , verbs whose fo>d radical is ^ : fcOD 

TIT 

11. Lamed He, JT / , verbs whose tfAiYd radical is J"J : p|J2 n^J 

TT TT* 

o 

11. 

THE PRETERITE HD}?). 

~ T 

The conditions of Person, Number and Gender are indicated in 
the Preterite by appending to the ground-form fragments of the 
personal pronoun, which are called Afformatives. 
The Afformatives are either consonantal: 

"JH, T\ 1 O ; dfi 1 |ri ; or rocaZ: n , } . 

The Afformatives of the first person sing, 
and plur., and of the third person plur. are 
used for both genders and therefore called 
common (c). The third person masculine 
sing, is not indicated by any Afformative, 
but is implied in the ground-form of the 
verb. 



The Afformatives 


' the Preterite are: 


Plural. 




Singular. 


|we U I. c 


I 


^n 1. & 


c DH 2. . 




( n 2. m. 


you \ p * f 


thou 

1 n 2. /. 




he, 


3. M. 


they } 3. c. 








she 


n r 3. /. 



PRETERITE KAL OF THE REGULAR VERB. 

to keep lot? 





2 J Zwra< 


r 




Singular. 




ve have kept 




Unot? 1. c 


I have kept 




Thitf 1. ft 


you have kept 




j Dn-}ttK> 2. m. 

\ )to 2. /. 


Mom hast kept 
he has kept 




( FVlfet2> 2. w. 

[nw2. /. 

TO0 3. m. 


ihey have kept 




hDJ 3. c. 


s/*e has kept 




tlmotf 3. /. 

t : 1 7 



1. The vowel in the second syllable of the verb drops before the 

vocal Afformatives ]"| and ]: i"H?3J, n^G^i but is restored and 

7 \ T ( :|T :iT 

lengthened in pause : rnb$ , ITDK? 



TT 



12 

III. CLASSIFICA TIOK 

1. The verbs are divided into regular or perfect, and into irregular or 
imperfect verbs. 

A verb is regular when its three radicals remain intact. 

The regular verbs (Q^E/EJ) include the Gutturals, that is, verbs 

which contain one or more radicals of the letters "1 JJ ["I H X ; 

the changes which these verbs undergo affect only the vowels, 

not the radicals : Wfcj , ^tftf} , 21V 

2. A verb is irregular when one or more of its three radicals are 
affected by its conjugation. 

The irregular verbs are either defective (OHQn)* or Qwescmt 
(D^nj) or reduplicate (QylBS)* 

Defective verbs are those which in some forms drop one or more 
of their radicals : {Jfaj , 2& 

T ~ T 

Quiescents contain among their radicals one of the letters i ) H ^ , 
which in some forms either drops or quiesces : Q^H , 7"Q , H/JJ / 

KBD, TO*. 

T T ~ T 

Reduplicates have for their two last radicals the same letters : 

TO, 23D. 

_ T ~ T 

3. The Gutturals and irregular verbs are designated by one of the 
letters of the verb ^> . The first letter of this verb being 5 , 
the second ^ > anc 1 the third 7 , the following grammatical terms 
are used : 

1. Pe Guttural, verbs whose first radical is a Guttural : O^fl , 

DTJJ. 

2. Ayin Guttural, verbs whose second radical is a Guttural: 

- T - T 

3. Lamed Guttural, verbs whose third radical is a Guttural : 

4. Pe Aleplx, fr$' , verbs whose^r^ radical is ^ : 7^^ , HDK 

5. Pe Nun, j" , verbs whose first radical is J: 79J, Efaj 



11 _ 
THE VERB. 



I. CONJUGATIONS. 
i 

1. The ground- form (EHfcJ) of the verb is the third person singular 

of the Preterite : ^Q$'- "he has kept." This ground-form gener- 
ally consists of three letters which are called radicals. 

2. Most of the nouns and adjectives are derived from the verb and 
consist, likewise, of three radicals. 

3. There are seven different forms of the verb, which are called con* 
jugations. The names of these conjugations are derived from the 
verb bVB "to act :" 

1. ^B * Paal (generally called ^p * Kal). 

2. byD3 * Niphal. 

3. bVB * Pid- 

4. bVB * Pual. 

6. bydn * #0^. 

7. by?nn * Hithpad. 
The first conjugation is generally called Kal Qp "light"), because it 
is formed without any additional letter or Dagesh. 



II. INFLECTION. 

To verbs belong Person, Gender, Number, Tense and Mode. 

To indicate these grammatical conditions, is to inflect or conjugate the 

verb. 
Verbs have : 

a. Three persons,/?-.^ (1.), second (2.) and third, (3.). 

b. Two genders, masculine (m.) and feminine (f.). 

c. Two numbers, singular (s.) and plural (pi.). 

d. Three modes. Infinitive, Participle and Imperative. 

e. Two tenses, Preterite and Future. 



10 

2. When a letter with Sh'va precedes such nouns, it receives Chirek 

in the inflection : H2"Q "a blessing," "" f\3^3 "the blessing of 
t t : t: - : 

the Eternal," TOT? "my blessing." 

3. Nouns with the unaccented final syllable H v (after Gutturals H-) 
and with the accented terminations fT . and PI are also feminine : 
n~riN "a cloak," r\V2\D "a ring," EVE^O "beginning," PO^O 
"a kingdom." 

A. A few feminine nouns have the termination H ' HHP " a gift," 

TH\% "help." 
5. The nouns with the unaccented termination f|.. (H_) are also 

Segholates ; their inflection agrees with that of the masculine 

Segholates. 
G. Several nouns ending in ,"|_ are inflected like Segholates : H2N /D / 

rqtfyo, TP*6p; nnseto, nnsitfp, ^nnsctfp; rqb^6, 
rabbh^Fobtsa. 

'".: :*: .i 

7. Some nouns have both terminations H and H H&W and H&'N 

"a woman," rO^TO and rQEftlD "a thought ;" but the termina- 

t t .r * ' ~'~ 

tion H is most frequently used in the construct state. 



beginning TNfanf. unto, until *iy work rD*>D/. the end JV")nK/. 

return! 2TJ be has done nb>JJ a kingdom, JVQ7D / a blessing n3"i3/. 

sleep n/. doing nWL^ nna 0D/. ' X ^ med ^ 

plenty pa* . he called ^P ; a laborer *$> w. go! !( 

ru#n rvKftno H^T^S " n ?"^ :n i n ' n ^- ^-P? n '^^ 
iTUtfa ra#n Di^n hzjsjH nitf njjnp :nitin nnnx ijq 
tEh^n :n4n ra*6b nfcty nnsan :kti snip rutf un$J 
npN orrps :nin intfs c^ *oj? d^k :irpN^?3 n^y 

rinrfra n^nn^ Dto t66 mn ^Ktf :&& rnsEton 

: - - : )v v tt t Ivv v: -- ; . . 



9 



9. 

INFLECTION OF FEMININE NO UNS IN THE SING ULAR. 

the aunt of my father "ax mil ; an aunt fnfa 



In the construct state and ji Plural. 

i 
before the suffixes D2 and r our aunt ^DIH 

p, the feminine termina- ij j D2n"lH 

tion n is changed into n_, : * ] l?.^" 1 ^ 

before the other suffixes I ( Dmvn 



into n 



their 



I 10* 



Singular. 
my aunt VnfS 

his H imn 

her " nmvn 



thy 



she saved n^lfrt 
investigation -|pn m. 
fear HKT /. 



an enemy IPIX * 

nothing, not, (JW) pK 
no, without 
a dress li2 m. 



understand- nj13fl/. a command mE / 

ing 
instruction, min/. an adviee n ?V. f' 

beginning nW| keep! **> 

n?a :*rn prnri rra? nannDtf rp :tjq ? pntt 
Tjrne :]n^T^l?n?^l? :nt nrnn }jb ^nnptf 
ra ufrp. rh^n PinDDPQ ngftjn :uAih rntoa nsn^n 
ids; : moans DDnran *6i :nyys mnsy *6 ro^alsn 

t : t : v : - : t : t-:i- v : - -: . T 

nran n->nn :nox min urrtn :?isn rrtiro ton map 

T ; t - : v v: - " t I . T 

:iruor6 T>ri r -nim nViy Tibn irtr nx-p 

t : )vl" t : t v: t : 



10. 



; a birthplace ni?lD 
the birthplace of my father *3K rVPto 
PZwroZ. Singular. 



a year of famine 3jn rot? ; a year nj# 



Plural. 



Singula. 



our birth- um"6i my birthplace *n"6to :! our year OTO0 my year rDg 

place - 



vou/ 1 "^ ( oarn^io ! ( 1^i^ D 



r ( bn-ftio 

^ 1 i?f 



his 
her 



innate 



your 

their " 



Dan:&r 
v: ". thy 

(brnti* Wa 
tfU0 her 






1. Nouns like HJ$ "a year," ,"| JB? "sleep," drop in the inflection the 

TT T" 

Kamets or Tsere of their first syllable; thus these two nouns 
coincide in their declension: TUB? "my year" and "my sleep." 



8 

1 . In those Segholates whose second radical is i , this letter receives 
Chirek instead of Seghol ; in the construct state and with suffixes 
this Chirek drops and the first vowel is lengthened into Tsere. 

2. The nouns 2^ an( l !"IK are irregular, also J"IS, const, state "B, 
with suffixes ">g, ^g and !),-pS etc. 

3. Monosyllabic nouns like *H2 (in pause "HS), vfl ( m pause ^n) 
"sickness," are inflected like the Segholates : ^HB , ^ vPI 

4. Nouns terminating in H change this termination into H.. in the 
const, state, and drop the ,"j before the suffixes : 7\\jQ " a staff," 
PlI*? fflBD "the staff of Aaron," TpQ "thy staff." 

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 
The relative pronoun for both genders and numbers is 1& ; fc< "who," 

"which," "that." 
Its abbreviated form is $ with following Dagesh : $^J "who not." 



near 


ni"lp '[ a vineyard 


D13 rn. mourning 




^3K w. 


far, distant 


pirn 


we shall eat 


^35^ | sickness 




5n *. 


I drank 


T 


month 


na m. 


shall yield 




BR ' 


:on \xras 


rrrm 

' t : 


rax <tk 

' T 


: MH }D^i 


?. rraa ' 


'T 


pin jtk 

T 



mi TrriN :orraN tin rm lfry ; rpV! tin hti wia 
dorra itpsd pirn nrra lorraa my an -^x r^ra^sy 

... ,.. .... j T T .. t : t-:i -: : t : 

pxn rfcna :iNO rimy tfb rtih I rra-^K 3iip 

i^may ^ TPTwtf :rns }rr rn&n yy :^dso |4Ty? 

^^ rvaa ami -> :wn ton -rn fnrraa i#n aran to 

... 7 - . . J ....... _. T * 



1. Nouns which have a Seghol under the second radical are called 
Segholates. 

2. This Seghol drops when suffixes, are appended, and the first vowel 
undergoes a change. 

3. All Segholates have the accent on the penult (7^J??D). 

4. When the third radical of such nouns is a Guttural, Pathach is 
substituted for Seghol : jnj "seed" for jn}, rb6 "salt" for rh6 



When the second radical is a Guttural, both vowels of the noun 

i i i 
are *~ 



Pathach: lyj for ^yj, ^fO "a brook" for ^PD- 



eternity tibty m. 


all, every (-^3) 5>3 


a redeemer ^a m. 


woe ! 


** 


forever and "iyi oHj& 


before "02^ 


; he went T]^n 


to, unto 


^ 


ever - T T 
with Dy 


a prophet K^ m. 


'lo! behold! nSH 


God 


DVf^H m. 


a Philistine ^ME^Sw. 


eternity iy m. 


i she went Tj^rn 


he said 


TO* 



"P* "ij.^ T*$ ) ^V"!^ nan .Drrp*6 na dt^b ^5 
"akfcn itanh^ Tfen apsp pate Dm* Tail .pbb^wrak 
ma tdk irasi ct^h :hew "n^n rnyji ,ror6 nefari 

-t t- t t J-t t-:i-: t : -: t 7 

D^y t6d rriiT ItTtdspjki bvnOtna ot6k nrw >bcron 

t )v v t : I :" ' -:i~ - t : : v: t - v : 

tfwD^o iiRDrwnDD msri Tpto via "H^ "W 

T : - : v T I t : -t J : - v I vv Jt vt 

rflrr row :ijr& raipD-bx rbn *rbjj :wn ddhi dico 

t : T - : - : I : v J-T ; - 

:?iptf d^jjd $$ -w?$ 



t t : 



8. 



; a father 3N 
the father of my mother IMC '2$ 

Plural. Singidar. 

our father ^']S my father "3K our h 

>aS your 



your 
their 



thy 
his 
)7V2H her 



Drr3N his 



V3H I 



their 



; a house JV2 


the house of my uncle HVH JV3 


PforoZ. 


Singular. 


louse yn*a 


my house "JV3 




(TO 


(Diva 


his M in*3 


.jt 


her M inn'l 

T 



6 



6. 



; a word -Q1 m. 
the word of Moses nyfo "Q*! 
Plural. Singular. 



our word I )3"l3'n fy word 

[Chai 

K TT : 



your word 



tftetr word 



My word 

his word 
Jier word 



t : 

Thai 

im 

T I 



; a place Dips w. 
the place of the house JT2n DipD 
Plural. Singular. 



our place 1 JoipD 

DDpipp 



your 
place 



Meir place 



Qpipp 
Jpipp 



my place 
thy place 

7iis place 
7<er place 



"rjpipp 
Tlpipt) 

foipp 
rtaipp 



These nouns drop the vowel of the first syllable in the construct 
state or when suffixes are appended ; the Kamets of the second 
syllable of words like W is shortened into Pathach in the const, 
state and before the suffixes 55 and yz . 



a neighbor pj*> m. 
a lie, a false- ip^ tn. 



hood 



under 



nnn 



thou shaltkeep pmn 
thee far T : ' 



K3 m. fullness, full fcOD m. blessed 
Wlp a boy, a youth yji m. glory 

yim. a girl ny:_ f 

language 



a host 

holy 

an evil 

they have }3g> keep ! 

returned 



-tins m. 

so, thus p 

tongue, y\ty? c. 



vikrrbo 6d , ntoa * #np vnp eftp :<jte6a * oe> 

I V 7 T 7 T : 7: I 7 I 7 )7 ' : 71 

:Daipo^ 122; nnsn ilnipoo n*p "Has tttq rlitaa 

7/:- 7 -7:- ':* 7: : J 7 

#n :wn "a ?]J2^ ? , j:e> n itoipn^ nil rt-iwn 

- : |x- : : -- I t I : t t: - 

:pmn -pel -o-ra iDatefai ubm rN :^Jte^> nnn abrn 

It:- Ivv - : T : I': v v: |" : - - t t : 

:jna 7i:ic6 -feu :wn p D^ro inna -13-1 tfoi 

t- I : : : I :-: v v. - : -r : 

:it*n bn- nns nru 



7. 



Decline thus: 
a book "1QD > 

my book nSD 



[ ear 
1 my ear 



JTN / 



: t 



SEGHOLATES. 

the servant of Abraham D!T"QX "Dy ; a servant 12V 

Plural. , Singular. 

our servant ^liU ! my servant *ny 



DM* 



your servant 
their servant 






thy servant, 
his servant 



I |Tny i her servant 



STOP 



jiaTtQ :?}r6eH?s ahnn pitfrf? :Do!aa pira j* iDcrgji 



o. 



the mother of the child "i^Tt DX :amotherDK the son of my uncle "Hyrja; a son \2 

Plural. Singular. Plural. Singular. 

our mother UftX ' my mother "^BX our son 1 j:b my son ^22 

, I D3&M I ( "H^X j Q-J 3 ! ,. i tJ 

///?/ mother - I * ' jfOttr son : thy son I : 

[TJdn ( JDal . li|a 

Aw mother fetf \ C:2 '** son I^B 

weir son : 

her mother HsX ' [33 /ter son Hj3 

T * I : T ; 



|30M 

their mother \ r 



Nouns like TH, DC/ "TOPI / TD etc. remain unchanged in the 
construct state, or when suffixes are appended. But most of the 
nouns undergo some changes : Q , ^J2 5 C^ > "V2K 5 1\T D"* 1 

a piece JlQ / wisdom, sagacity noan / a sister DinX / 

hungry (fiajH/O 3$p who? n? also D2 

joy ' r\r\av f. refresh! nyo was ,Tn 

in ?1rarr : torn 5Ta tor *t3 :rraa fepn ^3 

)-: - t- | : t tt 'T- I It- 

dde* ivftm Tsrno :1jsn hdd ??Hpa-nD :srn Hsn 
djidib ba i^nina k^im ruipp :1no nay) tt!R :fa?$ 

"isjd ifefca noDm ton :^a rfa-u nnofr :naie faa 

- : I t : t : t : v v: t : t : 7 

I t ; I - t t: - 



4 

SUFFIXES. 
L 

Suffixes appended to Nouns in the Singular. 

the uncle of the kingTjtan it 8 ! ;an uncle "in 



Plural 


Singular. 


our uncle UtH 


my uncle 


-*> 


your uncle < = 


\ 
thy uncle < 


?J1H 


I : 


[ 


7|* 


,, . . ( Din 

their uncle ; 


his uncle 


iTti 


( .1* 


her uncle 


T 



Plural. Singular. 



U"l. c. my 1 1. c. 



their J % T 

' I T 



03 2. m. ' {71 2. m. 

^ 3 - m - his "j 3. m. 

3 - / : her fl 3. /. 



1. When two nouns are so closely connected that the second noun is 
in the Genitive or Possessive Case, the first noun is said to stand in 
the Construct State. 

2. The noun in the genitive remains unchanged, but the noun in 
the construct state is shortened, if possible; and drops the article : 

7]^?n "Til "the uncle of the king ;" rVJ "a house," rbsn PP3 
"the house of the king." 

3. A noun which is not connected with a following one is said to 
stand in the Absolute State. 

4. If a personal pronoun stands in the place of a noun in the genitive, 
it is expressed by terminations or Suffixes appended to the noun in 
the construct state : "Hfa "the uncle of mine" * "my uncle." The 
suffixes are, consequently, the genitive of the separate personal 
pronoun. 



I have seen JvtO 
an oven -\^p\ m. 



a bed ritefi f. 

sly Drw 



a purse 0*3 m. 

what 9 (no ,no) no 



I where f n s N 

a dream Qii>n m. 



nDjn r\&d> :tnp ?jpo $ Xfd :wi any aa tywn- 
n^ into ehK ttTft :cn Hdo $ "hton irnsorr^? 
:Dp7P| jptf n$a :iwp any ip ;^n ^a ]n rp-rh 



3 

feminine nouns without this characteristic termination : )3K " a 
stone," ^H "a foot." 

3. The plural of masculine nouns is formed by appending Q"* m , the 
plural of feminine nouns is formed by appending Hi 

4. Many masculine nouns form their plural in Hi : DN "father," HON 
"fathers ;" Q^n "a dream," HIE^n "dreams." 

5. Many feminine nouns form their plural in D^ : i"| yft "a word," 
Qi^D "words," J3N "a stone," Q^DN "stones." 

I v v -T - : 

6. Some nouns of each gender take indifferently Q" 1 or HI : "TH m. j 
"a generation," QHft or flfTfl "generations;" ,"Ij^ "a year," 

D n j$ or rfl J# "years." 

* T T -L 

7. Many nouns are used in both genders: TTT] "way," m?7 

"tongue ;" they are called nouns of the common gender. 

8. Several nouns occur only in the plural : Q^H "life," D^jpT "old 
age," Un\]Ji "youth," Q^ jg "face," Q^m "mercy," D^ "water." 







' T 


-:i 






a cow 


ma /. 

TT 


the back 


11 


red 


T \-. T 


bad, wild 


(njn/Oin 

T T 


an animal, beast 


T " 


these 


(rbxn) rfon 

V ' T 


a rod 


V2& m. 


a bridle 


inp m. 


a lion (ni 4 


T-J ' " 


a whip 


EiK> m. 


a grape 


2M rn. 

T " 


daughters 


(na) nfoa 

T 



:iNP D'pinp O'aJgn iD^ie D'tsro .DTaton D'tocn 
flfi n i UtfitD Win :& D 1 ^ DW? iWvhn Wisp 
nii)"i ni'n nv-Nm D^wn :-ixnnto fllnBBJn :niato 

t - t-:it : . .. .- : - i : t : - 

tW :rtoSn D^nxn ?iVnp iD'ato d^jjj "bnr\ :nvn 

t : - ' t -;it J : J- ' t - : I v t 

W22 nm :ranniD^ rbxr\ rvhsn :!"to"^ rhpo'TK 
oato ,-\ii2rb xr\6 .raqfe toitf JHbfcJ rYDa }n] D^alo 



2 



1. The adjective agrees with its noun in gender and number. 

2. The terminations H for the feminine singular, Q^ for the mascu- 

T 

line plural, Hi for the feminine plural are appended to the mascu- 
line singular. 

3. The adjective represents the attribute, when it follows the noun, 
and the article is either prefixed to both words or to none of them: 
3lDn pH "the good son," 2)ID ]2 "a good son." The adjective 
represents the predicate (including the copula), when it either 
precedes or follows the noun to which the article is prefixed ; 
DID (2H or nn IT "the son is good." 



little (naog /. ) pp 


very i0 


beautiful, 


fine 


nD" 


a stoue px / 


black lint? 


sweet(npinD/.)pin 


white 




vk 


long (narm/)FiJi a i| 


fat p& , 


pleasant 3"y 


to me 




* 


I new hn 


give ! ffi | 

1 


take ! f\\> 


to thee 




* 


! warm Dn 

T 



I T T T TV V T 7 IV V 

: I t - : - t : : - : I t t t t t I v v 

b-\r\ :-tin#n vfyn infaHN bfjrn "Wj :y% rfwl hip 

... - - .. T _ . _ v T v v ) . | - ) .. T T T 



Feminine. 

atmts nilH ! an aunt n^H 

maid- fYlnC^ ! a maid " nnBtf 

servants T : servant T : 





Masculine. 




uncles 


D'hH ; an uncle 


ito 


horses 


D^DID ; a horse 


DID 



1 . Nouns have two genders : masculine and feminine. 

2. Masculine nouns have no characteristic termination ; nouns with 
the accented final syllable n are feminine. There are also 



SEOONTD r^AJFLT. 



THE PBONOUN, THE ADJECTIVE, THE NOUN, THE 
PARTICLES, THE VERB IN THE CONJUGATION KAL. 







1. 






THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 




Plural. 






Singtdar. 


we 


(uni) oni* 1. * 




i 


i'm) ^:x i. c. 


you 


( DnK 2. m. 
1 ft* % f- 




thou 


c r\m 2. m. 

) AM 2. /. 


they 


C (fih) Dn 3. m. 




he 
she 


KV1 3. m. 

kvi 3. /. 



1. There are two genders in the Hebrew language, the masculine and 
the feminine. The pronoun of the first person, both in the singular 
and plural, has but one form for both genders and is therefore 
called common; the second and third person have a different form 
for each gender. 

2. When the personal pronoun is connected with a noun or an 
adjective as predicate of a verb, or with an adverbial phrase, it 
includes the copula or the verb "to be :" ^jjn ^?:a "I am a child," 
rrwa in "he is in the field." 

there D^ here HS upon f>y || a ladder D^D m. 

:^?|n Kin ibMj nnKi "'bj'pjK nbvn eh<n :tW e^n 
by DH :->Eom cnbn :de> DnKi ns ttnitf :drh KM 

t t - : v v - T v - : : : t 

*jH:k :WTI y?n by rjipn irra? jTli fp ]rnK :o^n 
ypjHB -wn \jK :jnb#n by DH :tpo KTIi m&a Kin :tt*g> 

t t:it -:-: I t : \ - - t t : vt - ) v t- 

O 

2. 

THE ADJECTIVE. 

i ( ("falS f. Ml* w. Singular. ! ( HniO / ,3iD w. Singular. 

large, l T . T ffn()(1 J 

great ^nfrni f. ,u7iH3w. Pbtrol J HbiC f. rDbiO m. Plural. 



26 

VII. Q UIESCENT LETTERS. 

The quiscent letters (see page 6), especially 1 and i , are often 

omitted and the vowel is then said to be written defectively (""Ol) ' 

DP f ntH , OPpr^SS and Dp^ , TtSD \ if they accompany their 

vowels, these are said to be written fully (fc^ft) : HO, "TH t D^P^ISJ , 
, t } r - 

VIII. THE PREFIXES D^DD^ 

1. When one. of the prefixes D ; 3 2 1 stands before "> , this letter 
becomes quiescent : iTTliT, PPftTli PPBJT3 , iTHf^? J uH&CV , 

2. The prefixes 7 D !3 1 have often Kamets before the accented 
syllable, especially before monosyllabic particles, and before 
names with a disjunctive accent when short words are connected 
in pairs: HO "here," Uzb "to you," H^tG "like these," rSSjb 

YT V T V T V V T 

"to dwell," rpDI Dill "gold and silver," 111 tl "generation 

IVVT ,TT , T 

and generation," Q^7 Q^ft ]"Q "between water and water." 

3. The prefixes ^331 have Tsere before D wN "God" and the K 
quiesces: QTP&O > QVPSOj this change takes also place when p 
is prefixed to the verb 1DK * iDtfb for Ift^ "to say." 

~ t v:iv 

4. Before the sacred name JlfiTV which is pronounced ^ jlfc$ and 

t - : 

has the vowels of this word, the prefixes ; 3 3 1 receive Pathach 
and the 1 (or rather the N of ^1^) quiesces: Him * "tflWr 

t -: t - T 

ffirra * "J1a (see page 17), but: HliTO ^ J"1ND 
t - t t .v t -:i*- 



25 

5. The Dagesh forte is omitted : 

ft) at the end of words : \ for ^ , ^ for yj (HN is the single 

exception), 
b) often in letters with Sh'va . WD2 for Wd2 , NjDQPI for 
Wt&ZFL* Ttyfaf TWL' ^?0 for ^H; in such cases the 
Dagesh is frequently compensated by Metheg : D^pSpH , 

VI. DISTINCTION BETWEEN KAMETS AND KAMETS- 

CHATOOPH. 
In order to distinguish Kamets from Kamets-Chatooph, which are 
represented by the same sign ("r),it is important to know the following 
rules. 
t is Kamets (long) : 

1) in an open syllable : 71)12 , DEW ; therefore 

2) when it is followed by Metheg : r\T\ p , fctt , ilODH , H^N J 

, t :il t. :it t : it t : it 

3) in an accented closed syllable : *Q1 , D"1N 

' T T T T 

t is Kamets-Chatooph (short): 

1) in an unaccented closed syllable ; hence in the following cases : 

a) when it is followed by silent Sh'va : ]Jr\D , 'hbl* , riDDH 

I t :l t I : :t t : v 

roDX ', 

t : t , 

b) when it is followed by Dagesh forte : D^fD , *>Jj3n ; 

c) when it is followed by Makkef : DIN^S > W"W ; 

' * T T T T T : 

d) in the final closed syllables of verbs with Vav conversive : 

T T - 

2) before Chatooph-Kamets : hv B , 101? ^ ; if the Sh'va of the 

' r t:it -t:it 

Chatooph-Kamets is dropped, the preceding vowel is never- 
theless short: rbVB , D'EHp , O'lShEJ; but the vowel 

I .- T T t) 7 T T 

under the article or under a prefix including the article is 

long: rWKn "the ship," rVXQ "in the ship," but: JVXQ 
T t:it T" t.it * t t:it 

"in a ship." 



24 

a) at the beginning of a sentence : * PNT riDDTI P >T!P 5 

b) at the beginning of a word either preceded by a closed syllable, 
or by an open syllable with a disjunctive accent : ~)&y 

Dim *6 ; Tijm nwarrte n n&yn 

: v, ) v :- - : t - ; 

c) in the middle and at the end of words after a silent Sh'va : 
^2Vj ^FHE^, P0* 1 - (There is, however, an exception to this 
rule, see 2, b.)- 

2. The Dagesh is omitted : 

a) when the letters P D D 1 Jl 2 are preceded by a vowel or a 
vocal Sh'va : tfeb, ^DX OrD? J 

b) after a silent Sh'va which has been substituted for a vocal 
Sh'va on account of the addition of a euphonic vowel (HJJUP 
n^p) under the preceding letter: O^D for "Q^E, b*B32 for 
7222 , rDJP f r fDJT (This rule is an exception to 1, c). 

c) at the beginning of a word preceded by an open syllable with 
a conjunctive accent: QJJ VNJjyti * ^TTTDTpT ^#8. 

3- The Dagesh forte, which doubles the letter, stands in all the letters 
except -) JJ n H N and is always preceded by a vowel : ^y , 
tnijl. ( see P a 8 e 12 )' Dagesh forte in the p S D "I J 2 doubles 
and hardens the letter : "SN 4 

4. When two words, the first of which ends in an open syllable, are 
closely connected, a euphonic Dagesh, called p^Hl or Dagesh 
conjunctive, is often put in the first letter of the second word : 

D^rnoi 3terra, writ, pp tktd, ws op, d& nfraw. 

As it is shown by these examples, the first of these two connected 
words is either monosyllabic and followed by Makkef, or the 
accent, if the first word consists of two or more syllables, is 
usually ^JJ ?l? > either regularly or by receding ("VJnN Jf)D J). 



23 

2) after an unaccented long voted (usually followed by Metlieg) : 

rati , uvxfai > ffncttf , ddtvs , ^ub , rm ; 

3) after a Metheg : FiT , VTI' ygTQQ J 

4) after a silent Sh'va : FttpBft? , DD1DN J 

5) under a letter with Dagesh forte : 1&HD., *>p*bWil', 

6) under the first of two similar letters : v^H 
The Sh'va is silent : 

1) after a short vowel (except with Metheg, see III, 3) : ]rh$ , 

2) after an accented long vowel: HJfip , ^F\hiDp , HJD&b ; 

% Til *; )t t '. " 

3) at the end of a word : 7P , Tj^")^ , HN ; when there are two 

Sh'vas at the end of a word, both are silent : ^|*V H"10^ 

:::;- t 

IV. SYLLABLES. 

1. A word contains as many syllables as it has vowels: pQ (1 s.), 

biii (2 s.), p^n (3 s.), own (4 s.), Tjnyi^^ (5 s.). 

As the Sh'va is no vowel, but only the sign for the absence of a 
vowel, it cannot form a syllable ; the letter with silent Sh'va closes 
a syllable, the letter with vocal or composite Sh'va begins a 
syllable : ^*W (2 s.), nfe6p3 (3 s.), "H-i (1 s,), HDN (1 s.), jjffl 1 ? 

(24 fTDTWI (3 b.), D-'S^Sa (2 b.). 

t t~:it : :~ : 

2. Every syllable begins with one or two consonants : "p , Q""i ! 

the single exception is the prefix J) : Q^Ql , "1&Q1 

T T 

3. The syllables are either open or closed. 

Open syllables end with a vowel or a quiescent letter : ^^H , 

CTBh i HEW . 

T T T 

Closed syllables end with one or two consonants : Q . D"12^t , 
FHftK; hence syllables ending with *>_, "> , "Vj , "i}, are closed: 

V. DAGESH. 
1. The Dagesh lene, which indicates the hard sound of the letters 

n D D "1 J) Dr occurs : 



22 



3. A word followed by Makkef (see page 14) loses its accent, and the 
vowel which was accented is shortened : Q1^"73 for QT^ 73 1 

DyrrnN for oyn n *b-w for -6 w , KJTseh for *u ^n#\ 

tt v tt t t : t : 

4. When the accented syllables of two connected words immediately 



follow, the accent of the first word frequently recedes (TinX JADj) : 
*6b nWS for rflEW, ^3 W0B for J#B . 

: t : it 

5. The Metheg (bridle) which stands before vocal and composite 
Sh'va preceded by a syllable (see pages 9 and 10), is also generally 
used as a secondary accent with the second open syllable before tko 
accented syllable : D^QSTl zHhIj."! 

: -it -t i ~ 

II. PAUSE. 

The pause at the end of a sentence or phrase causes the following 
changes : 

1) The accented syllable is lengthened : U^D for Q*>0, UTp for Crf?* 

bh for hr: 

t r - T 

2) The accented vowel which is dropped by the addition of a 

vocal termination, is restored and, if short, lengthened : 

rotf for ro0, is&n for who, ffotfn for rotfn, n&y 

t r : it t : it : : : - : 

for r\s& 

3) The vocal or composite Sh'va of a monosyllabic word is changed 
into an accented vowel : *HB for "HB , ^Pl for ^H , ^ 2V for 
^y^JS for \3N* 

t: *t ": 

4) The vocal Sh'va which precedes an accented syllable is changed 
into a vowel to which the accent recedes : 7P for 7P, 7j(J for 

rpt\ Tj^ny for tpgg . 

5) In some words the accent recedes without lengthening the vowel: 

V3K, nm and raw 

T T ~ T T 

III. DISTINCTION BET WEEN VO CAL AND SILENT 

SH' VA. 

The Sh'va is vocal: 

1) at the beginning of a word : 7p , "Hg t D 1 "Q ,? i \ 



21 

APPENDIX. 



I. ACCENTS, MAKKEF AND METHEG. 

1. As it was said on page 16, the accent is either on the last syllable 
(jn?l?) or on the penult (Tjjpp). The signs by which the accent 
is designated in the Bible are also used as signs of punctuation. 
They are either Disjunctives which indicate a larger or shorter pause, 
or Conjunctives which indicate that the word is connected by its 
meaning with the following word. The principal Disjunctives are: 

a) The SiUuk (p^p or pIDS *])D) "end of the verse," which 
corresponds to the period ; it is indicated by a perpendicular 
stroke under the accented syllable of the last word of a verse, 
and is followed by two points resembling the colon * 7fcOJ^ 

b) The Athnach (rUni?) which divides the verse into two parts 
and corresponds to the semicolon, /fcOP 

c) The Seghol fa\X}), j -2 ; the Sakeph (F*j|), |3; the Tiphcha 

(StriSCD)f ?2 y the Bevia (JTQI), O ; these accents corre- 
t : K" * : i 

spond to the comma. 
COMPLETE LIST OF THE DISJUNCTIVE ACCENTS: 
N K K N I IK K N N K K K Kfri : K N N & 

CONJUNCTIVE ACCENTS: 

tt $ H fc - It K 8 tt 

NAMES OF THE ACCENTS: 

Vru np? jbp np t kq^b tjbps ir:n i ras rmi%a fern 

p T ll-T I IT IIVpT T : ~ ,' <_ : ~ \>~ ' ' -IT JT V It f 

njpp xwr\ PPta xvbr\ -ns runx w$o to-ra 

3TV "9T 1 HT^ D "^ ^ ^V] D#fK] 5<P"!p 

:piDS hid rnwb jghd hid to wnprrr mibtf 

} i t I ))r : t :v tt :)- v | v - t v'v : - 

The p*pB is a perpendicular stroke between two words: HN"D I TH 

2. The place of the accent frequently determines the sense of the word 

03 "among us," }Jq "they have built;" ^W "they have placed," 
i T T i T i 

^nti "they drank ;" HEP " sne nas arisen," HDP she is arising ;" 

t, -t,It t It 

PISH "she has run," |-|!P "he was delighted." 

T T T T. 



20 

vowels (niyun). 



Lmg vowels (nfa-u ntinjp) Short Fowls (ntiop nijrun) 



I 



Xante 



Sound 



i- 
T 



Kamets 



' Poi 

fai 



Name 



in oZd Pathach 



Tsere *H$ 

ChirekGadolPHil PTA 

Cholem D^iPl 

Shurek H-fitf 



Portuguese : 

in arm 



e in ere 

e in eve i 

(0 in no or, ^r 
}owin out 



u in rwfe ] 
CONSONANTS (nftflK). 



Seghol 



nns 



too 



chirek top p^n 

Katon I It) v 

Kamets- rtfED VDD 
Cbatooph I t I "It 

Kubbuts 



TO 



Sound 



a in arm 

e in end 
i in if 
o in o/" 
w in j?u/< 



^Hi^W iVame 


Sound 


Num- 
ber 


Form Name 


Sound 


1 


K 


Alephrj7 pronounced 


40 


DO 


Mem Q^ft 


m 


2 


22 


Beth IT3 


v, b 


50 


] J 


Nun JU 


n 


3 


J J 


Gimel ^ 


gin go 


60 


D 


SamechTji^D 
Ayin pj 


s in see 


4 
5 


n 


DalethH^I 

V T 

He Tl h in h* 


70 


y 


not 
pronounced 


6 


i 


Yav 11 v 


80 


P)S9 


Pe ^S 


ph, p 


7 


i 


T 

Zayin P] z 


90 


M 


Tsade T-|jf 

"T 


, or the 
IS German J 


8 


n 


ChethnTI d>iiibocty 


100 


P 


Koph rjip 


I 


9 


CO 


Teth FTC < 


200 


i 


Eesh E^H 


r in WcA 


10 


i 


Yod "ji y in yow 






Shin p# 


.s7i in she 


20 


T 


Caph rp d) or A; 


300 


1 
Sin m 


s in see 


30 


!? 


Lamed 1^7 

V T 


I 


400 


nn 


Tav m 

T 1 


s,t 



The above pronunciation of the consonants or letters is that of the so-called German 
Israelites, i. e. most of the Israelites in Germany, France, England, America, etc. The 
descendants of the exiled Spanish and Portuguese Jews differ in the pronunciation of the 
following letters : 2* oh, Rft, y almost*^. The students at colleges and universities 
adopt the more correct Portuguese pronunciation. 

C* 



19 
LESSON XIX. 



Psalm 121. 

n.y :n?y ^ pta anTrr^N ^ry afew rv6ys6 t# 



T 



qijH?k ,Tftn oi^ ift^k :nw cracy nfcty ,nirp dsjo 
,^l?fr njrr :!?*nfer; TpW jeh? s6i ay *6 ran :^Spy 
:riW rrm ,rtSF &6 eto&n dd! 1 rsirty T-by ?fes rrirr 

T :t - - -t: tv- v v ~ t Iv : ) : t : 



NAMES OF THE 24 BOOKS OF THE BIBLE (Erin SCDO)* 

v| t): 

I. The five books of Moses (Pentateuch rnifi} : 

icnri ,T3TB0 ,*op*i ,nto^ ,p^4td 

t : t : - t): : 

II. The Prophets (a^iai), namely : 

a) The " Earlier Prophets" (b^tom^ 1 tysffru) : 

:a and k) do^p >a and kj bmatt ,nQpw fVjkn] 

j b) The "Later Prophets' (mr\rgk bwaa) : 
12 11 10 

;?NPTIT mTDT ,iTJ?Kh 
T/ie thirteenth booh consists of the 12 "Minor Prophets :" 

/pipsn ,0*13 f rqm ,nfi 'HT$ 2 'Dtoy ,btfp ivj^n 

t : - t : - : - - t : * : 

III. Kethoobim ( Writings Biaina) : 

21 ,20, 19 18 17 16 . 15 I4 

nnp* rrwrlp .row ,nn ,onwi tip ,3fn ,^?eto ,orpnn 
:(a and w owinii rrrorm jow r^rn 



NAMES OF THE MONTHS: 

tod ,hu2 xmrnQ ,n^n ,W?n ox ,nsn ,}ro ,t\n ,py 

: It : v : - *: ' v: t - It t It 

;0JB? 11 or TIKI) TIN ,Gtf 

* T-: t-;i- t-: t : 



18 

LESSON XVIII. 



XI (HIT PRAYER. 

7 ~ t : v 7 7 ): v v: 7.* 7 - J 7 

,tyqk vfew vfca " ^piete jisn tpi : eyDiHw rourvi 

v: t: I v t : I t t - : - - 7 

_.,_ . _ _.,_ . _ . _ . .... _.,_ . _ . ....._ ^ 

11 J 1 ? "^ 'T^-r^ n P^ T^ip T^ n>in D^rnrn crsn 
;hqd3 ib Q^iy^ -man " nna Tiro inran j^ie 



AND THEE NIGHT PRAYER. 

u^B fchsi h>t6 uffco urbyrri afee6 writo * uirsifti 

t : - : : - -.1- ; 7 : v; t: ..... 

1 .? 



,r0 \ytf> uspefirh .rpxtoo roto najja ujpw -fjow rep 
tpbjp lata ,rtri axhi mrn -tri ai* u#bd ipm ,urtsa i.m 

J v 7 : : ) t; 7 t; vv : v v 7 t : ;i _ ) 7 : 

arn pan rjyg % -g ,nnx d^Rgii inpitf fo ^ .irrrpn 
*.Dbiy im nnuo , Dfafa o^nb utba ufW txft ,nnN 



The Prefix Q (0 before ~| J? |"l H X) : from, out of. 

a servant 12V rn. fire gfc gold 211 m- 
' i" TX 

/row a servant "OyQ oi o/fire L''X?0 /row gold 2,1} 

out of the fire B^ClTD and from gold anO 

milk 2711 a hand T 

OM^o/railk 2pn?0 out of a hand "iQ 



//ow ffa? servant TDJ/'H^ 

V V T 

a shepherd njn m. 
jfirowi a shepherd njHD 



from the shepherd runHQ andtm* of walk 3?n?01 and owi o/ a hand T?^ 

ntaqpi "WD :brt?i ifi :dn1 3E iroDl }3f? 
:^D3nnfcn leten&abn i'oam nshn .lnfasOwasO 



17 
LESSON XVII. 



rftrb 

p*h 



rrirra 

T 



nirra 

T 



^1 or HliTl is pronounced 



itin ni.T ut6n rrirr barter ysttf 

tv t : v: t : t : - : 

:iyi ihtyb sncho to? Dtf ?fna 
r^rlRD^Da Trctorbaai spa^-baa ?it6n mrr n nanw 

I v : t : ! : : - t : I .it : t : I v v: t : i : - t : 

?D?tf:n Trri? iro^ ^za sjraek ,qa man spjgfr 

:*pr$ pa nsob 1 ? rrn <*}*H>$ niN 1 ? crnitfpi ^cspai 
.Tjnyra sfrna ninp-^Drorqi 



The Prefixes ; 3 3 are contracted with the article H into ; 
with H into 7^3/ with H into 7 3]. 



32, 





T 


T T T 








a cloud 




a niau 


L V, \X 


a thief 


333 w- 


the cloud 


' T T V 


Me man 


trwi"! 


the thief 


233 n 

T" " 


Ji'fce itte cloud 


py3 

"T T V 


to Me man 


&**?< 


i 
like the thief 


333? 


smoke 


|^y m. 


earth 


npn_K /. 


a forest 


w? 


*Ae smoke 




the earth 


wi**n 


the forest 


Tjn 


to the smoke 


on Me earth 


nmx2 


in the forest 


nyO 



:tq3 ettnn :-ii;0 raD3 :c*0 na3 :atO ?a2 

. -k - : - - - 7 -- 7 7 I - 

ktnS i^wtfTi yn :-n2 "rfabn :ny*a awm nan 

T T " : " T 7 Jv V " ; - : -;|7 

:?jy3 d^ :na*2 nam :iTffi?2 asm item :aSl 

It t v - 7 7:i7 7 7 v vt : - : -:i- I- : 

:rva3 auft :byw2 2bbn :ncn2 WvT\ :rwteb\ tjS 

. T "T T-~ 7 - VV- 7 7-.I7 It TV t * f ; * 



16 
LESSON XVI. 



The accent is either on the last syllable of a word (T^li), or on the 
penult, i. e. on the syllable before the last (?^>a). Most of the 
words are **$. The accent on the penult is indicated in this book 
by a vertical stroke over the syllable ; every word without this stroke 

is consequently 9*$)?. 

AFTER AN ACCENTED LONG VOWEL THE SH'VA 

IS SILENT 

:-nM> nnnao na^nni whir ww~\n Tnitf ^nj&bp 

t :t t : t : t : - : - : t : t ; : t t : It 



GRACE AT MEALS. 

: t t v It- t t Jv v v: t: t - J t 

:ixn D^iyb 2 ,-iEQ-bb Dn^ inu mn marrm -ions tna 

: - t : t t t : vv I -:i-: v v : I : 

D^iyb lira uH-tdtp foi ,B -orm "iran ^>i-un iaiECT 

t:)t t - :. v - : t -t t t- 

bd? aTOi Hjh Drspi |j wn "2 -Vrun top "iiaya :iv) 
itenrw in ,-"nnN Tina .ma "rate rnina-W? lira para 

v 1 t- t: t - J t -T v - t : t : I T I " 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION 



the woman n^xH ; a wQman n#tf / 

Me mountain nnH ; a mountain -in tn. 

T T - 

Me milk D^ni"! ; milk a^n 

T T .. T T 

Me grape MH ; a grape 2:y m. 



the beast nonaH ; a beast HDH3 /. 

t : - t : 

the 'way 7J"Hn ; a -way t}TJ c. 

the gold 2 mil ; gold 3rtT w. 

JT" T T 

the throne NDsH ; a throne XEG m. 



the herb 2KWil ; herD DKW *. -ffo silver epsH ; silver f]D3 w. 

Me foot knTI ; a foot Jji / ! Actable JH^TI ; a table |n!?B> 

j v v : t : t t t t - : vv - ...-. j T . .. _ 

:^a-i3Dian :mMJ ewI :^dj3 "titi instaTR e^nTI 

- : - vt : t t t : T t : t 

0m3 awn #m :a4n brO lionp "?|\ :^tkJjj 
:arn3biri :r*3 :*^3-nn : arum to! ibstiTl 

T t ; v - t *-;i- -- : t t t t - : I v v - t 



15 
LESSON XV. 



If the letter which precedes $ (except sometimes ^) has no vowel 

or Sh'va, the dot over qj represents also the vowel ' ()) ; so does the 

dot over ', if this letter itself has no vowel or Sh'va. 

ii^ote msha wm npn aeh rifti ]pn rjtfn "w, 
;rpp nfrs rrp2 %2V rtib fcw -n k^j mp nyir 

But: 

tWftnz {leton fchsi d^jos^ Drfetf hot 'rpn 22 iqB 
itibfeH V2pb $h -i^ nvv ^Foa/a nttfp aftrft 



^4X> Oi2^ TJO JV. (Continued from page 1 4.) 

TQjnb rTpjj niKBra rnnp nftqb rirrtbN ^ njp: p-bj 
ncbra D^ii? |pnb ,nm^ nh3 ubbwm ,rwr?o nbhi 

- : t II**-: I "T T v:it : I vt t I 

,rw 'yeh-bs 7pb rvtenb ,?ioefc fcop 1 -wra ua-bDi ;h# 

] vt : t I v - : - : Iv : :): t^t : t: 

-bs y^^n TErbs yen sib ^ ban , q#H?3 m rra 1 

t -t I vv t -: 1: : t :i- : 

vw "ip; -0 iQ^i i^tei iyi?: wrfat * spjep :]W? 
run nb\d> n~\n>2 nn-bv "nfrpni ,?ind?D !?3mfc nb tep -1 ! 

vt t : T" : ^ v -: J : : Iv : - .* ~ \ :}- 

y\r\22 rfcoi Tjfen -y ^bis??! ,vm -V^ nobon' "9 
rbd? nirr nvn ."lDtOi :-un abiyb t&d 1 nirr .Tirniha 

Jv v : t : t t : -v.iv: vt t : I : t : I v t . i 

itttk toefl nnN rrirr nrr Ntfin Di>3 ,p8rrb:rbs 

tv : t v - : v : i - I v t t 7 



The definite article is ,"| followed by Dagesh forte ; before iy H^ 
it is H f before J?, PI, H sometimes H . 



the man 


trxH 


; a man 


trx 


the meat 


-ton 

T T - 


; meat 


-ib'3 


Me mother 


bxm 


; a mother 


DK 


Me bear 


atfl 


; a bear 


1 


the head 


^n-iH 


; a head 


0*1 


the heart 


=W 


; heart 


ni> 


Me wise man 


DsnPI 


; a wise man 


D3H 


Me basket 


fen 


; a basket 


v? 


the cloud 


T T V 


; a cloud 


s 


| Me tooth 


i#H 


; a tooth 


# 



u 
LESSON XIV. 



When two or more words are connected by a hyphen ("), called 
Makkef, (fi)i2tt), the last one only has an accent. 

J) is a Yav with Dagesh, when the preceding letter has a vowel; 

otherwise it is a Shurek. In i preceded by a vowel or a Sh'va, or 

followed by a vowel, the ) must be pronounced. 

iTirv rap mp Tntf nnp nnre tito mn ma 
iyr\ rma ra ^m roMp n:in cuj owl rap tbj 
:minn mi 1 nfrip MDin nin nip nin nib riisD fijj 

T ) T vj v v : I T 



mti0 iPtfirn nav6 pfrna nnb fen ir6 nae^ u^s 
raotft bvtsD cmm ^ Dehoi ,\nK torn dto0 ntDij 

-: -- - t - It: - I vt " : - t 

: mn tjto tfinpn mjten ^Dfe Tjfo vb!? onto 3 ) p^meta 
rflefrn DiTj nsrn .inning are? rin^i dsn >! rot 
vixn bjn tes QTatfa orfcwi mn nvr ^ ,?ijiH?N 

Ivtt -: --. ._ T _ . ...,_ T . . Jvt : 

:ili? pm ,nnns 



EXERCISE FOB TRANSLATION. 

:-iien ;to3 *ia :ro3 dm :p3 in iifcn orb 



7 T 



Hiy :nDM3 iTtoha "Tic? :<-p:m3 do :nl an 
nzra lanpl 3MT3 nati) do :nOnl pjip :j;3 
"?ywi iDnM 1 ? :vy3p|ip itaflab :nn:3;n i-ntb 

t t - : ) ; I ) t t : v v t t . 7 -;i c 

;do/I jfctf ;d03 p: :rv?2 r6n :do1 ynM :ny:3 



13 
LESSON XIII. 



FINAL -] WITH DA GESH FORTE q * 3). 

Two Sh Vas at the end of a word are both silent, also the Sh'va under 
a final letter with Dagesh forte. 

;J?! ;jTP?^ T)^"^,- 1 $& WP W 1 - W* 
:nnj na nmp tvi raw npny tu ntch mn 



MAPPIK (p-*fc). 

A dot in final j"l causes this letter to be aspirated and shortens the 
preceding vowel-sound ; this dot is called Mappik. 

ftnan neh n$N mw rnyj p6w nyiK nira 

t : t t t-:i- t-:i- t - : t :- t 

:nis na na m^ ni^ nan hdsj nnpa .11212 



PATHACH FURTIVE (n*ia pra). 

The Pathach (" ) under the gutturals J PI H at the end of a word is 
not read after, but before the letter. 

npt? rts ni: it^sd ni:s its rat!? rirrg irn rrn 
:naa nDriavfr rajn rfca stoa yin srt Jtf in 



nirP and ">"> are pronounced " j^N ; PfiiT like QTl^^ ; 
t ; t: t -: ' v: ' v: 

^ like ^A J like ^ 



The Prefixes 


^321 before PflJDn take the 


corresponding 


vowel. 


a dream 


Di^n w. 


a ship n>JX / j 


a fool 


inx. 


and a dream 


c*n1 


in a ship JTJ&O 


<7 a fool 


^5 


in a dream 


cfcrG 


like a ship n>:3 

t-t;ii 


by a fool 


h| 


a donkey 


ntonw. 


a lion nN m. 


truth 


ro*/ 


like a donkey 


itenS 


like a lion "HiO 


a?i^ truth 


no*] 


to a donkey 


itorv 


to a lion *1K? 
~ i^ 


in truth 


nnjO 



12 
LESSON XII. 



I) AGES H FORTE. 

"When a Dagesh stands in a letter directly following a vowel, this 

letter is doubled in its pronunciation ; such a Dagesh, called Dagesh 

forte (ptn izm), occurs in all the letters except "1 J/fin^- 

-)&2 itsa ep r^a ira ina nna rtspK*) ton 
baa n#N run ^n jah iai ban n^a bia itaa 

keg T r Ql #W n ?*? yi pbn -o ran crjri 

^83 K&J VWJ D& ; D HDD b-TH "111 1 ? T!? T33 i>>3 133 

T J ].. . T . ... - _ . - .. - T . 

rbtf -he? jnn "ratf "ofr [ran efrp p^s isy nsp 
*tob nin:i# tdjgi 6fen inks men ntfpa biian 

- I T - V T ~ T \ TIT" T ~ 

iDTPB^n owm 121b np22 ni2Da Eto#m 



In the middle of words, letters with a Dagesh and Sh'va are doubled, 
so that they are pronounced with two Sh'vas, the first silent and the 

second vocal. 

nanni o^nnn VQfi to* sjfq ~py Pjopww ^ 
nana? "srpitfb nas nasi iked hn 6ap ro 
wtsnrw ms^. natfn nafcbarn 6?n unn ddsk 
te: wfrDni ?raiD #3*1 nonnn mn22i runw 

: : - : - J vt : : t : - t : - t : vt 

:nrDK lEnpnn D^zra-i rfcra ^bwn unro 





The Prefix 


5? (b before a Sh'va) 


: fo, unto. 




to a dog 


JjO? ; a dog 


ni?3 m. 


to man 


UltO ; man 


D1K m. 


to a river 


1H3 / i a river 


TT m. 


to a kid 


Hi? 1 a kid 


na 


to an ape 


P)ip / ; an ape 

bW7 ; a fox 


"flp 


to a camel 


SeO / a camel 


* 


to a fox 


bv* 


to honey 


WTO ; honey 


#31 


to an ox 


licO ; an ox 


nis? 1 


to a child 


-ifjV i a child 


lb' nt. 



11 

LESSON XI. 



"Oti rroTi :r\sae\ zfep d-ini ,nsan xun q-^ ^^^ 

: - t v - : 7 : | -7 77: t :.. T 77 77 : - 

G^pm on too o^a wotf :Dib# frnfcrru bi r'osfa 

I : - : 7 t : ' T t v ; . . t : 

n:p ?[?2D bos inocn nip noan rveftn :nra nrfc 

!: ):i7.)- 7 : 7:7 ): 7:7 7 --7 

\h2w2 TP&to Tifatn fWfe bnrv ab onai zna :ra*i 

7 7: ; : - 7 - ; v t : 7 

btb \w t i^raia nn# tariw /Da *oifr 1edb! "ntnn 
tto ,nsn a^ th nana :W*6 ra^ onsi nan 

v v ~ : T "" ' T ' ~ v- :i- \ -.1- ) 7 7: 77 

:Drfc oua m*ro cja "oa d^jdt mcay :na r6jp 

t -: -7 w : : -7 : ]: vv -: 1 7 v -;i~ 

ntsno r* Eh 1 ? ini: :irrM? -ram .Vra la tqj6 djd 

. _ I .. TT J .. ;- : v v : I" t : 

ubv? $r ka* n^aa 'P?n a"? inns? an t^ o^yoi 

Tiins "nrnim .Trasn t6n ?tf!n ni^yb inrrab' rvaa 

) : ) : 17 : : 7 7 - v: J: : -:i- t ; 

rjnnin *bh :^aai ani f^KD ?pe rrfln ^ ato py 
,t6su nftato ^ by ?iti p^ya tvdn ? wtfjtf 

: 7 - ) : : t: :-t 7 t \ -:- 

ba no*??a ?ihrf?D :ino nyT ^eoi ?p&i7D d^sj 

7 : - I : : - : - - : - : I v -:i- t : 

,rip bd? ^is ahj? :Tn nh ba ^nbcto nra^is) 
ansntf nxi -hot 1 r^r rtsn :nwa fin-p 1 -ib>k fob 

77:- v: v-.i- 7 : I : vv:iv \ 7) : v -; : 



The Prefix a (3 before a Sh'va) : like, as. 



like a well 


-wis 


; a well 


as honey 


Bb"l3 


; honey 


as ink 


in? 


;ink 


like a wolf 


nxr3 


; a wolf 


Zi/:e a stag 


w3 


; a stag 



"iKa 


Btol 


H / 


3KT w. 


zv m. 



like a house JVD3 ; a house /va *. 

Zi/ceapot Vd3 ;apot TD 

as a fox ^I/T^D ; a fox bvw 

t : t 

^Xe a table pfj&p ; a table jn6# in. 

Zifo a field ITlfe>3 ; a field mt M 



10 
LESSON X. 



COMPOSITE SB' VA (tpwh). 

Under the Gutturals JinHX, one of the short vowels t v is usually 
added to the vocal Sh'va, to render it more audible. The general 
name of this Sh'va is composite Stiva or tpsn; the particular name 
varies according to the vowel, and is : Chatooph-Pathach, v: Cha- 
tooph-Seghol, t: Chatooph-Kamets. 

WORDS BEGINNING WITH COMPOSITE SH'VA. 

^52 nbg ntiy nbn aten im -tog nioq &6q p-wj 
pjb i ans ttfliw nvj ujf Idn fes na** ^n 
rnriN Dnag. niisn D^tfin DTiSt "Hp ^y 6h \?n 
nso DJ*ran nisrbs rhfry epdVk rmn nx* 

t v: % **: v v v: tT -: t -: jr: 

laqraN ^iDsps rupjn DnpaN jfpdk n;?njj rrro 



COMPOSITE SITVA IN THE MIDDLE OF WORDS. 

The Metheg before the composite Sh'va indicates that the preceding 
syllable must not be confounded with the rp.tsn . 

niina r&'jr cnm nnD annai 6k a nna nana 
nlfrgb ief3 jnnoiy bnbaio 00620 ^ayrn rraKa 
nosa rnbha nb*r ?i*rarn nna rft6nn njyb 

w: iv ~: i- I v:iv )-: rv:iv *t: it t v \ -: i~ t-;i~ 

irpniiy^ Tiehnn tptd apy6i nnneh nicy a 

- v -;i- : .: rv ) v-;i- ) -:j- : -: |- : t -;i- 



The composite Sh'va occurs also under other letters than y [] n N\ 
especially when two letters are alike. 

bobA rnnjs- rnv on an arm D?ehg. nsoih 6b n 
iroDtf D6bnnb nina nnp 6b a 'nnpb npip 



'in a well "lK^a ; a well INS /. and a father 3sl ; a father 3K 

and rain TJttl ; rain TJD to. % a brother n^a ; a brother ntf 

teapot T'Da ; a pot VD c. and a mother DnI ; a mother DK 



-o- 



9 
LESSON IX. 



VOCAL SIFVA AFTER THE LONG VOWELS !) 1 J! 

After a long vowel (usually indicated by a Metheg at}*?), the Sh'va is 
vocal and pronounced with the following syllable. 

.rinfrj .rnb rns-i .okn ^ni fcY-i .ana 

t : it J : it t : it : it ) : it :it : it 

. rm s . son i * . *p * . nrn d . rch j . vet n . m * 

t : i" v : i" ) : i"- : i" t : r* : i- : r* 

. ijo . wj ti . on j . &no ^d . 333 n . ?n W . oarj *jj 

: r : r t ; r t: i* y : r J : r v : r 

v.i ) : i : i : i ) : 1 1 : i : i 

.oehn .-oil .030 ia .run .won .spw.dddo 

: i - : v : i : i : i I : i v : i 

.Trap ."nn^na .wd? .oro-'bi .tin'oa .Tpa^ 

I : I- 1: ) : r: v : i : : i ) : i" : I: it : 

laorofe; nrvm .no eft .ants .*p3 .^pasa 

v : r : t : it : : it : : i : I : ) i : ) : i : 



When there are two Sh'vas in the middle of a word, the first is silent, 

the second vocal. 

.D3 T ipn .Tp3T .]3-ijq .333 -n .*)!?"u .*]"!*? 

.TpED .033 ^0 .nOtf 1 .W3GDT1 .710 BJ . 323 D2 

I : : v : : - : : : : t ) : : - v : ; - 

.rD.^pi .pneh .sitf-ip .'"dpsfi .D3i ns .rrhnety 
^jkht; iiTippn Tiijp-w online eto .vnbpnn 
: con vp? r]& tf*6 ^n jbp . 033 jtf? . trsn ns 



The Prefix 3 Q before a Sh'va) : in, with, at, on, by. s 

in a room TinD ; a room Tin * 

on a horse 
t a book 
on a tree 
in snow 



tcifft a kid njIJ ; a kid H3 

with honey t>2l11 ; honey L*'in 

by a fool ^D33 ; a fool JD3 . 

in a garment K*)i)3 ; a garment *)X> 

tcift fruit "b3 if^xat ^fi m. 



DmD^ ; a horse 

"iDDlD ; a book 

I*y2 ; a tree 

J^cQ ;snow 



rv. 



. 8 
LESSON VIII. 



SH'VA. 

Two dots (:), called Sh'va (sto ), are placed under an unvoweled con- 
sonant at the beginning or in the middle of a word. In the middle 
of a word this Sh'va is silent (n: new) after the short vowels . v t -, 

also in the final *] . 

The short vowel t has the sound of o in "of." 



. am hn 

t t : - 



."bxa 



2T1 



.6 "a 



t : - 



.pnsr .a$W .'ijj-19 .T120 .15"!! 
.ntox .nay' .on so .in-p 



.nbri 

. in tf k 



Tj^p 1 . .-rjjip' .t>d .TO"]* .^)nix .- 



H3 

T 



At the beginning of a word or syllable, the Sh'va has a slight sound 
and is, therefore, called vocal Stiva (*3 arc). 

WORDS BEGINNING WITH VOCAL SUVA. 

nn$ tmS ni-6 tfia^ etena bpa ^i torn i:m yg 
rns a? far." ng lEfo rbfr ^ *|b wv njp 
ainb crrtno trVia rrm 'dtdi rans D^ru 

t t : : : t t : t : . : 

Tvaa r\2wr\ nsrpn nynn rn^i ritzbvf trtBt 

: t : t I : t : - : : t : 

D^irr mrua fcrarn ttaina ?hD d^tt iruim 

! t v :' t : : I v : - t : Itt : 

rqh iaTp irua unepa lehga to#3 ^oa 



The Prefix 1 


f) before Labials or a Sh'va) : and, 6w, or. 




and a kid nil 


a kid "13 to. 


and a land 


nsl 


; a land 


p 


and honey t?2"ll 


; honey ^2^ to 


and a day 


Di*l 


; a day 


dv 


and a garment *)X>1 


a garment EQ"> m. 


arid bread 


D #! 


; bread 


nnh 


and water D^D 5 ) 


water D S D 


and a horse 


d^d! 


; a horse 


DID 


and a king TJ^eI 


a king T]Sd i. 


and a fox 


T 


; a fox 


T 



LESSON VII. 



:pirn mo ghg ]2 :rto :ir\wy rph eHj ;jrfr 
eh*6 n&3 :nya- nran wifr /ran aria nma an** 
jrnin ,rsrv^ ba Hd :ub nn nni ins lyno rctf 

- ' 7 T T 7 T - ~ ' V V 

DiK 2b oa ,pti]b pan on^ sw : ^ ^ nnb 

T T ' ) V T I V7 7 7 "1 V V 7 

1158? 'Hi; "a -{CD :ti Eh" tdh sni :npn P*t 

|VT " " IT I V7 - -7 -v lv I - 

p pntfi TstiJ iD^ijQ lao HPiin ,e?nn -rtf 6 rr# 

I" 7 7 7 '77 

isn ppi v :tqk mm nrai yn ni;y siEhn ;tfn ipso 

- T I '7 ~ 7 7 ~ 7 7 7 77 " I ' " 

:rm b$ mb DiVtf i^ "QN nx mm ma ^x 



Dtf ;i"rn hn wr jti p 06 :mn hn tH-t niru 

7 7 17 7 I V -7 V 7 

btcho :frii ^""i pm toib 'ih pa n ' n ^ :n ^ " in ^' n 

I ) " 77 -77 7 

lT2> nip bub ?rb rvn mn "O ,pi orf? ^yin obc 

- 7 -I -7 I 77 1-77 VV ' " 5 

r\xub bsnn '*b ^jn njnn t su ^n :nxi 

| T -7 "T 7-1 VT7 

nrprn y;p_ nsr n p ?nw rrfcflj ? nw no :T?n 
rwy imem rb hn bba :naitD nnn nm atfn ^ 

T ' 7 7 7 I V V " 7 ~ - 7 7 " 7 

^ *6 cn^ :vnra -o'jn -u :M"u "ion -on in cy 

- T V V 1 V7 7 '7 - T ' V V T " T 

nrh & :Khn nsD vh ?nj una :nn# *6 era 

V 7 ' 7 7 V " 7 I ~ 7 -7 7 7 

nxa ja to ^pi 1 :trjhn nx rrn fejj. -ijy :ato -ofr 
xyn bx :~n* iu -s by in top 1 6 iffjtf "win 

.... - TV ... T T ) T -7 V VT 

:nno yft 



head 


U ; N"I w.1 


aci / 


vy 


/ 


a wise man 


D3n 


m. ! 


a man 


f J>'N 


m 


peace 
a name 




a cloud 
a bow 


n^i? 


m. 
e. 


milk 
a basket 






meat 
a camel 


Y<5>3 


m 



LESSON VI. 



DIVISION OF LETTERS. 
According to their sound, the letters arc divided into : 

1. Guttural* : O) >i1,1sN 3. Unguals : H J b ID 1 

% Palatals: T) 2 ^ a 4 Dentals: CTbttpT 

5. Labials : r\ Q 1 3 

The letter "1 partakes of both a guttural and dental character. 



GEO WPS OF LET TEES SIMILAR IN TEE IE FORMS. 

,33 ,33 >nnnn rpi o: >jn> 

.8 ,W J]BD f 2J? pb ,3D rDtO 

isjj 2piz *&n gd dd: ^inn -rrt pjm p j>; 

tod nns b|v yi? n1 ^p n ^ V- 15? -?'- " 1, -9 
Tir.i 1 nmis szm zbnn crnn hew Ehrm siro 

I - - V v T T T V T T v It v - T 

;:tn cninz arnin niis bay nnn D3 "uj -.tv 



TILE QUIESCENT LETTERS M H K. 

frs is always mute ; J"i without a vowel is mute at the end of syllables 
and words ; ) is mute in the vowels "j and * ; "> is mute in \, \ # , \ # 

ntfn nsfii ,trs mb mb rcn tsn batf ^2 wn 

7 T 7 7 V - T - 7 7 7 

:~h; spsc Tpoj ?jnfa d^ riyfr \P3 rrrtf p 



1 forms a diphthong in "> _, "> , % ^ ; *j has its regular sound at the 
end ef a syllable or a word ; in the termination V _ the i is silent. 

:to nil ^p iba '1; *n ^33 ns hj *,k ^ao \p? 
:vnx rbs two tti fba ft re n vcn Vr w 

7 V 7 ' T " 7T 7 7 7 * T " T '7 7 7 



a fox ^jft# w. 

T 

heaven D*C# *. 
i field nit? w. 



J an eye 
e tree 
voice 



TV / | a day 
]*y w. a wood 
5>np m. a cr.p 



Di3 / 



a la:id 
a hear 
a door 



nh / 



_ 5 
LESSON V. 



DAGESH LENE. 
t p k to 

nil rSSD r2D r33 

The letters H S D D receive the hard sound, when there is a dot 

within called Dagesh. 



T T I T T 

. an 3 . 37 3 

T V V 

. no s . nil b 
.atfn .nil in 
: 3E> n . nn b 



.33i3 

.niis 

tip 



. E>N3 

;^b 
cran 
.rpa 



.ra 
.no 

.ns 
.nn 

."tin 



.us 

.** 

.dpi .nn 

.13 .Eta 



.Eta 

.33 
.113 



. HB 

.Eta 



This Dagesh Lene (7p Efal) occurs also in the letters_J_and "1, with- 
out modifying their sound. 

.nil .eta .pi .31 .ji .ra .ra .ra 
.nyi 
.nSi 



.boj 



'.EHI 



.131 

T T 

.333 



.13 i 



. nw | 

. nil ii 



.Efo .ra -.b: 
. Eh 3 . bn j 



.in 

- T 



Titf JPZA^Z LETTERS. 



YX >*p .p >DB /p 



.~)3E> 

a bird 
an ape 
a tooth 



-\p: -ji3 "jVd -jin 

cn o:lp an'iN d# 

]> T jn 1 ? ]i3 ji* 

rpy r|j3 rpy rp 

yipn yip yiN pa 



T- ? B "t "!? * 

Dip as: 3D ay d; 

fp Fp Vp ?]3 F]N 

P yn yp yj yn 



fyij? w. I j wine 
f]ip ra. .bread 
|2> c. j 'water 



V. 


c. 


D*?0 


w. 



a garden 
blood 



p_ e. 


a mother 


CN / 


d*j m. 


a son 


|jj m. 


yn m. 


a daughter 


r,g /. 



_ 4 
LESSON IV. 






DQ DJ liy 0$ HID "TO ^. CDPl "ft TH nj 2N 

!jb tfn tin is on in bit jp ^ nl ngr pis 
lily 6 n tf: ny by bs id tfi in he; hi 



- T 


nna 

, T V 


.fix 

T 


. nb * . -n n 

V V T T 


.bin; 

T 


T 


.pin? 


.^yn 

" T 


"iiJ 


. n 1 1 . i? ip 


.in 1 

T 


.nab 

T 


.ins 


.nbp 


^ I 


.nn . b; y 

7 T V '* 




.3"|'y 


.tfj? 


.nna 

- T 


.pirn 


. T& 3 . 03 1 

T T " T 


.ub 

T 


.any 

; " T 


..to^p 


T 


. np W 


.py> ,nm 


n 1 ? 


- T 


T 


.inc 


.natf 

- T 

) e . ip 


.Trra .nftfe> 

T 


.nnn 

T T 

nin V in 

7 


BtoK 


. wtf y n 

T " * 


si .inny . 

T r T T 


. U D iD 


rR; 


.in 


by .natf$ .nabb 

T V .V T V V _T 


.urn 

* T 


T T 


T 


.nsyo .to 

T T * 


? iy . in p ? 

T T T 


i y. n 


'. T 


. in n in 

T 


.nan .ni:ai .mn'n 

.... 


. n i' j 

T 


.map 


.any a 

V V T 


. in y n . bi 

T T 


y n . nis in 3 

' T 


. is J in 

T 


.sjyn 

T ' T 


. ? y n 

TV 


.npn .niyaitf .mi? 

T T V T V V T 


. nn y n 

.... T 


n l? J 


: ti $ to 

T 


.rb 


DJ . 


n w nix n 13 

T 


. VI I'D 


.nip 1 

J\T 



a goat 
an ox 
a sack 



pb> m. 



a hand 
heart 
a horse 



DID w. 



a stranger 


"V. w - 


a fish 


n w. 


an nncle 


nin m. 



a father 
a brother 
fire 



3K m. 



3 
LESSON III. 



(long) o (long) u (short) 

i P r 

j (has the sound of t) 

b ^ico *?ie 'to ^ l? cp hd IB b a 

^J (has the sound of wij 

oa to coto cob cod d i? ra to b p 

JJ (has the sound of/) 

DC EiS EiD cd'd e s s b is B p 

il (has the sound of s in " so " ; Portuguese tt in "thou") 

np ma nto nb no n n in in h n 

n d p to 

^4 (has the sound of /s, or of the German 3 in " JU ") 

2/ (has the sound of sh in "she") 
#D tfS toD tolD BflB to to i# 10 to to 

T 

][/ (has the sound of 5 in "see") 

toco toco fens toiQ toco to to to ito ito to 

T 

J^ (is not pronounced) 

bx bix bx b'x bx n n w 1m k 

- T 

V/ (is not pronounced ; Portuguese almost tig) 

18 tis niy 13 is v. 2 is tt s V 

".y s B B in s d 1: * 

Tin nn pp is ns. "F ni ^ c ^ ^ ~>^ ^ 
Vs Dij Dp Up tfq ^b bx eh p^ efn do tin 



2 
LESSON II. 

/ (has the sound of I) 

h f? b t> b 1? V b' b 

h 9i i H H 

T 

I (has the sound of r in " rich ") 

rn rn rn rn rn -i -j n n n 

T1 11 T) 11 T) 

..... T _ 

rj (has the sound of h) 

% ^ b? T fe bj2 p T p. R. p p 

PI pi pi pi pi 

D (lias the sound of a in " see ") 

DD DD DO DD DD D D D D D 

dp ob d 1 ? ob d? 

o p i b 

t dp bn on -u i-\ b~\ p 1 a V* on pb 



J (has the sound of v ; Portuguese IK) 

^3 "?3 ^3 ^3 ^3 3 3 3 3 3 

3^ 3^5 3^ ifc i 

T ' V - 

^J (has the sound of the German db in "bod)") 

DD DD DD DD DD D D 2 2 2 



T 

33 33 33 33 33 



: d d p i ^ n n in n ' 

-y 33 q: :6 D3 b on np bn ;.: n t 
3^ T} b -? 31 in ni dj V -i;' nb Vn 



Or 



1 

FIRST PART. 



READING EXERCISES. 



LESSON I. 



(Portuguese q) fl q & t i 



T 



) (has the sound of z) (has the sound of y in "you") 



T 

T 

n 

T 


n 


r 


r 




i 

r 




v i i 

T 

1 (has the sound of v) 


1 


1 


T 


it 


n 


n 




it 




1 1 1 

T 

J (has the sound of n) 


J 


1 


T 


TJ 


u 


u 


3 


i: 


T 


2 2 2 

T 

1 ' 


j 


J 



J (has the sound of g in "gold") 

9 y n w j j > ^ j 

u a u JJ 

( (has the sound of d) 

T " T T T T 11-1-11 

T T 

(1 (has the sound of A in "he") 

-in in nn in in n n n n n 

T T. 

(J (has the sound of the German d) in "toc^") 

ni r-n rn rn ni n n n n n 

n n i ' j 

in ni u in n r jp t\ u i; ;n in ni 
t 13 31 it in in 13 ;i r n rn n: s\ 

n n i ' i i ? i > 



VII. 



CONTENTS. 



Paragraph. 



20 



21 



Particles of Negative 
Sentences, . 



Other Particles of de- 
pendent Clauses, 

22 Copulative and disjunc- 
tive Particles in pairs, 

23-24 Adverbs and Interjec- 
tions, 



Page. 



171-172 



172-173 



Page. 



173 



173-174 



Paradigms. 



Paradigms of the Verbs, 


176-203 


Paradigms of the Nouns, 


204-208 


Hebrew English Vocab- 




ulary, 


- 209-231 


English Hebrew Vocab- 




ulary, 


233-254 



CONTENTS. 



VI. 



Number of 

Hebrew Exercises. Page. 

67-68 The Numbers; Dual; 

Patronymics, - - 71-74 

60-61 English Exercises, 138-139 
60-71 Piel of the regular Verb, 75-77 
62-63 English Exercises, 139-140 
72 The Parable of the Trees, 78 

73-71 Piel of Gutt. and irreg. 
Verbs; The Wolf and 
the Lamb (fable), - 70-81 

64-65 English Exercises, 140-141 
75-77 Pual, - - - 82-84 

66-67 English Exercises, 141-142 
78-80 Hiphil of reg. Verb, Pe 

Gutt. and K"D, - 85-88 

68-60 English Exercises, 142-143 
81-82 The Dog and his shadow ; 
the Donkey in the Lion's 
skin (fables), - 88-80 

83-S6 Hiphil of other irregular 

Verbs, - - 80-04 

70-71 English Exercises, 143-144 
Hiph. of y"y ; Secession 
of the ten tribes, - 04-05 



Nl'MBER OF 

Hebrew Exercises. 

88-01 Ilophal, 

72 English Exercise, 

02-06 Hithpael ; The Stag ; The 
sick Lion and the Fox ; 
Vanity (fables), 

73 English Exercise, 

07 Piel, Pual and Hithp. of 

the Verbs V'y and y"y, 
74 English Exercise, 

08-00 Pilpel and Hithpalpel; 
The Ant and the 
Cricket; The Fox and 
the Raven (fables), 

100 Anomalous Verbs, 
75 English Exercise, 

76 English Exercise, Y^'X 

followed by a Noun or 
Prep, with Suffixes or 
with Adverbs of Place, 

77-84 English Exercise, about 
the Syntax, 



Page. 

96-100 
144-145 



100-105 
145 

105-106 
146 



107-108 

108-110 
146 



147 



148-154 



PART IV. 



Syntax, Pages 155-174. 



Paragraph. 


Page. 


Paragraph. 


Page. 


1 


The Copula, 


155 




The Verb. 




9 

3 

4 


Agreement of the Predi- 
cate with the Subject, 

Position of the Parts of 
a Sentence, 

The Article, - 


155-156 

156-157 
157-150 


11 
12 

13 

14 


The Preterite, 
The Future, 

Paragogic and Apoco- 
pated Future, 

Vav Conversive, 


163-164 
165-166 

166-167 
- 167 




The Noun. 




15 


The Imperative, 


167 


5 


Number, 


- 150 


16-17 


The Infinitive, 


167-169 


6-7 


Cases, - 


150-161 


18 


The Participle, 


169-170 


8-10 


Pronouns, - 


161-162 


10 


Optative Sentences, 


170-171 



V. 



CONTENTS. 



Xl T MBER OF 

Hebrew Exercises. 



14 



Number of 
Page. Hebrew Exercises. 



Pret. Kal of the Verbs 
Lamed Guttural, 
English Exercise, 

15 Pret. Kal of the Verbs N' 

English Exercise, 

16 Pret. Kal of the Verbs n" 

English Exercise, 

17 Pret. Kal of the Verbs 

)"V and >'% 

English Exercise, 

18 Particles with Suffixes, 

English Exercise, 

19 Active Participle Kal of 

the regular Verb, N"B, 
y'D and *"Q, 
English Exercise, 

20 Act. Part. Kal of the 

Verbs Lamed Guttural, 
N"!? and IT'S 
English Exercise, 

21 Act. Part, of the Verbs, 

V'y and *"y, 

English Exercise, 

22-23 Suff. to masc. Nouns in 
the Plural, 
English Exercises, 

24 Suff. to fern. Nouns in the 

Plural, 
English Exercise, 

25 Particles with plural suf- 

fixes, - 

English Exercise, 

26 Passive Participle Kal, 

English Exercise, 

27 Infinitive Kal, 

English Exercise, 
28-31 Imperative Kal, 

English Exercises, 
32-36 Future Kal of the reg. 
Verb, Gutturals, K"B, 
N"i? and H"t>, 
English Exercises, 



16 

115 

4, n 

116 

h, 18 
116 

18-19 
117 

19-20 
117 



20-21 
117-118 



118 

22-23 

118-119 

23-24 
119 

24-25 
120 

25 
120 

26 

120-121 

26-27 

121 

28-32 

121-123 



32-36 
123-126 



37-3S Vav Conversive, 

English Exercises, 

39-42 Future Kal of the Verbs 
J"S, *"fi and 1"JJ, - 
English Exercises, 



Page. 

37-40 

126-127 



40-44 
127-128 



43 Comparison; i03 with 
Suff., - 
English Exercise, 

44-45 Precaution (fable); Charity, 46 

46 Demonstr. and Interroga- 
tive Pronouns, 
44 English Exercise, 



45 
129 



47-48 
129-130 



47-49 Suffixes of the Verb, 
45-47 English Exercises, 



48-52 
130-131 



50-51 Kal of the Verbs y"}>; 
Practice what you preach 
(fable), - - 52-54 

48 English Exercise, 131-132 

52 Kal of the Verbs middle 

Tsere and middle Holem, 54-55 

49 English Exercise, 132 

53-58 Pret. and Part. Niphal ; 

Local He, - - 56-62 

50-54 English Exercises, 132-133 

59-60 Future and Imperative 
Niphal of the regular 
Verb, Gutturals and K"Q, 63-65 
55-56 English Exercises, 135-136 

61 The Flies and the Honey 

(fable), - - 65 

G2-63 Fut. and Imp. Niph. of 
the Verbs K"h, n"h, v '2 
andy'S; Selfish Advice 
(fable), - - 66-68 

57-58 English Exercises, 136-137 

64-65 Niph. of the Verbs V'y 

and 0> " - 68-70 

59 English Exercise, 137-138 

06 The Oak and the Reed 

(fable), - - 70-71 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



Reading Exercises, 

Vowels and Letters, 

Dagesh Lene ; Final Letters, 

Division of Letters ; Quiescent 
Letters, 

Sh'va ; The Prefixes 1 and 2 - 

Composite Sh'va, - 

The Prefix 3, - 

Dagesh forte ; the Prefix 7, 

Mappik; Pathach furtive; the 
Prefixes before Hateph, - 

Makkef ; 1 with Dagesh or the 
Shurek dot ; ) preceded or 
followed by a vowel, - 

& and fc>; the definite Article, 



Page 
1-10 
1-4 



6 

8-9 
10 
11 
12 

13 

14 
15 



Page. 



Accent; quiescent X in the di- 
vine name ; contraction of 
the Prefixes with the Article, 16-1 



The Prefix ID, 


18 


The books of the Bible, 


10 


Names of the Vowels and Letters, 


20 


APPENDIX. 




Accents, Makkef and Metheg, 


21-22 


Pause, - - 


22 


Vocal and Silent Sh'va, 


22-23 


Syllables, - 


23 


Dagesh, 


23-25 


Kamets and Kamets Hatooph, 


25 



Quiescent Letters ; the Prefixes 

D7Din, - 



26 



PART II III. 



Note. Here begins a new paging. The English exercises on pages 111-154 are 
placed under the respective numbers of the Hebrew exercises. These 
numbers correspond from exercises 1-43 ; from exercises 44-84 the dif- 
ference is marked. 



Number of 
Hebrew Exercises. 



4-6 



Personal Pronoun, 
English Exercise, 

The Adjective, 

English Exercise, 
The Noun, 

English Exercise, 

Suffixes appended to the 

Nouns in the Singular, 

English Exercises, 

Segholates and irregular 
Nouns, 
English Exercises, 



Page. 

1 
111 

2-3 
111 

3-4 
111 



4-6 
112 



7-8 
113 



Number of 
Hebrew Exercises. Page. 

0-10 Feminine Nouns in the 

Singular, - - 0-10 

English Exercises, 113-114 

1 L The Verb ; Preterite Kal 

of the regular Verb, 11-14 

English Exercise, 114 

12 Pret. Kal of the Verbs 

Pe Guttural and N"E5, 14-15 

English Exercise, 114-115 

13 Pret. Kal of the Verbs 

Ayin Guttural, - 15-16 

English Exercise, 115 



PREFACE. 



f*XPERIENCE, the surest test for a school book, has proven the 

practical value of this work. For a number of years this test has 
been made by schools and colleges in this country, in England and 
Australia. 

Teachers and students have found in this book an easy and sure 
guide for the study of the Hebrew language. 

This new edition contains in one hundred additional pages the fol- 
lowing essential improvements which will render the method still more 
useful, more practical : Graded exercises for translation from English 
into Hebrew, adapted to the rules of grammar ; complete tables of para- 
digms of the verbs and nouns, and a carefully prepared English-Hebrew 
vocabulary. 

The Hebrew as well as the English exercises have been selected 
mostly from the Bible. Great care was taken to apply also to each 
English exercise the words of the alphabetical list at the head of the 
preceding Hebrew exercise. New words are either inserted in their re- 
spective place or can be found in the English-Hebrew vocabulary. 

One of the features that has evoked much favorable comment, is the 
prominent type for the prefixes, suffixes, preformatives, afFormatives, 
etc., by which the student is enabled easily to find the roots of the 
words. Thinking with the old grammarians that Preterite, Future and 
Vav Conversive sufficiently express the idea of the tenses, I did not 
deem it necessary to change these designations. In the conjugations I 
conformed with the sequence of persons to which the students of 
modern and classical languages are accustomed. 

He who begins the study of a language should acquaint himself with 
the essential forms, and acquire a number of words before he enters into 
the labyrinth of an exhaustive grammar. The road that shall gradu- 
ally lead him into the paradise of Hebrew literature should be made 
pleasant at the beginning, and not be encumbered with minutiae and 
intricacies. After having gone through an elementary book, and hav- 
ing read at the same time some easy chapters of the Pentateuch and 
other parts of the Bible, he is properly prepared for a scientific course 
of grammar, and will successfully pursue a study, the first elements of 
which he has acquired with so great facility. 

That this improved and enlarged edition of a book which claims to 
be but elementary, may continue to fulfill this purpose, is the wish of 

The Author. 



n a a iT-fc 



Copyrighted According to Law. 









3TU D^BD 



HEBREW 
READER AND GRAMMAR 



WITH 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION, 



BY 



S. MANNHEIMER, 

Professor at the Hebrew Union College. 



NEW EDITION, 

REVISED AND 'ENLARGED, 




Published and Printed by 

The American Hebrew Publishing Hottsfi, 

THE BLOCK PRINTING COMPANY, 

Cincinnati and Chicago. 



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